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FRONTISPIECE. 




An American Indian contemplating the progress of civilization. 



IPICT ©MAIL 1 

OF THE 




WITH NOTICES OF 

OTHER PORTIONS OF AMERICA. 



BY S. G. GOODRICH, 

AUTHOR OF PETER PARLEY'S TALES. 



FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

PUBLISHED BY SORIN & BALL, 
AND SAMUEL AGNEW, 

311 MARKET STREET. 

i itrfiflhr 1 844. ' %Maiy 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1843, 
BY S. G. GOODRICH, 
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Massachusetts. 



PREFACE. 



The author has here attempted to give a full history of the United 
States, with such sketches of other portions of America, as to pre- 
sent a complete history of the New World. He has endeavored to 
keep alive the interest of the reader by continuous narrative ; by 
presenting leading and striking incidents ; by the introduction of 
illustrative anecdotes; by perspicuous arrangement and simplicity 
of style. The work is intended particularly for youth, and it has 
been the design of the writer to make it instrumental in cultivating 
patriotism, and a love of truth, peace and justice. It is carefully 
arranged in short chapters, each of which contains some important 
or interesting event, which is likely to arrest the attention and 
become fixed in the memory. 

The main purpose of the work is to furnish a. full, accurate and 
just history of the Western Continent, which may attract the young, 
and render this subject a common school study, throughout the land. 
While, therefore, it is full, in point of matter, it is so arranged as to 
be mastered easily by the pupil, and without excessive demands 
upon the attention of the teacher. It will be remarked that the work 
is largely illustrated by engravings of scenes and incidents, together 
with portraits, plans and maps, designed to convey correct ideas of 
men and things, and, at the same time, taking care that the history 
shall be studied with accurate geographical notions. 

m 

st>xx6 Stereotyped by 

=f388g£© G EOR G £ A . CURTIS, @ 

NEW IKGLAKD TTPE AND STEREOTYPE FOUNBfil, BOSTON. 




CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Page 

Chapter I. — The progress of History, 9 

II. — A geographical sketch of America, . . . . 10 

III. — Political divisions of America, 12 

IV. — A bird's-eye view of the History of America, . . 13 
V. — Discovery of America by the Northmen, . . .15 

VI. — Account of Columbus, 16 

VII. — First discovery of America by Columbus, . . .18 

VIII. — Other discoveries in America, 20 

IX. — Discoveries in North America, 21 

UNITE D STATE S . 

X. — Settlement at Jamestown, 23 

XI. — Weakness of the colony, 26 

XII. — Captain John Smith. — His life and adventures, . 27 

XIII. — Smith taken prisoner, 28 

XIV. — Story of Pocahontas, 29 

XV. — Captain Smith's voyage of discovery, .... 32 

XVI. — Smith's administration of the government, ... 33 

XVII. — The colony on the verge of ruin, 35 

XVIII. — Progress of the colonv at Jamestown, .... 36 

XIX.— Settlement of New York, .38 

XX.— New England, 40 

XXI.— The first settlers of New England, .... 42 

XXII.— The Puritans at Cape Cod, 45 

XXIII. — Landing at Plymouth, 47 

XXIV. — Settlement of Plymouth. — Two men get lost in the 

woods, 49 

XXV. — Sufferings of the colonists, 50 

XXVI.— Treaty with the Indians, 51 

XXVII.— Drought in the colony, 53 

XXVIII.— The Virginia Massacre, 55 

XXIX. — Settlements on Massachusetts Bay, . . . .57 

XXX.— New Hampshire, 58 

XXXI. — Government of the colonies, . . . . . .60 

XXXII.— Settlement of Maryland, 62 

XXXIII. — Settlement of Connecticut, 64 

XXXIV. — Rhode Island and Roger Williams, .... 66 
XXXV.— War with the Pequod Indians, 67 

XXXVI.— Anecdotes of the Pequod War, 70 

XXXVII— Settlement of New Haven, 71 

XXXVIII.— Union of the New England colonies, .... 73 

XXXIX.— The Indians of New England, 75 

XL. — Eliot, the Indian apostle, 78 

XLI.— Witchcraft in New England, 80 

XLII. — New York, New Jersey and Delaware, . . .81 

XLIII. — Settlement of the Carolinas, 82 

XLIV.— The war with Philip, 83 

XLV. — Events of the war with Philip, 85 

XLVL— Death of Philip, 87 

1* 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



XLVII— Bacon's Rebellion, ^88 

XLVIII. — Religious persecution 89 

XLIX.— The Middle States.— Pennsylvania, .... 91 

L. — Character of Perm, 94 

LI. — Governor Andros and the Charter Oak, ... 96 

LII. — King William's War, 97 

LIII.— Story of Governor Fletcher, 98 

LIV. — Religion in the colonies, 100 

LV. — Education in the colonies, 102 

LYI.— The War of Queen Anne, 103 

L VII.— The War at the South, 104 

L VIII.— The Yamasee War, 105 

LIX. — The American Pirates, 107 

LX. — Settlement of Georgia, 108 

LXI. — Capture of Louisburg, 110 

LXII. — Progress of Agriculture and Manufactures, . . .112 

LXIII. — Sufferings of the colonies, 114 

LXIV. — Discoveries in the West, 115 

LXV. — Settlements in the West, . . . . . . .118 

LXVI. — George Washington begins his public career, . .120 

LX VII.— Battle at the Great Meadows, 122 

LXVIII.— Defeat of Braddock, &c, 123 

LXIX.— The French and Indian War, 126 

LXX. — Quebec taken. — Wolfe slain, 128 

LXXI.— The French and Indian War concluded, &c, . .131 

LXXII. — Taxation of the colonies, ] 32 

LXXIIL— The Stamp Act, 134 

LXXIV. — Societies and mobs, 135 

LXXV.— Repeal of the Stamp Act, 137 

LXXVL— More Taxation, 139 

LXXVII.— British troops in Boston, 141 

LXXVIII.— The Boston Massacre, 143 

LXXIX.— Burning of the Gaspee, 144 

LXXX.— The tea thrown overboard, 145 

LXXXI.— The first Congress, 147 

LXXXII.— The dawn of liberty, 148 

LXXXIII.— Preparation for war, 150 

LXXXI V— Battle of Lexington, 151 

LXXXV. — Capture of Ticonderoga and Crown Point, . . .154 

LXXX VI.— Vermont and Ethan Allen, 155 

LXXXVII.— Battle of Bunker's Hill, 156 

LXXX VIII.— General Putnam, 160 

LXXXIX.— Washington at the head of the army, . . . .162 

XC— Attack on Quebec, 163 

XCI. — Stories of Arnold's expedition to Quebec, . . . 165 

XCII. — The British driven from Boston, 167 

XC III.— Battle at Sullivan's Island, 169 

XCIV. — Declaration of Independence, 170 

XCV.— Defence of New York, 172 

XC VI.— Battle of White Plains.— Retreat of Washington, . 1 75 

XC VII.— Battle at Trenton, 178 

XC VIII .—Battle near Princeton, . 179 

XCIX. — Attack on Danburv, in Connecticut, . . . .181 

C— Battle of the Brandy wine, 182 

CI. — Capture of General Prescott, 183 

CII.— The war in the north, 185 

CIIL— Battle of Bennington, 187 

CIV.— Capture of Burgoyne, 190 

CV. — The war on the ocean, 191 

CVL— Exploits of PaulJones, 193 



CONTENTS. Vll 

Page 

C VII.— Battle of Germantown, 194 

CVIIL— Treaty with Prance, 196 

CIX. — Evacuation of Philadelphia and Battle of Monmouth, 197 
CX. — Character of General Charles Lee, . . . .199 

CXI.— The war in Rhode Island, 200 

CXIL— Trumbull, the painter, 202 

CXIII.— Massacre at Wyoming, 204 

CXIV.— The war in Georgia, 205 

CXV.— The British at Charleston, 207 

CXVI. — American attack on Savannah, ..... 208 

CXVII.— The war in Connecticut.— General Putnam, . . 209 

CXVIIL— Anecdote of La Fayette, 210 

CXIX.— The Continental Money, . . . . . . .212 

C XX.— Capture of Stony Point and Paulus Hook, . . .214 

CXXI.— The war with the Indians, 216 

CXXIL— Surrender of Charleston, 217 

CXXIIL— Battle near Camden, 218* 

CXXI V.— Slavery in the United States, 220 

CXXV.— The treason of Arnold, 221 

CXXVL— Capture of Major Andre, . 223 

CXXVIL— Execution of Hale and Palmer, 225 

CXXVIII. — Arnold invades Virginia and New London, . . 226 

CXXIX.— The war at the south, .227 

CXXX.— Naval operations, . 229 

CXXXI.— Surrender of Lord Cornwallis, 231 

CXXXII.— Treaty of Peace, 234 

CXXXIII.— Effects of the American Revolution, . . . .236 

CXXXIV.— Debts of the United States.— Shays' Insurrection, . 237 

CXXXV.— Constitution of the United States, 239 

CXXXVI.— Proceedings of the first Congress, 241 

CXXXVIL— Wars with the Indians, 244 

CXXXVIII.— Kentucky admitted to the Union, 245 

CXXXIX.— Societies in the United States, . . . > . .248 

CXL. — Washington's second election and administration, . 249 

CXLL— Difficulties with Great Britain, 250 

CXLIL— The Whiskey Insurrection, 252 

CXLIII. — Tennessee — the sixteenth state, 253 

CXLIV. — Washington's resignation, 254 

CXLV. — Prospects of a war with France, 255 

CXL VI.— The public health, 257 

CXLVIL— President Jefferson, 258 

CXLVIIL— The settlement of Ohio, 260 

CXLIX.— Burr and Hamilton, 262 

CL.— War with Tripoli, 264 

CLI. — Burr's conspiracy, 266 

CLIL— Troubles with Great Britain, 268 

CLIII. — Attack on the Chesapeake, 269 

CLIV.— Embargo laid, 270 

CLV. — Steamboat navigation in the United States, . . 271 

CLVI.— Battle of Tippecanoe, 273 

CLVIL— War declared with Great Britain, 274 

GLVIII. — General Hull's surrender, 275 

CLIX. — Capture of the Guerriere and the Alert, . . . 276 

CLX. — Attack on Q,ueenstown, 278 

CLXI. — More naval victories, 280 

CLXIL— Events of 1812 and 1813, 281 

CLXIII. — The massacre at Frenchtown, 283 

CLXIV. — Capture of York, and death of General Pike, . . 284 

CLXV. — Siege of Fort Meigs, and General Harrison, . . 286 

CLXVL— The war on the ocean, 287 

CLXVII.— Battle on Lake Erie, . . . * . . . .289 



Vlll 



CONTENTS. 



Pa.se 

CLXVIII.— Battle at the Moravian Towns, 290 

CLXIX. — Progress of the war in Canada, 292 

CLXX— War with the Creek Indians, . . . . ,293 

CLXXL— Progress of the war, 294 

CLXXIL— The war on the ocean, 295 

CLXXIIL— Defeat of General Wilkinson, 296 

CLXXIV.— The war at the northwest, 297 

CLXXV.—Citv of Washington burnt, 299 

CLXXVL— Battle near Baltimore, 300 

CLXXVIL— The w T ar on Lake Champlain, 301 

CLXXVIIL— Convention at Hartford, 303 

CLXXIX.— Battle of New Orleans, 304 

CLXXX. — Closing events of the war, 306 

CLXXXL— Difficulties with Algiers, 307 

CLXXXI1.— State of Indiana, 309 

CLXXXIIL— President Monroe, 310 

CLXXXIV.— War with the Seminole Indians, 311 

CLXXXV.— State of Alabama, 312 

CLXXXVL— States of Maine and Missouri, 313 

CLXXXVII.— Territory of Florida, 315 

CLXXXVIII— La Fayette in the United States, 316 

CLXXXIX.— Difficulties with Georgia, 317 

CXC— Death of Adams and Jefferson, 313 

CXCI. — President Jackson. — Nullification, .... 320 

CXCII. — President Jackson's second term, 322 

CXCIIL— State of Arkansas, 323 

CXC IV.— The Florida war, \ . 324 

CXCV. — Michigan— the twenty-sixth pillar, .... 326 

CXC VI.— President Van Buren, ... ... 327 

CXC VII. — Public improvements. — Progress of events, . . 330 
CXC VIII— President Harrison.— President Tyler, . . .332 

CXCIX. — Public improvements, &c, 336 

CC. — General views, 339 

OTHER PORTIONS OF NORTH AMERICA. 

CCI. — Mexico, Gautemala and Texas, 340 

CCII. — Britishpossessions in North America. — Polar regions, 343 

CCIII.— The West Indies, 345 

SOUTH AMERICA. 

CCIV.— South America, 347 

CCV. — South America, continued, 350 

CCVI.— Conclusion, 353 



CHAPTER I. 



The progress of History. 

1. In the following pages we propose to give a history of the 
United States, with some account of other portions of America. 
History is a recital of what has happened, respecting nations and 
countries ; and our history of America will be an account of the 
most interesting events that have occurred in the New World. 

2. All our readers know that the history of mankind begins with 
Adam and Eve, almost 6000 years ago ; that their descendants spread 
over Asia first, then over Africa, and then over Europe. 

3. At what time mankind began to settle in Europe, we cannot 
precisely tell : we only know that about 1856 years B. C., or about 
3700 years ago, a man by the name of Inachus led a company of 
emigrants from Egypt into Greece. 

4. These found the country inhabited by savages, w r ho, no doubt, 
were, the descendants of those who had wandered there from Asia. 
Inachus and his companions established themselves in Greece, and 
from that point of time, Europe gradually became occupied by 
civilized people. 

5. Thus the three quarters of the globe were settled, and as they 



CHAP. I. — 1. What is history ? 2. When and where does history begin ? In what 
order were the different quarters of the world settled? 3, 4. What of the settlement 
of Europe ? 5. Why did mankind soon get a general notion of the geography of Europe, 



10 



GEOGRAPHY OF AMERICA. 



all lay together in one continent, mankind acquired a general, though 
still imperfect, notion of their shape and extent. But America was 
separated from Asia by the Pacific Ocean, almost ten thousand 
miles across ; and from Europe and Africa, by the Atlantic, about 
three thousand miles across. Of America, therefore, the people 
knew nothing. 

6. The ships in old times were small, ill-built, and feeble, com- 
pared with the ships of the present day. The people did not know 
the shape of the world ; the art of navigation was in its infancy, and 
even the mariner's compass, that mysterious but steadfast friend of 
the mariner, was not invented till about the year 1242. The cross- 
ing of wide oceans was therefore a thing that could not be done. 
Navigators seldom dared to stretch forth upon the boundless sea ; 
they only ventured to creep carefully along the shores, always keep- 
ing the land in sight. 

7. As navigation improved, mankind grew more adventurous upon 
the sea ; and, by degrees, their knowledge of the world — its seas 
and oceans, it shores and continents — was so far increased, that the 
Old World, or the eastern hemisphere, was tolerably well under- 
stood. The idea had also occurred to many individuals, that the 
great oceans probably contained large masses of yet undiscovered 
land. 

8. It seems to be .the course of Providence to make a gradual 
development of that knowledge which is important to man ; and 
when any great revelation, or any great discovery is needful, the 
means of effecting the desired object are provided. The time had 
at length arrived for dispelling the mystery which had hitherto 
brooded over the mighty seas ; and Christopher Columbus, the 
instrument of accomplishing this great work, was born and trained 
for his career. 

9. It was He who not only discovered America, but made it known 
to the people of the eastern continent. The discovery was so new, 
vast and surprising, that the land he had found seemed like another 
world ; and accordingly it was called the New World. 



CHAPTER EL 

A geographical sketch of America. 

1. Before we proceed to recount the history of America, it will 
be well to fix definitely in our minds an outline of its geography. 
As history details what things have happened, geography informs us 
where they happened. It is impossible to have a clear idea of the 
former, without a knowledge of the latter. 

Asia and Africa? Why did they know nothing about America? 6. What of naviga- 
tion in old times? 7. What was the result of improvement in navigation? 8. What 
is said of the course of Providence? What of Christopher Columbus? 9. Why was 
America called the New World ? 
EL— 1. What does history tell us? What does geography tell us ? Why should we 



GEOGRAPHY OF AMERICA. 



11 



2. On the succeeding- page is a map of America, which, yon 
observe, lies between Europe and Africa on the east, and Asia on 
the west. The Pacific Ocean is 10,000 miles across in the widest 
part ; and the Atlantic, about 3000 miles. Columbus had to cross 
this latter ocean, to find America. 

3. The continent of America consists of two great masses of land, 
united by a narrow strip of land, called the Isthmus of Darien. The 
southern portion is called South America; the northern, North 
America. The West Indies, consisting of a great number of fine 
and fruitful islands, lie almost between North and South America ; 
and it was these that Columbus first discovered. 

4. The whole length of the American continent is about 9000 
miles, or a little more than one third of the circumference of the 
globe, which is about 25,000 miles. The figure below will show 
this. The whole length of the eastern continent, from north to south , 
is about 7000 miles. 



5. The surface of the earth is supposed to contain nearly 
200,000,000 of square miles : about three fourths, or 150,000,000, 
are water ; the rest, 50,000,000, are land. The following table shows 
that America contains a little less than one-third of all the land on 
the globe. 

The eastern continent has about 31,000,000 square miles of land. 
The western continent has about 15,000,000 square miles. 
The islands of the Pacific, about 4,000,000 square miles. 

6. America is distinguished for the grand scale upon which its 
natural features are formed : it has the largest masses of fresh water 
lakes ; the most extensive valleys ; by far the largest rivers ; the 



know geography before history ? 2. Between what oceans is America ? How wide is 
the Pacific ? The Atlantic 1 "What ocean did Columbus have to cross, in order to find 
America? 3. What of the continent of America? The West Indies? 4. The whole 
length of the western continent ?- The whole circumference of the globe ? Whole 
length of the eastern continent ? 5. Extent of the whole surface of the globe? How 
many square miles does America contain? 6. For what is America distinguished? 
7 What of its vegetation ? Its animals ? 




12 



POLITICAL DIVISIONS OF AMERICA. 



largest range of mountains ; and the loftiest volcanoes on the globe. 
The tallest peaks of the Andes are nearly equal in elevation to the 
loftiest of the old continent. 

7. The climate of America is a little colder than that of the eastern 
hemisphere ; the vegetation is nearly the same. The original ani- 
mals of America differ in species from those of the eastern world . 
We have here no native elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, giraffe, 
tiger, leopard, or lion. Our domestic animals, with the single 
exceptions of the dog and turkey, are wholly of European origin. 



CHAPTER III. 



Political Divisions of America. 




Map of America. 



1. The present divisions of North America are as follows : the 
United States ; Mexico ; Texas ; Russian possessions ; Greenland ; 



OUTLINE OF THE HISTORY OF AMERICA. 



13 



Iceland ; British possessions, including the Canadas, New Brunswick, 
Nova Scotia, and a vast unoccupied country to the north, which 
passes under the name of New Britain. The United States contain 
nearly 2,000,000 of square miles, and British America something 
more. 

2. The United States, Mexico, and Texas, are independent coun- 
tries, with republican governments ; the other portions are under 
the control of European powers. 

3. South America contains the United States of Central America, 
Peru, Equador, Venezula, New Granada, Bolivia, Chili, Buenos 
Ayres, or Argentine Republic, and Uruguay, all of which are inde- 
pendent republics. Besides these, there is Brazil, which is governed 
by an emperor ; Paraguay, which is under a dictator ; Guiana, 
which belongs to several European powers ; and Patagonia, which 
is only inhabited by tribes of savages. , 

4. The West India islands are divided between various European 
governments, only one of them, Hayti, being independent. The 
principal islands are Cuba, belonging to Spain, and Jamaica, belong- 
ing to Great Britain. 

5. The whole population of America maybe estimated at about 
45,000,000. Of these, the largest portion are white people, or the 
descendants of Europeans. There are, however, a good many 
Indians, some partially civilized, and others still maintaining their 
wild independence. There are also several millions of negroes, 
mostly slaves, and many belonging to a mixture of the white and 
dark races. 



CHAPTER IV. 

A bird's-eye vieio of the History of America. 

1. The discovery of Columbus, about 350 years ago, first made 
the civilized part of mankind acquainted with America. The people 
then occupying the country had no books, and only very imperfect 
modes of recording events. Of their history, prior to the discovery 
of Columbus, we know but little. 

2. The history of America chiefly lies within the compass of the 
last 350 years. It shows us that this continent was discovered by 
Columbus, under a commission from the king of Spain, who claimed, 
as belonging to the Spanish crown, all lands discovered by ships 
sailing under the flag of that country. 



Questions on the Map, p. 12. Where is Cape Horn? Greenland? Isthmus of 
Darien ? West Indies ? Hudson's Bay ? Gulf of Mexico ? Caribean Sea ? New- 
foundland ? In what direction are each of the preceding places from New York ? 

HI.— 1. What are the present political divisions of North America? Extent of the 
United States? British possessions in America? 2. What independent countries in 
North America? What are under the control of European powers? 3. What of the 
divisions of South America ? 4. The West India islands ? 5. Population of America ? 

IV -— I. When were the discoveries of Columbus made? How was the civilized 
2 



14 



OUTLINE OF THE HISTORY OF AMERICA. 



3. Soon after Columbus had revealed his great discovery to Europe , 
many adventurers came hither, chiefly in search of gold, silver and 
precious stones, which were supposed to be very abundant here. 
Many of these adventurers had commissions from the king of Spain , 
and several of them were supplied by him with ships, money and 
soldiers, the purpose of which was to conquer and take possession of 
different parts of the country for Spain. 

4. Thus Mexico was conquered by the bloody Cortez ; Peru by 
the cruel and remorseless Pizarro ; and Chili by Almagro. Other 
portions were seized by other leaders, until the southern part of North 
America, two thirds of South America, and the finest of the West 
India islands, were within the grasp of the king of Spain. 

5. The Portuguese seized upon Brazil ; the French upon Canada, 
the mouth of the Mississippi, and some of the West Indies ; and 
England upon the Atlantic coast of North America. Other Euro- 
pean powers picked here and there in the scramble, seizing upon 
such parts and pieces as they could get. 

6. Thus America became the spoil of European kings, who seized 
upon the lands, and conquered or destroyed the native inhabitants, 
according to their interest or pleasure. The whole proceeding took 
place in a dark age, and under one great and melancholy error, which 
was this — that uncivilized people are heathen, and consequently ene- 
mies of God, and whom it is, therefore, right to subdue, enslave, or 
kill, as may be deemed convenient by Christian men. 

7. Thus it happened that the wars against the natives in America 
were generally carried on under the sanction of the Christian religion ; 
the Indians were massacred by millions, in the name of Jesus Christ j 
whole empires were devastated by those who went forth preaching 
and praying and performing all the rites and ceremonies of the 
church ! 

8. The chief elements of the history of America consist in six 
general topics, which are as follows : 1st, its Discovery ; 2d, its Partici- 
pation between different European Powers; 3d, the Wars with the 
Indians ; 4th, the Wars among the European Powers, which involved 
the American colonies; 5th, the Struggles of the Colonies for Inde- 
pendence ; and, 6th, the General Progress of Wealth and Civilization. 

9. In the following pages we shall endeavor to give a view of 
these topics, devoting the largest space to the United States, which 
present not only the most interesting, but by far the most instructive 
passages of history. 



world first made acquainted with America? 2. To what limits is the history of 
America chiefly confined ? What does this history show? 3. What followed the an- 
nouncement of Columbus' discoveries ? 4. What of the Spanish conquests ? 5. The 
Portuguese? French? English? Other European powers? 6. What did America 
then become? What greaterror prevailed in the settlement of America? 7. What 
was the consequence of this error ? 8. What are the six chief topics or elements in the 
history of America ? 9. What of the history of the United States ? 



DISCOVERIES OK THE NORTHMEN. 



16 



CHAPTER V. 
Discovery of America by the Northmen. 




1. Before we proceed to speak of Columbus, we must say a few 
words respecting the accounts of the discovery of America, previous 
to his time. The Welsh have a tradition, of some celebrity, accord- 
ing to which, a chieftain of Wales, named Madoc, made several dis- 
tant voyages to the west, about the year 1170. 

2. In one of those expeditions, they say that he discovered ' 1 a 
fair and large country and, returning to Wales, took with him a 
number of his friends and relatives, and set forth to settle there. 
From this period, there was never anything heard of them. It has 
been thought that the " fair and large country" was America, and 
that these emigrants went thither. But there is no good reason to 
believe this. 

3. The discovery of America by the Northmen, at an earlier 
period, rests on a surer foundation. The inhabitants of Norway and 
Denmark were by far the most adventurous seamen of Europe during 
the middle ages. As early as the year 860, they had discovered 
Iceland, and it was colonized by the Norwegians in 874. 

4. Greenland was discovered not long after, and was settled by 
two colonies, one from Denmark and one from Norway. The inter- 
course between this place and the home country became, therefore, 
common. According to well authenticated accounts, in the year 1002, 
Leif, a Norwegian, with a number of men, set sail from Greenland and 
proceeded south-westward. 



V.— 1, 2. What of Madoc? 3. What of the Northmen? Iceland? 4. Green- 
land I Leif ? 5. Vinland ? Thonvald ? 6. What is there good reason to believe ? Cape 



1(3 



COLUMBUS. 



5. They soon came to land, and, continuing their voyage, discov- 
ered a country of grapes, which they named Vinland, or the Land 
of Wine. The party returned to Greenland, but, soon after, Thor- 
wald pursued the discovery in the same ship. Having landed on a 
beautiful shore, he fell in with savages, and was killed by them. 
His party escaped, and returned to Greenland, whence still other 
expeditions were sent to the newly-discovered country. 

6. Though the accounts of these voyages are somewhat vague, 
there is no good reason to doubt that these Northmen actually dis- 
covered the coast of New England, and for some time were in the 
habit of making voyages thither. Cape Cod, Nantucket, Mar- 
tha's Vineyard, and other places, are described in their accounts too 
accurately to admit of serious doubt as to their identity. 

7. The knowledge of Yinland, however, appears not to have been 
generally communicated to Europe, and it was finally lost to the 
Northmen themselves. After the year 1120, we hear nothing of it 
in their annals, and all traces of such a country were entirely ob- 
literated from the minds of mankind. At the period of Columbus, 
the existence of America was as complete a secret as if the hardy 
Norwegians had never ploughed these northern seas. 



CHAPTER VI. 



Account of Columbus. 




Portrait of Columbus. 



1 . This Western World was discovered by Christopher Columbus, 



Cod, &c. 1 7. What of this knowledge of Yfnland 1 What of these discoveries in the 
time of Columbus 7 

VI. — 1. How long since the discovery of America by Columbus? What change has 



COLUMBUS. 



li- 



as we have already said, about 350 years ago. How surprising the 
changes which have taken place in this comparatively short period ! 
Instead of a mere wilderness, or at best an abode of savages, much 
of the continent is now peopled by civilized men, and thickly studded 
with cities, towns, and villages. 

2. Columbus was a native of Genoa in Italy, and was born A. D. 
1435. He was chiefly employed, till he was fourteen years of age, 
with his father, in combing w^ool. He was exceedingly fond of 
books, but the circumstances of his father did not allow him to in- 
dulge his natural fondness for them. He was particularly pleased 
with books of voyages and travels, and early manifested a desire to 
see foreign countries. 

3. At length he was allowed to go to sea. His first voyages were 
in the Mediterranean. Of these we know but little. We know that 
he was employed, for a time, in a war between the Venetians and 
the Mohamedans, and that, in one instance, when the vessel to which 
he belonged had taken fire, he saved his life by swimming. 

4. But Columbus was too active and enterprising to be always 
confined to the narrow limits of the Mediterranean. He travelled to 
almost every part of the world which was then known ; and his prac- 
tical mind at length led him to contemplate a journey to parts which, 
as yet, had not been even thought of, by most persons. 

5. The mariners of the fifteenth century knew little of foreign 
countries. Their knowledge was chiefly confined to the coasts and 
islands of Europe. They had never ventured so far along the shores 
of Africa as to cross the equator. The trade with the East Indies 
was at that time carried on by land, and the West Indies were of 
course undiscovered. 

6. The strong desire which was felt by commercial men to find out 
a path to the East Indies by water, led to much conversation on the 
subject ; and some persons began to think and speak of the probability 
of reaching that part of the world by sailing round the southern point 
of Africa. But Columbus had a plan which extended still farther. 

7. Having learned, from books of geography and astronomy, that 
the earth was round, it very naturally occurred to him that there 
might be more land, somewhere, to counterpoise what was already 
known on one side of the globe ; and that it was at least quite pos- 
sible to find the East Indies by sailing westward. 

«► 8. But what was to be done 1 He and his friends were poor ; and 
it would require much money to fit out an expedition like that which 
the prosecution of his schemes would demand. He was therefore 
compelled to seek the patronage and pecuniary aid of others. 

9. He first explained his views and stated his plans to the senate 
of his native country, Genoa ; and subsequently to the king of Por- 
tugal and the king and queen of Spain. They heard him with pa- 
tience, but, believing him to be somewhat visionary, were not disposed 
to afford him the necessary aid. Still he was not discouraged. 



taken place ? 2. What of Columbus P 3. What more of Columbus ? 4. What of the 
travels of Columbus? What did he begin to contemplate ? 5. What of the mariners 
of the 15th century? 6. What was the desire of commercial men? 7. What was the 
plan of Columbus ? 8. What difficulties were in the way of Columbus ? 9. What did 
2 * 



18 



FIRST DISCOVERY OF AMERICA BY COLUMBUS. 



10. He had, by this time, drawn into his service his two younger 
brothers, Bartholomew and Diego. Bartholomew had even been sent 
to England, to solicit aid from Henry VJ1, ; but the vessel in which 
he went was taken by pirates, and nothing more was heard, for some 
time, either of him or his undertaking. 

It. In the meantime, the appeal to the king and queen of Spain 
had been renewed, and after the lapse of about eight years, it suc- 
ceeded. Ferdinand and Isabella agreed to furnish three small vessels 
and ninety men, and provisions for one year. Such an outfit was 
thought exceedingly liberal ; and queen Isabella even parted with 
her jewels to pay the expenses. 

12. The names of the three vessels that thus sailed to Amer- 
ica, were the Santa Maria, the Pinta, and the Nina. The latter two 
were mere barks, but the Santa Maria, or Columbus' own vessel, 
w r as of considerable size. In addition to a crew of ninety men, about 
thirty other persons went out with them as mere adventurers. 



CHAPTER VII. 



First discovery of America by Columbus. 




Indians looking at the vessels of Columbus as they approached. 



1. Columbus was now not far from fifty-five years of age. He 
had spent forty years at sea, and nearly twenty in planning this 
western voyage. The day of his setting sail must have been a 
proud one to him. How must his strong heart have beat high with 
emotion ! 

. * > 

Columbus do ? 10. What of the- brothers of Columbus 1 11. What of Ferdinand and 
Isabella 'I 12. What of the ships and men of Columbus 1 
VTT. — 1. What was the -age of Columbus, at the time of settin? sail upon his voyage ? 



FIRST DISCOVERY OF AMERICA BY COLUMBUS. 



19 



2. The little fleet left Palos, in Spain, on the morning of August 
3, 1492. Their course was south-westward till they reached the 
Canary islands, after which they proceeded exactly west. They had 
a good deal of unfavorable weather, and were forty days in reaching 
the West Indies. 

3. The seamen grew tired of the voyage, and once became mutin- 
ous. Columbus, though an old commander, was greatly troubled with 
them ; but he contrived in one way or another to keep them from open 
rebellion. At length, on the 11th of October, they faintly discovered 
land ; and on the 12th, they were alongside of a beautiful green 
island. 

4. This proved to be Guanahani, one of the Bahamas ; but Colum- 
bus named it St. Salvador. It was several leagues in extent, and 
had inhabitants upon it. Columbus, who had been the first to discover 
land the night before, was the first to go on shore in the morning. 

5. As soon as he had landed, he knelt and kissed the new earth, at 
the same time thanking God, who had prospered their enterprise. His 
men, impatient and mutinous as they had been during the voyage, 
now crowded around him and begged his forgiveness. The scene 
must have been truly affecting. * 

6. The native inhabitants of the island — naked, copper-colored, 
with long black hair, and without beards — gathered around the new 
comers, not knowing what to make of them. They looked at the ships 
with even greater amazement than at the men ; regarding them, it is 
supposed, as another species of animals ; and when some guns were 
discharged, they thought they had eyes of fire and voices of thunder. 

7. When Columbus had spent a little time in examining the new 
island he proceeded to make farther discoveries. Cuba was seen, 
October 28, and Hispaniola or St. Domingo not long afterwards. 
These, however, w T ere all the lands which were discovered during 
this first voyage. As Columbus supposed these to be a part of the 
Indies, they afterwards acquired the name of the West Indies. 
Columbus set out on his return to Spain, January 4, 1493. 

8. On their passage homeward, the adventurers encountered 
terrible storms, in one of which they were near being lost. In the 
moment of the greatest danger, Columbus had presence of mind 
enough to write, on parchment, a short account of his voyage, 
enclose it in a cake of wax, and commit it to the sea in a cask, in 
hopes that if all else should be lost, this might survive. After 
seventy days however, they arrived safe in Spain. 

9. A second voyage was made in the fall of 1493, during which, 
Columbus discovered Jamaica and a few other islands. But now 
unexpected difficulties occurred. Enemies thickened around him 
and retarded his progress. It was not till the summer of 1498, that 
he made his third voyage, during which he discovered the continent, 



How long a time had he spent in planning his voyage ? 2. When did the fleet sail ? 
What of their course ? 3. What of the men during the voyage? What happened Oc- 
tober 1 1 , 1492 ? What on the 1 2th. 4. What was the first land discovered in America ? 
What of Columbus ? 5. What did Columbus do on landing ? What of his men ? 6. What 
of the natives of the newly-discovered island ? 7. What other discoveries did Columbus 
make during this voyage? How did the West Indies get their name ? When did Co- 
lumbus set sail on his return ? 8. What of the voyage homeward $ 9. What of the 



20 



OTHER DISCOVERIES JN AMERICA. 



to which he had been the first to open a pathway. Even then, being 
charged with misconduct, he was carried home in irons. 

10. Columbus was, however, liberated, and made a fourth voyage 
to America, in 1502, with his brother Bartholomew and his son Fer- 
dinand ; but it was his last. The same enmity which had caused 
him to be sent home from his third voyage in fetters, still raged, 
and he at last became its victim. After languishing in obscurity and 
poverty for a time, he died at Valladolid, in Spain, May 20, 1506, 
in the seventieth year of his age. 

11. The new continent, on every just principle, should have been 
called Columbia, after its first discoverer. But one Americus Ves- 
pucius, a Florentine, who visited the continent in 1499, contrived to 
have it called by his own name, instead of that of Columbus. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

r 

Other discoveries in America. 

1. The fame of what Columbus had done was soon spread through 
Europe, and adventurers nocked to the New World — some for honor, 
some for enterprise and others for gain. In general, however, the 
great object of pursuit was gold and other precious commodities, as 
will become more evident in the progress of our history. 

2. Two Englishmen, John Cabot and Sebastian, his son, were 
the first discoverers of the continent of America. They sailed in 
May, 1497, under the patronage of Henry VII., of England. They 
saw the continent a year sooner than Columbus, and two years 
before Americus Vespucius. In this and subsequent voyages, they 
also discovered the islands of Newfoundland and St. John, and coasted 
as far south as Virginia, claiming the country in behalf of the king 
of England, by virtue of these discoveries. 

3. In 1501, the king of Portugal sent out a fleet of discovery 
under the command of Gaspar Cortereal. He sailed along the shores 
of North America six or seven hundred miles ; but he appears to 
have thought more of money than anything else ; and not finding 

* gold, he seized on fifty of the native Indians, carried them home and 
sold them as slaves. 

4. Emboldened by his success he made a second voyage, but did 
not live to return. The general belief is that he lost his life in 
attempting to secure another cargo of slaves ; and that Labrador 
was the theatre of his crime and its punishment. This, however, is 
not quite certain. 

5. The French, too, engaged in attempts to make discoveries. 
What they did, however, was at first principally about the mouth 



second and third voyages of Columbus ? 10. What of his fourth voyage ? What more 
of Columbus 1 11. What of the name of America ? 

VIII.— L What followed the discoveries of Columbus ? What were the objects of the 
early adventurers in America? 2. What of the Cabots ? 3. What of the king of Portu- 
gal and Gaspar Cortereal 1 5, 6. WTiat of the French ? 



OTHER DISCOVERIES. 



21 



of the St. Lawrence and the islands of Newfoundland and Cape 
Breton. By the year 1505 or 1506, they were quite familiar with 
this region, and Denys, of Honfleur, had drawn a map of the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence. 

6. As early as 1508 the French had become much engaged in the 
fisheries on the northeast coast of the present United States, and, as 
if to follow up the wicked example of the Portuguese and involve 
the first settlers in cruel wars, had carried away to France some 
of the natives. They appear also to have meditated the establish- 
ment of colonies in the New World. 



CHAPTER IX. 
Discoveries in North America. 




Death of Ponce de Leon. 

1. One of the most remarkable voyages of discovery was made in 
1524. Francis I., king of France, sent out to America one Verra- 
zani, a Florentine, who, with a single vessel, the Dolphin, after a 
long voyage of fifty days, and a terrible storm, reached North Caro- 
lina, whence, sailing northward, he explored the coasts of New 
Jersey, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Maine, and Nova Scotia, and 
returned to France. He also paid some attention to the coasts of 
Florida. 

2. In 1534, the same king sent James Cartier to the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence and Newfoundland. In a second voyage, this navigator 
sailed up the St. Lawrence as far as Montreal, to which he gave its 
present name. He also learned of the Indians something of northern 



IX.— 1. What remarkable voyages took place in 1524? 2. What occurred in 1534? 



22 



OTHER DISCOVERIES. 



New York and Vermont. He claimed possession of Canada in 
behalf of the French. 

3. Though the French were early attracted to Florida, the 
Spaniards were before them. Ponce de Leon, a voyager with 
Columbus, having become disaffected towards him, proceeded from 
Porto Rico, in March, 1512, to make discoveries by himself. He 
found a new region, on the 27th of March, to which he gave the 
name of Florida, on account of its florid or blooming appearance. 

4. The king of Spain, in whose name Leon claimed the country, 
appointed him the governor of it, on condition of his establishing 
a colony there. In attempting to effect a settlement he met with 
many remarkable adventures ; and finally his people were attacked by 
the Indians and driven away, and he was himself mortally wounded. 

5. In 1520, two slave ships were fitted out at St. Domingo, which 
proceeded to the coast of South Carolina, and, having decoyed the 
native Indians on board, suddenly set sail and carried them to St. 
Domingo. It is not surprising that the savages of the continent, 
from one end of it to the other, became suspicious of white men. 

6. In 1540, Ferdinand de Soto made a tour through Florida, north- 
ward to Georgia, and thence westward, across the Cherokee country 
and Alabama, to the country of the Chickasaws, where he spent the 
winter. In the spring of 1541, he discovered and crossed the Mis- 
sissippi, and travelled in Arkansas and Missouri. He died in 1542, 
and his companions returned through Louisiana to the West Indies. 

7. The details of this expedition are full of interest. The Indians 
of these regions, at this period, were numerous, and their manners 
and customs present much that is curious. 




Sir Walter Raleigh. 

8. We have already seen that the English, through the Cabots, 
had established large claims in the new continent. In 1584, Queen 



3. 4. What, of Florida and Ponce de Leon ? 5. What of slave ships ? 6. What of Fer- 



SETTLEMENT AT JAMESTOWN. 



Elizabeth sent out the celebrated and accomplished Sir Walter 
Raleigh, on a voyage of discovery. He entered Pamlico Sound, and 
explored the coasts northward. The queen bestowed upon this 
whole region the name of Virginia. 

9. Among the discoveries of minor importance, made towards the 
close of the sixteenth century, were those of Bartholomew Gosnold, 
an Englishman. In a voyage to Virginia, as the whole coast was 
then called, he discovered and named Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, 
and Elizabeth Island ; he attempted to form a settlement on the 
latter, but without success. 



CHAPTER X. 

Settlement at Jamestown. 

1. We must now leave the general current of events in America , 
and turn our attention, particularly, to the settlement and progress 
of our own country, the United States. While the Spaniards, 
Portuguese, French, and other nations, were carving out the New 
World to suit themselves, we must now consider the operations of 
the English in North America. 

2. But, as our attention will first be directed* to the southern 
section of our country, let us study the map at p. 24. This pre- 
sents us with a view of the Southern States, as they now appear. 
We shall here see divisions of states and locations of towns, which 
did not exist at the time at which our history commences. The 
mountains, rivers, shores and waters, were, however, the same. 

3. One hundred and fifteen years passed away, after the discovery 
of America by Columbus, and one hundred and ten after the dis- 
covery of the continent by the Cabots, and no permanent settlement 
had yet been effected within the limits of what are now called the 
United States. 

4. But a new era in the history of this western world was at hand. 
A company had been formed in England, under the patronage of king 
James I., whose object was to make settlements anywhere in 
America between the 34th and 38th degrees of north latitude ; or 
in what was then called South Virginia. For this purpose they 
obtained a royal grant or patent. 

5. In May, 1607, a colony of one hundred and five persons, under 
the direction of this company, arrived off the coast of South Vir- 
ginia. Their first intention had been to form a settlement on the 
Roanoke river ; but, being driven farther to the north in a violent 
storm, they discovered and entered the mouth of the Chesapeake 
Bay. 

dinand de Soto ? 7. What of the southern Indians 1 8. What of Sir Walter Raleieh ? 
U. What of Gosnold ? 

X. — 1, 2. Let the teacher put such questions as he deems necessary upon the map. 
Z. How long a time had elapsed after the discovery of America, before any permanent 
settlement was made in the present United States 3 4. What company was formed in 



24 



SETTLEMENT AT JAMESTOWN. 



6. To the capes of this bay, in passing, they gave the names they 
now bear — Cape Charles and Cape Henry — in honor of the two 
sons of their king. To a point of land farther within the mouth of 
the bay, and near where Hampton now stands, they gave the name 
of Point Comfort, on account of the comfortable anchorage they 
found there. 




jvr jc f c o ^mmPt™ 

lOLong T\e st8 "Washington 6 



7. This first body of emigrants, unfortunately, did not consist of 
families of hardy, enterprising farmers, and other laborers and me- 
chanics. There were only twelve laborers and a few mechanics in 
the company — " forty-eight gentlemen to four mechanics," as the 
historian informs us. All, moreover, were single men; not an 
organized family being among them. 

8. They were commanded by Captain Christopher Newport, an 
old and experienced navigator. After smoking the calumet, or pipe 
of peace, with the natives, on the spot where Hampton now stands, 

the time of James I. ? 5. What occurred in 1607? 6. What of the capes I Point 
Comfori 2 7. What of this first body of emigrants 2 8. Who commanded the expe- 



SETTLEMENT AT JAMESTOWN. 



25 



they proceeded slowly up a river, which, in honor of their king, 
they called the James. 

9. But although they began by smoking the pipe of peace, it 
appears that some of the savage tribes, as they ascended the river, 
snowed signs of hostility. They had doubtless heard of the treat- 
ment of their brethren at the Roanoke river, twenty years before, 
which will be mentioned in the history of North Carolina ; or at 
least of the kidnappers of 1520. 

10. At length the colonists came to a peninsula, some fifty miles 
up the river, on its northern side, which they selected as a suitable 
place on which to establish themselves. Here they landed and went 
to work. The place was called Jamestown. It was now about the 
middle of May. 



11. The plan of government for their little colony had been pre- 
pared for them before they left England. One of their first efforts 
was to ratify, as it were, this constitution or form of government. It 
consisted of a council or board of seven persons, from whom they 
were to select a president, who was to act as their chief magistrate. 

12. We must not omit to notice the method of forming this first 
United States government. The London Company had selected the 
council before the emigrants set out, but the names were carefully 
put up in a box and concealed till the party should arrive in Vir- 
ginia ; they were then to open it and organize themselves. A code 
of laws, which had also been prepared by the Company, was to be at 
the same time promulgated. 

13. The names of the seven counsellors, were Bartholomew Gos- 
nold, the navigator, John Smith, Edward Wingfield, Christopher 



ilition? 9. What of the Indians? 10. What of Jamestown? 11, 12. What of the 
government of the colony ? 13. Who were the counsellors ? 

3 




Building houses at Jamestown. 



26 WEAKNESS OF THE COLONY. 

Newport, John Ratcliff. John Martin, and George Kendall. They 
made choice of Mr. Wingfield for their president. 



CHAPTER XL 

Weakness of the Colony. 

1. While a part of the colonists were husy in clearing the soil 
and building suitable huts and fortifications, Captain Newport, in 
company with Captain John Smith, ascended the James river to the 
falls, and visited Powhatan, the chief of the Indians in those parts, 
at his principal seat, just below where Richmond now stands. It 
was a village of only twelve wigwams. 

2. Captain Newport left the colony, about the middle of June, for 
England. No settlement was ever left in a more pitiable condition. 
To say nothing of the danger from savage foes, their provisions were 
poor and insufficient, the water was unwholesome, and the summer 
heat intolerable to those who had been accustomed to a cooler climate ; 
many of them were sick, and those who were not sick were dis- 
couraged. 

3. In less than a fortnight after the departure of the fleet, hardly 
ten of them were able to stand ; nor so many as five fit to guard the 
fort, or plant crops for future sustenance. The sickness increased, 
till, in some instances, three or four died in a night. Fifty of them, 
or about half the colony, perished before autumn came on. 

4. To complete the catalogue of evils, they quarrelled among 
themselves. They first excluded from the council Captain Smith, 
professedly on account of sedition, but really and truly from motives 
of envy. Next they deposed Mr. Wingfield, the president, and 
appointed Mr. RatclifT in his stead, who was no better; and thus 
things for some time went on. 

5. They discovered, at last, that Captain Smith, whom they had 
so much hated, was the best man among them, and their chief depend- 
ance. In truth, they could not do without him in peace or in war. 
Money, with him, was not as with most men, and especially of this 
colony, a main object, but the good of his fellow-men. 

6. This Captain Smith became so identified with the history of 
the colony, and, indeed, with the history of our race, that it may be 
well to give a more particular account of him — his birth, education, 
and adventures in early life. 



XI. — 1. What of Captain Newport and Captain Smith ? 2. What was the state of the 
colony when Captain Newport left with the fleet ? 3. What soon followed 1 4. What 
added to the ev ils of the colony 1 5. Whai of Captain Smith ? 6. Why is it proper to 
tell the story of Captain Smith in detail ? 



CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH. 



27 



CHAPTER XII. 



Captain John Smith. — His life and adventures. 




Captain John Smith making treaties with the Indians. 

1. This most remarkable man of all the first settlers of Jamestown, 
was born in Lincolnshire, England, in 1579. He was put as an appren- 
tice to a merchant, at the age of fifteen, but, disliking the business, 
he left his master, proceeded to Holland, enlisted for a time as a 
soldier, and at length found his way to Austria. 

2. Here he entered the Austrian army, then engaged in a war 
with the Turks. After many singular adventures, and not a few haz- 
ardous exploits in single combat — having, in three several instances, 
cut off the heads of his antagonists — he was at length wounded, 
taken prisoner, and, on his recovery, sold as a slave. 

3. In this situation he conducted so well as speedily to win the 
confidence of his new mistress, who, with a view to restore to him 
his freedom, sent him to her brother, an officer at the Crimea in 
Russia. Here, contrary to her expectations, he was put to the 
severest drudgery, and his life made a burden. 

4. Determined to escape from his new master, he at length found 
a convenient opportunity. He was employed at threshing, about 
three miles from the house. Here his master visited him once a day. 
Watching his opportunity, Smith despatched him with the flail, hid 
his body in the straw, and, mounting his horse, fled to the woods. 

5. After wandering several days, uncertain of his fate, he came 
to a guide-post, by means of the marks on which he found his way. 



XII.— 1. When and where was Captain John Smith born? What of his early life? 
2. What happened to him in Austria? 3. What happened to him among the Turks ? 
4, 5. What of his escape ? 6. What of Smith respecting the American colony ? 



28 



SMITH TAKEN PRISONER. 



Thus he returned, through Russia, Poland, Germany and France, 
to his native country ; not, however, till he had turned aside 
through Spain, to visit the kingdom of Morocco, and spent a short 
time there. 

6. He reached England just as companies were forming for settling 
the new continent of America. As he had lost none of his courage 
or bravery, he was most admirably adapted to the hazardous under- 
taking. He was immediately attached to the expedition under 
Captain Newport, and made, as we have seen, one of the members 
of the Virginia council. 

7. Small bodies of men, when exposed to great danger, are, for the 
most part, united among themselves. But it was not so, as we have 
seen, with the Jamestown colony. There was no bond of union, 
even in the hour of danger. To restore harmony, then, was the first 
object at which Smith aimed. 

8. Peace and order, by his efforts, being at length restored, he 
found leisure to do something towards defending the colony from foes 
without. The Indians threatened them. By his ingenuity, he suc- 
ceeded in quieting them for the present, as well as in removing the 
fears which had agitated the colony. 



CHAPTER XIII. 



Smith taken prisoner. 




Smith going on an exploring excursion. 



1. As soon as the colony became secure and was well supplied 



7. What was the state of the colony when Smith was elected governor ? 8. What did 
he do? 

XIII — 1. What opinion had Smith adopted ? 2. What river did Smith ascend with 



POCAHONTAS 



29 



with provisions, Smith undertook a short voyage of discovery. An 
opinion prevailed among the first voyagers to America, into which 
Smith had fallen among the rest, that it was only a little way across 
the country to the South Sea — the ocean path to every sort of wealth . 
They supposed that by ascending almost any river which came from 
the northwest, they could soon find a passage, by water, thither. 

2. The Chickahominy is a branch of the James, uniting with it a 
little above Jamestown. With a handful of associates, Smith as- 
cended it in a barge as far as it was boatable, and then, leaving the 
barge with a part of the men, who were to remain aboard, ascended 
in a canoe still higher. 

3. He had no sooner left the boat, than the crew went ashore at 
the very spot where a brother of Powhatan, with some Indians, lay 
in ambush. They seized one of the men, and, after having compelled 
him to tell them which way their commander had gone, they cruelly 
murdered him, and then followed after Smith. 

4. Having proceeded about twenty miles, they overtook and killed 
the companions of Smith, and wounded him. They then surrounded 
and attempted to take him; but, though wounded, he defended him- 
self until he had killed three of his assailants, when he sunk deep in 
a marsh and was taken. 

5. Smith knew the character of the Indians, and set about devis- 
ing expedients to prolong his life.- He took from his pocket a com- 
pass, and amused his guards by showing them the vibrations of the 
needle. He also endeavored to give them some feeble notions of the 
earth and of the visible heavenly bodies. He also made use of other 
little devices to gain time. 

6. But what most excited the wonder of the savages was the fact 
that he could make a few marks on paper, from which the colonists of 
Jamestown could understand him and comply with his request — for, 
as he was some time among the Indians, they permitted him to make 
the experiment. For a while, they regarded him as a sort of magi- 
cian, whom it might not be safe to destroy. 

7. They concluded, at length, however, to conduct him to Pow- 
hatan. He was therefore bound for this purpose and brought before 
the king, whom he found seated on a wooden throne, with two girls, 
his daughters, at his side. After a consultation with his principal 
men, it was determined to put him to death, and they proceeded to 
make the preparation. , 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Story of Pocahontas. 

1. Two large stones were brought in, and laid at the feet of the 
savage king, and Smith's head was placed on one of them, while th' 

an exploring party ? 3. What occurred after Smith left the boat ? 4. How was Smith 
pursued and taken? 5. What did Smith do ? 6. What particularly astonished the In- 
diana ? 7. What did Powhatan determine to do ? 
XIV.— 1. What preparations were made for th.? death of Smith? 2. What did Poca- 



POCAHOx^TAS. 



savages gathered around to witness the execution. Powhatan's club 
was raised, and every one was waiting in silent suspense to see it fall 
on the victim. 

2. At this critical instant, Pocahontas, the eldest of the girls, and 
the most beloved by the king, now scarcely twelve years of age, 
rushed forward and threw herself with a shriek on Smith. Her hair 
was loose, and her eyes wild and streaming with tears. She raised 
her hands to her father, and besought him, with all the power of In- 
dian eloquence, to spare his captive. 




Pocahontas. 



3. Powhatan, though little used to pity, could not resist her 
entreaties and tears. He dropped his uplifted club, and looked 
round upon his warriors, as if to gather new courage. They too were 
touched with pity, though they were savages. At last he raised his 
daughter and promised her to spare the prisoner's life. 

4. He was accordingly spared, and the very next day conducted 
by a guard of twelve men to Jamestown. He had been a prisoner 
about seven weeks. He was to send back by the guard two cannon 
and a grindstone, for which Powhatan was to let him have a large 
tract of country, and forever regard him as his son. 

5. He reached Jamestown in safety, but not wishing to send guns 
to the savages, he determined to frighten them. However, he brought 
forward the two cannon and a grindstone, but they thought them too 
heavy to carry. He then discharged the cannon, loaded with stones, 
among the trees, which so affected them that they were glad to 
return to Powhatan with a quantity of toys and trinkets in their stead. 

6. Powhatan was greatly pleased with the presents, but Indian 
friendships are not always permanent. Some time afterward, his 



honta3 now do 1 4. What was done with Smith ? What did he promise ? 5. Why did 
not the Indians take the cannon? 6. What plot was soon laid ? 7. How did Pocahon- 



rOCAHONTAS. 



31 



savage feelings became again excited against the English, and a plan 
was laid for cutting them all off at a blow, which, but for the inter- 
ference of Pocahontas, would probably have succeeded. The day 
and the hour were set, and Pocahontas was informed of both. 

7. The very night before the deed was to be done, in the midst of 
a terrible storm, which, with the thick darkness, kept the savages in 
their huts, Pocahontas proceeded to Jamestown and revealed the plot. 
The colonists were therefore on their guard, and apart of them saved. 
This first plot to massacre the English took place in 1609. 

8. It does not appear that the savages ever found out who revealed 
their plot, for Pocahontas remained at her father's house for some 
time afterward. In the meantime, with the aid of Captain Smith, 
peace was once more established between the two nations. 

9. Pocahontas, having now become the warm friend of the English, 
came every few days to the fort at Jamestown, with her basket of 
corn for the garrison, which proved of great service to them. At 
length, however, she was stolen by a foraging party of the white 
people, and a large sum was demanded of her father for her ransom. 

10. Powhatan was unwilling to comply with the terms proposed, 
and began to prepare for a war on the English ; and had it not been 
for an event, as singular as it was unforeseen, a most exterminating 
war would doubtless have arisen. A young man, by the name of 
Rolfe, proposed to marry Pocahontas, and the proposal met the appro- 
bation of the king. 

11. She professed the faith of the Christian religion, and was bap- 
tized in a font hewn from the trunk of a tree, in the little rugged church 
at Jamestown ; and soon after w r as married. She became a faithful 
wife and an exemplary and pious mother. Some of the principal 
families in Virginia descended from this union of a young planter with 
an Indian princess. 

12. In 1616, Pocahontas went with her husband to England, but 
she was very unhappy there. Captain Smith, who was in London 
at the time of her arrival, called to see her, but, on account of her 
color, was a little reserved in his manner of treatment. This added 
to the intensity of her feelings, and she wept like a child. 

13. Captain Smith inquired the cause of her grief. " Did I not 
save thy life," said she, " in America? When I was torn from the 
arms of my father, and conducted among thy friends, didst thou not 
promise to be a father to me ? Didst thou not say that if I went into 
thy country, thou wouidst be my father, and I should be thy daugh- 
ter? Thou hast deceived me ; and behold me here now, a stranger 
and an orphan ! ' ' 

14. Captain Smith could not resist such eloquence. He intro- 
duced her to many families of respectability, and did all he could, 
while she remained in England, to make her happy, except that he 
never ventured to bring her before the king. She fell a victim to the 
united influence of grief and the climate, and died at the age of 
twenty-two, as she was about to embark for America. 



tas save the colony % 8,9. What of Pocahontas ? 10. How was war prevented ? 11. 
What of Pocahontas ? 12. What of Pocahontas, in the year 1616? 13, 14. What oc- 
curred between Pocahontas and Captain Smith in England ? What was the. fate of Poca- 
hontas ?• 



32 



CAPTAIN SMITH'S VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY. 



CHAPTER XV. 

Captain Smith's voyage of discovery. 

1. During the captivity of Captain Smith, he had been carried in 
triumph, by the Indians, from the Chickahominy river, to their villages 
on the Rappahannoc and Potomac, and thence through their other 
settlements to the Pamunkey river, and finally to the lower residence 
of Powhatan, in what is now called Gloucester county. 

2. " It is an ill wind that blows nobody any good," says an old, 
but current and just maxim ; and the captivity of Smith, though an 
evil in itself, had its advantages. It gave him such a knowledge of 
the country and of the character and condition of the native inhabit- 
ants as proved to be of the highest importance afterward, both to him 
and the colony. 

3. We have seen already that the number of the settlers at 
Jamestown had been much diminished before the massacre of the 
men who went out with Smith. Some had also died during his 
absence. From one hundred and five, who came over, he found 
them reduced, on his return, to forty, and of these a part were just 
contriving to desert the colony. 

4. Attempts had been made at desertion, twice before. Captain 
Smith resolved to put a stop to this, even if it cost him his life ; and 
he succeeded in doing so. But the state of things in Jamestown was 
exceedingly discouraging ; the government was of no force what- 
ever, and everything would have gone to ruin, but for his courage 
and determination. 

5. At this critical period in the history of the colony, Captain 
Newport arrived from England, with 120 emigrants. The news of 
his arrival in James river raised the drooping courage of the people 
and diffused general joy. It is not improbable that the point on the 
James river, which is known by the name of " Newport ! s News," is 
the point from which his vessel was first discovered. 

6. But the joy was of short duration. The newcomers, like too 
many of those who first emigrated, were chiefly " vagabond gentle- 
men," — as the settlers called them — and goldsmiths. The latter, 
no doubt, came over, filled with the idea of obtaining gold. None of 
them, however, expected to earn their living by hard work. All 
they thought or talked of, was about digging, washing, refining and 
carrying away the most precious of metals. 

7. Even Martin, one of the council, and Captain Newport himself, 
became absorbed — if indeed their brains were not actually turned — 
with the idea of finding gold. Martin claimed, no doubt sincerely, 
that he had discovered a gold mine, and Newport, after loading his 
vessel with what proved to be worthless yellow earth, believed him- 
self to be rich, and returned to England. 



XV.— 1, 2. What good arose from Smith's capture by the Indians ? 3. How were the 
colonists reduced ? 4. What of desertions ? 5. What of Captain Newport ? 6, 7. 



SMI ii VH ADMIN K>TK ATIO\. 



3a 



8. Worn out with fruitless endeavors to direct the attention of his 
people to something more important than searching for gold, Captain 
Smith undertook to explore the inlets, rivers, and shores of the 
Chesapeake Bay. This he accomplished, in the course of two 
voyages, in an open boat, and w r ith only fourteen men. 

9. These voyages w^ere undertaken and completed in about three 
months. He ascended the Potomac, above w^here Washington now 
stands, discovered and explored the Patapsco, and, it is thought, 
entered the harbor of Baltimore. The whole distance travelled was 
estimated at about 3000 miles. 

10. But to explore, merely, was not all that Captain Smith ac- 
complished. He journeyed into the interior, and made treaties of 
peace and friendship with many tribes of the natives. Pie also pre- 
pared and sent over to the London Company, a map of the country, 
which is still to be seen, and is very correct. This expedition, con- 
sidering all the circumstances, is one of the most wonderful on 
record ; and displays not only skill and perseverance in Smith, but 
far-sighted and statesman-like wisdom. 



CHAPTER XVI. 
Smith's administration of the government. 




Captain Smith, president. 



1. In three days after his return from his second voyage up the 
Chesapeake Bay, Captain Smith — not yet thirty years of age — was 



What of gold? 8,-9. What of Captain Smith's exploring? 10. What did Smith 
do besides ? 

XVI.— 1 . What office had Smith conferred upon him ? How old was he ? 2. What of 



SMITH'S ADMINISTRATION. 



made president of the Virginia council. It is worthy of remark that 
of the seven members of the council who came over about a year 
before, all but Smith and Kendall were now dead, or degraded, or 
devoted to the gold business. 

2. Not long after the appointment of Smith as president, Captain 
Newport came out from England with seventy more emigrants, two 
of whom were females. Of nearly 300 emigrants, who had now 
come over, these appear to have been the only females who had as 
yet ventured to join the colony. 

3. From the complaints of Smith to the London company, it 
appears that the character of this third set of emigrants was no bet- 
ter than the former. " I entreat you," says he, 11 rather send but 
thirty carpenters, husbandmen, gardeners, fishermen, blacksmiths, 
masons, and diggers-up of tree-roots, well provided, than a thousand 
of such as we have." 

4. Smith was indefatigable in his endeavors to establish among 
the colonists habits of order and industry. His maxim was, i; He 
who will not work should not eat." And he had some success. 
Several of the " gentlemen" colonists became wood-cutters. They 
were required to labor six hours a day, for the common good ; the 
rest of the time they had to themselves. 

5. At length, Jamestown began to have the appearance of a regu- 
lar and comfortable abode. It is true that they had as yet scarcely 
fifty acres of soil under cultivation, and were obliged to get their food, 
in part, from the Indians and from England ; yet they were now 
improving in their condition. They were also healthier, only seven 
having died during the year 1608. 

6. Towards the close of this year, a fleet of seven vessels arrived 
with about 300 emigrants. Nine vessels had set out, but two of 
them had been wrecked at the West Indies. But Smith could 
hardly rejoice at the arrival of " rakes and libertines," and people 
who were " packed off," as many of them were, " to escape worse 
destinies at home." 

7. Something, however, must be done with them. One plan of his 
was to form new colonies. More than one hundred went up to the 
falls of the James river, and began a settlement, and one hundred 
more up the Nansemond. Both parties, however, offended the 
Indians, and were either destroyed or driven away. 

8. A great misfortune now befel the colony of Jamestown. Cap- 
tain Smith, being severely wounded by an accident, and almost worn 
out with his sufferings and the ingratitude of his employers, departed 
for England, leaving the government, for the time, to one Percy. 

9. Captain Smith was, without doubt, a most remarkable man. 
Few men are better calculated to be pioneers in settling a wilderness 
than he. Few could have seen more clearly in what the true 
interest of a rising settlement consisted ; and still fewer would have 
been equally disinterested. 



Captain Newport ? 3. What complaints does Smith make to the London. Company ? 
4. What endeavors did Smith make 3 5. What of Jamestown 1 6. What took place 
at the close the year 1605 ? 7. What of new colonies 1 8. What great misfortune 



THE COLOxNY ON THE VERGE OF KLIN. 



85 



10. Feelings — deep and painful — no doubt he had, for who has 
them not, in situations so trying as his? — Yet, as Mr. Bancroft well 
remarks, "he was the father of Virginia; the true leader who first 
planted the Saxon race within the borders of the United States. " 
We shall have occasion to mention him again in the history of New 
England. He died in London, in 1631, aged fifty-two years. 



CHAPTER XVII. 



The colony on the verge of ruin. 




Lord Delaware arrives. 



1. The departure of Captain Smith for England, was like the last 
setting of the sun to the colony at Jamestown, at least for a time. 
No place ever went more rapidly on towards ruin. Order and indus- 
try disappeared, and the Indians not only became less friendly, but 
actually began to assume a hostile attitude, and to renew their out- 
rages. 

2. Nor Was this all, or indeed the worst. The indolencg and bad 
conduct of the settlers brought on a famine in the colony. Their 
want of food became so distressing that they devoured the skins of 
hajes, as well as the dead bodies of those persons who died or were 

1 slim, whether of their own party, or of the Indians. To add to the 
distress, thirty of them escaped and became pirates. 

3. In the short period of six months after Captain Smith's depart- 
ure, the number of the colonists was, in one way or another, reduced 



befel the colony now ? 9, 10. What of Captain Smith's character ? His death ? 
/ What does Mr. Barfcroft 3ay of him ? . 
§ XVII. — ] . What effects had the departure of Captain Smith ?- 2. What of famine ? 3. 



PROGRESS OF THE COLONY AT JAMESTOWN. 



from 500 to 60. These, moreover, were so feeble and discouraged 
that they were wholly unfit to defend themselves against the Indians ; 
so that the colony was daily and hourly in actual danger of perishing. 

4. In this dreadful condition, little short of despair, they resolved 
on returning to England. But the decision was scarcely made, 
when one of the vessels which had been shipwrecked in the Wes1 
Indies six months before, and whose crew and passengers had win- 
tered there, arrived in the river, and landed at Jamestown. 

5. The wretched, despairing colonists were now urged to remain. 
They were once more 200 in number. But no pleadings of Sir 
Thomas Gates, who was to be their presiding officer till the arrival 
of Lord Delaware, could prevail with them. Their plan was to sail 
for Newfoundland and scatter themselves among the vessels engaged 
in fishing there, and thus find their way back to England. 

6. They had four pinnaces remaining in the river, into which they 
entered, though almost without provisions, even for the voyage to 
Newfoundland. They had even resolved — strange to say — on burn- 
ing the town when they left it, and the energy of Gates, who, to the 
last moment, endeavored to persuade them to remain, was barely suf- 
ficient to prevent it. 

7. They actually set sail on their voyage. But just as they 
reached the mouth of the river — such was the ordination of Provi- 
dence — Lord Delaware, with provisions and more emigrants, arrived 
from England. This inspired them with a little courage : and, as 
there was a favorable wind, the whole company bore up the river, 
and slept that night at the fort in Jamestown. 

8. Lord Delaware began his wise administration next morning, 
with religious exercises, after which he caused his commission to be 
read ; upon which a consultation was held and a new government or- 
ganized, in accordance with the wishes of the London Company and 
their commissioners. 

9. Much is said by historians in praise of the wisdom, firmness 
and piety of Lord Delaware. It is recorded that the first business of 
each day was to assemble early in the morning in their " little church, 
which was kept trimmed with the wild flowers of the country," and 
there to invoke the presence and blessing of God, after which they 
repaired to their daily labors. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



Progress of the colony at Jamestown. 




1. Everything now wore a better appearance. Famine no 
longer stared the colonists in the face ; their health was improved ; 



What took place in the space of six months ? 4. What did the colonists resolve to do ? 
What of a vessel from the West Indies ? 5. What of Sir Thomas Grates 1 6. What of 
the four pinnaces 1 7. What of Lord Delaware ? 8. 9. What ofaLord Delaware's ad- 
ministration ) 

X VIII.— 1 . What good consequences flowed from the administration of Lord Delaware 1 



PKOGFwESS OF THE COLONY AT JAMESTOWN. 



37 



considerably ; and the Indians were less troublesome than they had 
been. Under the administration of Lord Delaware, the people began 
to enjoy not only safety, but comfort. Their wretched cabins were 
even exchanged for boarded houses. 

2. Unfortunately for the colony, Lord Delaware's health failed, 
and he returned to England. He was succeeded, however, soon after 
his departure, by Sir Thomas Dale, who made another change in the 
condition of the colony. Hitherto they had held their property and 
labored in common. Governor Dale assigned to each settler a lot of 
three acres to cultivate as his own. The quantity was afterwards 
increased to fifty acres. 

3. In August, 1611, six ships and 300 new emigrants arrived. 
Other arrivals there must also have been during the year, for it is the 
concurrent testimony of historians that the population was at this 
time about 700. Among other things which arrived, were 112 cows, 
30 goats, 200 swine, and a large stock of provisions. It must be 
remembered that none of these domestic animals were natives of 
America. 

4. A new colony was formed this year, farther up the river, en- 
closed with a palisade, and named Henrico, in honor of the king's 
son. Another, five miles from Henrico, was called New Bermudas. 
There was peace, now, with the Indians, and this peace was pro- 
longed by the marriage, in 1613, of Rolfe with Pocahontas — an event 
which has already been mentioned. 




5. Tobacco, which had been discovered by Columbus in his first 
voyage, and had now come into use, was first introduced into Vir- 
ginia in the year 1614. In 1615, the fields, the gardens, and even 



2. What of Sir Thomas Dale? Division of property ? 3. What occurred irr August, 
161^? What of domestic animals? 4. New colonics 3 Peace? Rolfe and Pocahon- 



38 



SETTLEMENT OF NEW YORK. 



the streets and squares of Jamestown, were planted with it, and its 
culture was found highly profitable. 

6. It does not appear that more than two females came over, till 
1611, when 20 arrived. In 1620, when the number of the colonists 
was suddenly raised from 600 to 1860, there was a reinforcement of 
90 "respectable young women."' They were procured by the 
planters as wives, by paying from 100 to 150 pounds of tobacco 
each, to defray the expenses of their passage. 

7. Several mistakes were made about this time. One was ihe 
sending over to the colony, as laborers, by order of king James, 100 
criminals ; another, the introduction of the silk manufacture, for which 
the colony was not yet prepared. A still more serious mistake was 
the purchase of 20 African slaves from a Dutch vessel — these being 
the first introduced into the English settlements. 

8. There were frequent and numerous changes in the officers of the 
government, especially that of the chief magistrate, about this time, 
and some in the mode of administration. Still the colony was more 
flourishing, in 1620, than at any former period. Within three years, 
50 patents of land were granted, and 3500 new emigrants received. 
There were now. in the commonwealth, 11 parishes and 5 ministers. 



CHAPTEK XIX. 



Settlement of JSeio York. 




Hudson landing on ^Manhattan island. 



1. The island of Manhattan, on which the city of New York was 
afterwards built, w r as first discovered by Captain Henry Hudson, in 

Las f 5. To^acuo? 6 Females? Indians of the colony ? 7. Mistakes? 8. Changes 
in the government ? Land patents ? 
XIX.— 1. What of Henry Hudson ? 2. Hudecn's birth and instructions? Hii dis 



SETTLEMENT OF NEW YORK. 



39 



1609. This Pludson was the distinguished navigator who made 
discoveries to the northward of Canada and Labrador, and explored 
the large bay which is called by his name. 

2. He was by birth an Englishman, but had been sent by the 
Dutch East India Company to try to find the East Indies by sailing 
in a northwestern direction. Unable to proceed, on account of the 
ice, he returned to Newfoundland, and coasted along the shores of 
the United States, discovering Manhattan Island, where New York 
now stands, and at the same time sailing up and giving name to 
Hudson's river. 

3. As he was in the service of the Dutch when he made his dis- 
coveries, the latter claimed the country. The English, however, set 
up an earlier claim to it, as being a part of North Virginia. They 
also said that as Hudson was a British subject, the countries he dis- 
covered were theirs. 

4. But the Dutch w r ere determined to hold the country, if possible. 
They, therefore, in 1610, opened a trade with the natives at Man- 




Dutch trading with Indians. 



hattan Island, on the spot where New York now stands, and erected 
a fort on or near the present site of Albany. To the country in 
general they gave the name of New Netherlands ; and to the station 
on Manhattan Island, when it afterward came to be settled, that of 
New Amsterdam. 

^5. In 1613, Captain Argale, of Virginia, who had sailed to the 
north to break up a settlement the French were forming on the 
Penobscot river, stopped at New York on his return, and demanded 
the surrender of the island of Manhattan, and indeed of the whole 
country to the British king. 

6. But though the Dutch yielded their claim at this time, it was 

covery of the Hudsoa's river, &c. ? 3. Why were his discoveries for the benefit of 
tiie Dutch 7 Why did the English claim the country ?- 4. What did the Dutch do S 
5. W hat occurred in 1613 ? 6. What took place in 1611 7 7. What of the Dutch ? 



40 



NEW ENGLAND. 



simply because they were unable to defend it ; for the Dutch traders 
continued to occupy it, and a new Dutch governor, in 1014, threw 
off the yoke and put the fort at New Amsterdam in a position of 
defence. The desire of the Dutch to hold the place is not surprising 
when we learn that the beaver and other skins procured there, in 
1624, were thought to be worth over ten thousand dollars. 

7. The Dutch continued to resist the claims of the British to the 
country till the year 1664, and, in the meantime, kept up a profitable 
trade with the natives. The progress of the settlement was, however, 
exceedingly slow, as long as it remained in the hands of the Dutch. 



CHAPTER XX. 



New England. 




Captain Wei/mouth exhibiting Indians in England. 



1. Nothing had been known as to the interior of New England 
till the year 1605. Captain Gosnold had, indeed, explored the coasts, 
and attempted a settlement on Elizabeth Island, in 100-2, but without 
success. The country went by the general name of North Virginia 
— South Virginia extending only so far north as to include the 
country near Hudson's river. 

2. About the year 1605, Captain Weymouth, an Englishman, 
while searching for a northwest passage to the East Indies, dis- 
covered the Penobscot river, in Maine, and carried home five of the 
native Indians with him, to be educated. These Indians excited 
great curiosity in England ; and their accounts of the country led 
other navigators to the same coast. 



XX.— 1. What of New England? 2. Captain Weymouth ?- 3. The Plymouth Com- 



NEW ENGLAND. 



41 



3. There was a company formed in England , about this time, called 
the Plymouth Company, whose object it was to prosecute discoveries 
and make settlements along the coast of North Virginia, as the 
London Company were then about to do with regard to the coast of 
South Virginia. 

4. In 1606 the Plymouth Company sent out two ships of discovery, 
under Captains Chalong and Prynne. Captain Chalong- took with 
him two of the five Indians brought over by Captain Weymouth. 
But he did not reach America, for his vessel was taken by the 
Spaniards and he himself carried as a prisoner to Spain. 

5. Captain Prynne, more successful, surveyed the coasts of the 
country very extensively, and carried with him to England such a 
glowing account of its excellent harbors, rivers, forests and fisheries 
that, in 1607, a hundred adventurers, in two ships, went out to seek 
their fortune in America. Even in the depths of the green woods, 
they expected to find " mines of gold and silver and diamonds." 

6. They first fell in with the island of Monhegan, on the coast of 
Maine, but landed at the mouth of the Kennebec river, then called 
the Sagadahoc. They settled at Parker's Island, and built a fort on 
it, which was named Fort George. They brought with them two 
more of the five Indians taken away by Captain Weymouth ; and 
this procured them a welcome from all the Indian tribes. 

7. The Penobscot Indians were, at this time, the ruling tribe from 
Salem to Acadia, or Nova Scotia. Pleased with the new settlers, 
their chief acknowledged subjection to the English king, and sent 
his son to visit the colony, and opened a trade with them for furs. 
Happy had it proved, if the friendly intercourse thus begun on our 
coast, had been continued. 

8. In December, of this year, the ships returned to England ; 
forty-five of the adventurers remained behind. These, however, 
were soon discouraged. The winter was excessively severe, and 
not having brought over a very liberal supply of provisions, they 
were reduced to the necessity of living upon fish and very lean game, 
and finally upon dog's flesh. They returned to England with the next 
vessel, and gave up the colony. 

9. A strange story used to be told of these settlers by one of the 
Indian tribes residing on the Kennebec ; but it does not comport very 
well with other accounts of their pacific disposition. However, as 
it is quite possible the deed described may have been done to the 
Indians by somebody, it may be well to relate it. If true, we can- 
not wonder at their subsequent hatred and revenge. 

10. The English, it is said, employed the Indians, on one occa- 
sion, to draw one of their cannons into the fort, by taking hold, 
unitedly, of a long rope fastened to it. As soon as they were 
formed in a straight line, delighted with the sport, the cannon was 
discharged and a great part of the Indians were killed or wounded. 

11. In 1614, Captain John Smith, the South Virginia adventurer, 
sailed from England, with two ships, on a voyage of discovery, to 



pany ? 4. What was done in 1606 1 5. What of Captain Prynne? 6. What of the 
settlement in Maine ?- 7. The Penobscot Indians ? 8. What of the colony ? 9. 10. 
4* 



42 



FIRST SETTLERS OF NEW ENGLAND. 



the coasts of North Virginia. Arriving at Monhegan Island, in 
Maine, he built several boats, such as would better answer his pur- 
poses than larger vessels ; and, in one of these boats, with eight men, 
he traversed the whole coast from Penobscot to Cape Cod, and made 
many discoveries. 




Smith building boats in Maine. 



12. On his return to England he prepared a map of the whole 
coast, from Maine to Long Island Sound, most of which he had seen 
and observed during his journey. To many of the capes, points, 
islands, &c, of this region, he gave the names they now bear. The 
map was presented to the king's son, afterwards Charles I., who 
named the country, in general, New England. 

13. Captain Smith, on leaving the coast, had left one of his vessels 
to procure a cargo of fish for the Spanish market. But, Hunt, the 
commander, decoyed on board twenty-seven Indians, which he 
carried away and sold for slaves. This crime, no doubt, caused the 
death of thousands of unoffending mh, women and children. 



CHAPTER XXL 

The first settlers of JSeiv England. 

1. The first permanent settlement in New England was 'made 
in 1620 by a company of men, women and children, called Puritaprs. 
They were a pious and excellent people, but somewhat peculiaiMn 
their religious opinions and habits. 

What Btimnge story is told by the Indians ? 11. What of Captain Smith in 1614 ? 12. 
What did Smith do on his return? 13. What of Hunt, the commander of one of the 
vessels 1 



FIRST SETTLERS OF NEW ENGLAND. 



43 



2. The Puritans were desirous of a more pure worship of God 
than that of the national church of England, and, on this account, 
had separated themselves from that church, and thus became exposed 
to a religious persecution, which, in 1607, drove them, with their 
pastor, to Amsterdam, in Holland. 



3. This pastor was the Rev. John Robinson. Under his pious 
care they remained a year in Amsterdam, when they found it 
desirable to remove to Leyden. The flames of persecution con- 
tinuing to rage in England, they were joined by many of their 
countrymen, and the congregation became, in a few years, large 
and respectable. 

4. Yet they never felt themselves at home in Holland. They 
were strangers and sojourners there, and likely to remain so. Many 
were the reasons — some of them weighty — for refusing to settle 
down permanently among the Dutch. They were on the look-out, 
therefore, for a resting-place. 

5. Just at this time, in the good providence of God, an asylum 
opened to them in the wilds of America. In that untrodden country 
they could be free, as they imagined, from persecution and tyranny. 
There they could read their Bibles by their own firesides, undis- 
turbed, and worship God as their own conscience told them was right. 
They could also transmit to their children and grandchildren the 
same privileges. 

6. Having procured a vessel, the Speedwell, of sixty tons, they 
made preparations to depart for America. Before leaving Holland, 
however, they kept a day of fasting and prayer. They then went 
to Delfthaven, ahout twenty miles from Leyden, and thence to 
Southampton, in England, where they were joined by a company of 

XXI— 1. What of the Puritans? 2. W^t&fl some of them go to Amsterdam ? 3. 
Their pastor? Where did they remove to ? 4. Why did they not consider Holland as 
a home 1 5. What prospect opened to them ? Why did they like the idea of going to 




Mr. Robinson preaching in Holland. 



44 



FIRST SETTLERS OF NEW ENGLAND. 



their Puritan friends from London, in a vessel of one hundred and 
eighty tons, called the Mayflower. 

7. Their little fleet being in readiness, they set out August 15th, 
for America ; not however, till they had spent a parting hour with 
their friends, whose faces they were to see no more, in religious ser- 
vices. A little way out of port, the Speedwell sprung a leak and 
they were obliged to return for repairs. They sailed again, but 
again the vessel failed ; and it was at length condemned as unsea- 
worthy. 



The Mayflower at sea. 

8. One hundred and two of the puritans now crowded themselves 
into one vessel, the Mayflower, and made a final embarkation. This 
was September 16, 1620. The weather, as might have been feared 
at this season, proved unfavorable, and they were more than two 
months in reaching the shores of Cape Cod. 

9. It had been their intention to settle farther south, near the 
Hudson ; and with this view, they had procured a patent of the 
London Company. But winter was now nigh, Hudson's river far oft', 
and perilous shoals and breakers between. They therefore gave up 
their original plan and sought a landing place near where they were. 

10. On the 21st of November, sixty-six days after they left 
Southampton, they found themselves at anchor in Cape Cod harbor, 
near the present town of Truro ; having lost, during their long and 
perilous passage, but one man. 

11. Before landing, they formed, in the cabin of the Mayflower, 
a solemn compact for their future safety and government, which was 
signed by forty-one of the number — the rest being women and chil- 



America 1 6. What of the departure of the pilgrims 1 7. What of their progress? 
8. What of the Mayflower 1 9. What wa«? the design of the pilgrims ? What change 
of plan did they adopt ) 10. What occurred 21st November, 1620 ? 11. What did they 
do before landing ? 



THE PURITANS AT CAPE COD. 



dren — and John Carver was immediately chosen governor of the 
colony for one year. 



CHAPTER XXII. 
The Puritans at Cape Cod. 




Wading ashore. 



1. A government having been formed for their mutual well being- 
and preservation, they were now r ready to land and explore the 
country. The prospect was not very inviting, especially at such a 
season, but it was their only resource ; and sixteen men were 
deputed for the purpose. 

2. In their first attempts to go ashore, the water was so shallow 
they were obliged to wade a considerable distance, and many of them 
took severe colds, which, in some instances, appeared to lay the found- 
ation of what we usually term quick-consumption. They found 
nothing, moreover, on shore, but woods and sand hills. They had 
gone out armed, but had not been molested. 

3. The next day, November 22, was the Sabbath. On this day 
they rested, "according to the commandment" and their uniform 
custom. On Monday, the men went on shore to refresh themselves 
and make further discoveries ; and the women, attended by a guard, 
to wash some of the clothing. 

4. This same day, they also began to repair their shallop for the 
purpose of coasting, the Mayflower being too large and unwieldy 
for convenience. It was a slow task, however, for the carpenter did 



XXII.— 1. What of going ashore? 2. What happened to the party? 3. What 
occurred November 22 and 23 ? 4 . What of the shallop ? 5. What occurred on the 25th ? 



46 



THE PURITANS AT CAPE COD. 



not complete the necessary repairs till sixteen or seventeen days had 
elapsed, and winter was now at hand. 



5. On Wednesday, November 25, a party of sixteen men, com- 
manded by Captain Miles Standish, and well armed, went out to 
make discoveries. When about a mile from the sea they saw five 
Indians, who, at sight of their new visitors, immediately fled. Th( ; 
latter pursued them ten miles, but did not overtake them. They had 
gone so fat, however, that they were obliged to kindle afire and sleep 
in the woo, is. 

6. The next day they found several heaps of sand, one of which 
was covered with mats, and an earthern pot lay at one end of it. On 
digging, they found a box and arrows, upon which they concluded it 
was an Indian grave, and accordingly replaced everything as they had 
found it. 

7. In another place they found a large kettle, and near it another 
pile of sand, in which, on a close examination, was found a basket 
containing three or four bushels of Indian corn. 4i This providential 
discovery," says Holmes, in his Annals, " gave them seed for a future 
harvest, and preserved the infant colony from famine." 

8. One fact should be mentioned, which shows what sort of men 
these were. Though they took away the kettle and a part of the 
corn, it was with the firm intention to return the kettle if ever they 
found an owner, and pay for the corn ; and to their honor be it 
recorded that they actually found the owners afterwards and liberally 
paid them. 

9. In the course of the same day, they found more graves and the 



6. What did they find the next clay 7 7. What other things did they find ? What of 
corn? 8. Did the Purity as pay for the kettle and corn they took ? 9. What other 
things did the party find ? 10. The return of the party ?- The first child ? 




First sight of the Indians. 



• 



LANDING AT PLYMOUTH. 



47 



ruins of an Indian hut or house ; and in one place a number of pali- 
sadoes or stakes and posts, framed together like a wall. They also 
saw a trap for deer, in which one of the party was caught, though 
without much injury. 

10. After sleeping a second night in the woods, they returned to 
their companions who received them with great joy. It was about 
this time that the first white New England child was born. His 
name was Peregrine White, and he lived to be eighty-iour years old. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 
Laud'uig at Plymouth. 




The landing. 



1. It was the 16th of December, when the shallop was ready. 
Four of the principal men, with eight or ten seamen immediately 
set out on a tour of discovery. Snow had already fallen, and the 
weather was so severe that the spray of the sea, falling upon their 
coats, and freezing, made them look like coats of mail. They slept 
the first night on board the boat ; but the next morning the company 
divided, and part travelled by land. 

2. As they went on, they found an Indian burying-ground, sur- 
rounded by palisadoes, and many graven with stakes around them. 
But they saw no living person, nor any place suitable to be the 
habitation of living men. They met at night with their friends of 
the shallop ; but the whole party slept on shore by a fire. 

3. They rose at five next morning, but had scarcely finished their 
prayers, when the guard they had set, cried out, " Indians ! Indians !" 



XXIII.— 1. What happened on the 16th December 1 2. What of Indian graves, &c. ? 



4S 



LANDING AT "PLYMOUTH. 



and a shower of arrow s fell among them, accompanied by such yells as 
they had never before heard. They recovered, however, in a moment ; 
and now the Indians were as much terrified by the report of their 
guns as they had been by the war-whoop. They thought it thunder 
and lightning, and tied. 

4. The arrows were preserved as curiosities by the English, for they 
were the first they had seen. They were pointed with deer's horn 
and eagle's claws. Their assailants were of a tribe who remembered 
Hunt, the kidnapper of their people, and it was no wonder they 
sought revenge, or at least defence, against future molestations. 

5. The exploring party now went on board the shallop, which 
pursued its course along the northern shore of the Cape, towards 
Plymouth. They sought in vain for a convenient harbor, but no 
harbor was to be found. At last the pilot, who knew something of 
the coast, assured them that he knew of a good one far ahead, but 
which, with much exertion, might possibly be reached that night. 

6. "They follow his guidance. After sailing some hours, 
a storm of snow and rain begins. The sea swells ; the rudder 
breaks ; and the shallop must now be steered with oars. The storm 
increases, and night is at hand. To reach the harbor before dark, as 
much sail as possible is borne — the mast breaks into three pieces — 
the sail falls overboard. But the tide is favorable. 

7. " The pilot, in dismay, would have run the vessel on shore in 
a cove full of breakers. 1 About w T ith her,' exclaimed a sailor, ' or 
we are cast away.' They get her about immediately ; and, passing 
over the surf, they enter a fair sound, and shelter themselves under 
the lee of a small rise of land. 

8. 4 ; It is dark, and the rain beats furiously ; yet the men are so 
wet, and cold, and weak, that they slight the danger to be appre- 
hended from the savages, and, after great difficulty, kindle a fire on 
shore. Morning, as it dawned, showed the place to be a small island 
within the entrance of a harbor.'' Such is the striking account of 
this part of the adventure, given by Bancroft. 

9. The day which had dawned was Saturday. They not onlv 
spent it in quiet rest, but also the following day. It is wonderful to 
think what pious regard these Puritans had for the Sabbath. Though 
their friends on board the Mayflower were waiting in suspense, and 
everything required the utmost haste, they would not travel on Sun- 
day if they could help it. 

10. When the Sabbath was over, and they had examined the 
country, they determined to make it the place of their settlement. 
They were particularly pleased with its pleasant brooks and woods, 
and excellent land. The soil of both the main land and two islands 
adjacent was covered with walnut, beech, pine and sassafras ; and 
they also saw numerous corn-fields. It was December 21, when they 
made the landing ; and this is the day which should be kept as the 
anniversary. 

11. They proceeded to convey the welcome intelligence to their 

3. Indians? 4. Arrows? 5,6, 7,8. What account dors Bancroft give ?- 9. What of 
Saturday, Sunday, and Monday following ? H>. Why did they return to settle in thu 
place tkiay had found .- II. What of the Landing. 



SETTLEMENT OF PLYMOUTH. 



49 



friends on board the ship, which forthwith came to the spot fixed 
upon. On the 30th of December, after landing and viewing the 
place again, they concluded to settle upon the main land on the high 
ground, amid the corn-fields. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 
Settlement of Plymouth. — Two men get lost in the woods. 

1. The next day after the Puritans landed at Plymouth, they 
began to cut timber for building, and in a few days to erect cot- 
tages, or, as we should say, log-houses. They continued at this 
work, whenever the weather would admit, till about the first of 
March, by which time they had formed quite a village. 

2. The colony consisted of nineteen families. Each family, for 
the sake of expedition, had built its own cottage ; but they all united 
in the erection of a store-house, twenty feet square, for general use 
and convenience. They called the place Plymouth, after the place 
of the same name they had left behind them in their native 
country. 

3. The first Sabbath after they landed was observed with unusual 
solemnity. Some kept it on board the Mayflower, and others in 
their new houses — which being made, as has already been said, of 
logs, very soon assumed shape, and afforded them a partial shelter. 

4. On the twelfth of January, 1621, three weeks after their 
arrival, Goodman and Brown, two of the party, walked into the 
woods to collect something for stopping the crevices between the 
logs of their houses. They lost their way, and w T ere obliged to sleep 
in the woods, although it snowed furiously and was very cold. 

5. But this was not all. About midnight they heard a strange 
howling in the woods around them. At first it appeared to be a 
good way off, but it gradually came nearer. They imagined it to 
proceed from lions, and were excessively frightened. They were as 
little used to wolves as they were to Indians. 

6. In their alarm they sought a tree which they could ascend in a 
moment, should the danger become imminent, and walked round the 
tree ready to leap upon it. It would have been a cold lodging-place 
in the middle of winter and in a severe snow-storm ; and though it 
might have saved them from the wolves, they would, probably, have 
frozen to death . 

7. Fortunately, however, they did not lose their lives, though the 
morning found them faint with hunger and cold, and Goodman's feet 
were so frozen that his friends were obliged to cut off his shoes. 
Their being compelled to walk around the tree all night, tedious and 
distressing as it had been to them, doubtless saved their lives. 

XXIV. — 1. What did the Puritans do after landing ? 2. How many families did the 
colony consist of? What did they erect? Why did they call the place Plymouth? 
3. What of the first Sabbath after their landing? 4—7. What happened to Goodman and 
Brown I 

5 



50 



SUFFERINGS OF THE COLONICS. 



CHAPTER XXV. 



Sufferings of the colonists. 




Winter. 



1. The winter of 1620-21, as we have already seen, was un- 
usually severe, even for a severe climate. The beginning of March 
brought a south wind and warm weather ; and the birds began to 
sing in the woods most merrily. The green grass also began to 
appear, hastened by the vernal sun and warm showers. 

2. But the colonists did not all live to see the return of spring and 
summer. Their sufferings had been so great, especially after their 
arrival on the coast, that, as one historian testifies, about half of 
them were wasting away with consumptions and lung fevers. Be- 
sides this, their labor in erecting their cottages was exceedingly 
severe. 

3. Of the one hundred and one persons who landed, by the first 
of April all but forty-six of their number w r ere dead, including 
among them Mr. Carver, the governor, his wife, and a son. The 
living had hardly been able to bury the dead. Nor had the healthy 
been able, at all times, to take care of the sick ; for at one period 
there were only seven persons who called themselves well, in the 
whole colony. 

4. Happy for them was it, that, in the arrangements of Divine 
Providence, spring came on thus early and favorably, and with it, to 
those who survived, returning health and vigor. It is worthy, too, 
of remark, that of those who survived the sorrows and dangers of 
this terrible winter, the far greater part lived to an extreme old 
age. 



XXV.— 1. What of the winter? March? 2,3. What of dcath3 and sufferings! 



SUFFERINGS OF THE COLONISTS. 51 

5. But new distresses were in reserve for them. The provisions 
they had brought out from England, together with what they could 
raise and procure afterward, were but just sufficient to sustain them 
through the next w r inter and until a second crop of corn could be 
had. Yet, in November, 1621, a ship, with thirt3/-hve emigrants, 
arrived, wholly out of provisions, and dependent on the colonists. 

6. This reduced them to half allowance for six months, and a part 
of the time to still greater extremities ; for it is said that for two 
months they went without bread. "I have seen men stagger,'' 
says Winslow, who was one of their number, "by reason of faint- 
ness for want of food." Sometimes they depended on fish ; at others 
they bought provisions, at enormous prices, of ships that came upon 
the coast. 

7. Nor did their sufferings very soon end. As late as 16*23, their 
provisions were at times so nearly exhausted that they knew not at 
night what they should eat next morning. The story that in one 
instance they had only a pint of corn on the settlement, which, on 
being divided, gave them but five kernels each, would seem to fall 
short of the truth ; for there were months together when they had 
no corn or grain at all. 

8. Milk, as yet, they had not, for neat cattle were not introduced 
among them till the fourth year of their settlement. When any of 
their old friends, from England, arrived to join them, a lobster or a 
piece of fish, with a cup of water, was often the best dish which the 
richest of them could furnish. 

9. Yet, during all these trials — from hunger, fatigue, sickness, 
loss of friends and many other sources, their confidence in God never 
once forsook them. Their sufferings even bound them together as 
by a closer chain, and while they loved one another better than 
before, their love of God was increased in the same proportion. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

Treaty with the Indians. 

1. In March, 1621, just before Governor Carver's death, an Indian 
chief, by the name of Samoset, arrived at the village. He had seen 
some of the English fishermen at Penobscot, and learned a little 
broken English, and his first words to those he met with, on enter- 
ing the town, were, " Welcome, Englishmen !" This dispelled their 
fears, and gave them courage to enter into conversation with him. 

2. Samoset was naked, except a leathern belt about his waist, 
with a wide fringe. He was tall, straight, and strong ; his hair 
long behind and short before, and he had no beard. He had with 



4. Spring ? 5, 6. What did they suffer during the year ? 7. What of the want of corn 
and bread? 8. What of milk'/ What did they set before their friends?. 9. How did 
the Pilgrims bear their trials 1 What effect did these produce ? 
XXVI.— 1. What of Samn.?et ? 2. Hu3 dress? 3. How was he received? 4. What 



52 



TREATY WITH THE INDIANS. 



him a bow and arrows — the usual weapons of war used by his 
countrymen. 

3. The settlers received him kindly, entertained hini as well as 
they were able, and lodged him for the night. In the morning they 
gave him a horseman's coat, a knife, a bracelet, and a ring ; upon 
which he departed, promising to make them another visit in a few 
days. He was a kind of under sachem or chief of the great tribe of 
the Wampanoags. 

4. He came to them again, in a few days, according to his promise, 
and brought rive more Indians with him. They sang and danced 
before the settlers, in the most familiar and friendly manner, and 
parted in the same amicable way as before. 

5. Shortly afterward other Indians came to the village, and said 
that Massasoit, the great chief of all the tribes in the south-eastern 
part of Massachusetts, was near by. He soon made his appearance 
on the top of a hill, with sixty of his men. The Englishmen were 
at first afraid of such a body of savages : for their whole number, 
men, women and children, did not exceed rifty. 

6. Mr. Winslow was sent out to make a treaty with them. He 
carried Massasoit two knives and a copper chain with a jewel in it ; 
and to his brother, Quadapina, he gave a knife, a jewel for his ear, 
some biscuit and butter, and a pot of " strong water/" or ardent 
spirits. Mr. Winslow satisfied the two chiefs and invited them to 
the village. 



7. They accepted the invitation, and, with twenty of their men, 
came to the village to see Governor Carver. To convince the 
villagers that they were friendly, they left their bows and arrows 
behind them on the hill. Mr. Winslow, on the other hand, to make 



of more Indian*? 5. Massai-oit ? 6 Mr. Win-low? 7. What took place when the 




. - ! I HP? 

Massasoit making a treaty. 



TREATY WITH THE INDIANS. 



53 



the Indians sure their companions should not be hurt by the 
" thunder and lightning- " of the villagers, staid on the hill. 

8. A great deal of parade was made by the governor, in receiving 
them. His soldiers met them at the foot of the hill, and, with drums 
and trumpets sounding, conducted them to his house, where, after 
Governor Carver and Massasoit had kissed each other's hands, 
they sat down on a green rug which was spread for them. 

9. The Indians, like all ignorant or savage people, were greatly 
delighted with these attentions. Food was set before them, and 
" strong water" was given to the king; of which, it is said, he 
drank so freely that it made him " sweat all the while." A treaty 
was made, which was kept faithfully fifty years. 

10. It was this same Massasoit that taught the English to cultivate 
maize or Indian corn ; the first of which was planted in the May 
following. Through his influence, moreover, nine smaller chiefs, 
who had before been suspicious of the English — partly, no doubt, 
because they had stolen their countrymen — subscribed, as he had 
done, a treaty of peace. 

11. The English had an opportunity, soon after this, of returning 
the favors of Massasoit and Samoset. The Narragansets, a power- 
ful tribe of Rhode Island Indians, made war upon Massasoit. After 
there had been a good deal of hard fighting, the English interfered in 
behalf of Massasoit, and the Narragansets were glad to make 
peace. 

12. It was not long after this time that the first duel was fought 
in New England. It was between two servants, with sword and 
dagger. They were tried for their crime by the whole colony, and 
sentenced to be tied together, neck and heels, for twenty-four hours, 
without food or drink. A part of the punishment, however, was, in 
the end, remitted. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 
Drought in the Colony, 

1. Governor Carver had died about the end of March, 1621, 
and Mr. Bradford, afterward the historian of the province, had suc- 
ceeded him. Governor Bradford was much loved and revered for 
his public spirit, wisdom, and piety, and was continued in his office 
nearly the whole time till his death, or about forty years. 

2. The corn this year proved to be abundant and excellent. Their 
summer grain was not so good. But they found plenty of ducks 
and other wild fowl, as well as fish, and these were of great service 
to them in the way of food. Still, they sometimes suffered, as we 
have already seen. 

Indians came to the village ? 8. What did Governor Carver do ? 9. How were the 
Indians pleased ? "What of the treaty? 10. What more of Massasoit ? 11. The Nar- 
ragansets ? 12. The first duel in New England ? 
XXVII.— 1. Governor Carver? Governor Bradford? 2. Corn and grain in 1621? 



54 DROUGHT IN THE COLONY. 

3. About this time Canonicus, sachem of the Narragansets, for- 
getting or disregarding the treaty he had made, sent to the Plymouth 
people a bundle of arrows tied up with a serpent's skin, which was 
the sign of war. Governor Bradford returned the skin, wrapped 
round some powder and ball. The Indians were so frightened that 
they dared not touch it. They sent it back again, and gave up the 
war. 




Indian declaration of war. 



4. The English, however, from the circumstance, took the hint, 
and began to fortify their settlement. It had. from the first, been 
laid out into streets and lots. They now surrounded the whole 
with a wall, called a stockade. Their guns were mounted on a kind 
of tower, built on the top of the town hill, with a fiat roof — the lower 
story serving- them for a church. 

5. As a further preparation to defend themselves, should there be 
an invasion, the men and boys of the settlement were divided into 
four squadrons, which alternately kept guard night and day. Cap- 
lain Miles Standish, an excellent young man, and as brave as he was 
excellent, was made the commander-in-chief. 

6. The harvest of 16"2*2, owing to a drought, was scanty, and the 
colonists were obliged to buy food of the Indians. Governor Brad- 
ford travelled among them for this purpose, and Squanto, a friendly 
Indian, accompanied him. They procured twenty-eight hogsheads 
of corn, for which they paid in knives, blankets, beads, &c. Squanto 
sickened and died while on this tour. When dying, he asked 
Governor Bradford to pray that he " might go to the Englishman's 
heaven." 

7. But Squanto, anxious as he was to " die the death of the righ- 
teous," was, in life, more artful and cunning than honest. Still, it 

3. Canonicus ? 4. Why did the colonists fortify their settlement 7 How did they do this ? 
5. What of Captain Miles Standish ? 6. The harvest of 1622 ? Governor Bradford 7 
Squanto? 7. Character of Squanto ? 8. How did they hold their property till 162:1? 



DROUGHT IN THE COLONY. 



55 



is not to be denied that he employed his cunning in favor of the 
English. The Indians dreaded him as a sort of conjurer ; and he took 
advantage of their fear of him, to impose upon them, by relating to 
them great stories about the military skill and power of the English. 

8. Up to the spring of 1623, the Plymouth colonists had labored 
in common. But some of them, as it had been at Jamestown, would 
in this way be idle. It was at length ordered that every family 
should work by itself, and should be furnished with land in propor- 
tion to its numbers. On this plan the idlers soon disappeared. Even 
the women and children went to work in the field. 

9. The next year land was assigned them to be theirs forever. 
From this time forth there was no instance in the colony of a gene- 
ral scarcity of food. Indeed, before many summers had passed away, 
they had corn to sell to the Indians, in greater abundance than the 
latter had ever sold to them. 

10. In the progress of the year 1624, new emigrants came over, 
" and brought with them cattle, with a few swine and some poultry, 

also clothing and provisions. The colony now contained 32 houses, 
and 180 inhabitants. Their fields and gardens began to assume a 
pleasing and rather a cheerful appearance. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 



The Virginia Massacre. 




Indians 'plotting the massacre. 



1. Sir Thomas Wyatt, had, in 1621, become the governor of 
Virginia. He pursued the same general course in regard to the 



What was the effect of this system ?- 9. What effect did a distribution have % 
10. What of cattle ? State of the colony in 1624 ? 



56 



THE VIRGINIA MASSACRE. 



savages which his predecessors had pursued — a course hy no means 
fortunate. Still the country was beginning to be somewhat pros- 
perous. There were already some 80 settlements, including a 
population of about 3000. 

2. After the marriage of Rolfe and Pocahontas, the Indians had 
lived at peace with the English for some time. But Powhatan, al- 
ready a very old man, had survived his daughter but one year, and 
Opeehancanough, his brother, who mortally hated the English, had, 
in 1618, succeeded him. A plan was therefore laid, in 1622, to 
destroy them. 

3. This plan required a good deal of contrivance on the part of the 
Indians, for the settlers were scattered along both sides of the James 
river, for nearly 150 miles, and the Indians lived almost as much 
scattered. It is thought that, in the more thickly settled parts of 
the country, the Indian population did not average more that one to 
a square mile. 

4. But Opechancanough took time enough for his plot, and per- 
severed till he had brought all his people to unite with him in putting 
it in execution. And though years may have elapsed from the time 
the plot began, the most entire secrecy was maintained among them 
to the very night before they struck the blow. 

5. Indeed, on the very morning of the day appointed for the execu- 
tion of the bloody deed, some of the Indians were " in the houses and 
at the tables of those whose death they were plotting." " Sooner," 
said they, " shall the sky fall than peace be violated on our part." 
But their deceit in war was not so well understood, 200 years ago, 
as now. 

6. The night before the massacre took place, however, the plot 
was revealed by a converted Indian, to a part of the English, so that 
Jamestown and a few of the adjacent settlements were on their guard, 
and a large part of the people was thereby saved. 

7. The attack was made precisely at noon, March 22d, and was 
made upon all, without regard to age, character or sex. The feeble 
and sickly, no less than the healthy ; the child at the breast, as well 
as its mother ; the devoted missionary as well as the fraudulent 
dealer in trinkets and furs — were alike victims. 

8. It is not a little singular that the savages should have selected 
such an hour of the day, in preference to the darkness of the night, 
for their work of butchery, and still that the blow should have been 
struck so suddenly. Yet thus it was. So unexpected was the toma- 
hawk turned against them, that many, it is said, never knew what 
killed them. 

9. Thus, in one short but awful hour, 347 persons, in a population 
of 3000 or 4000, were butchered, and a group of 80 settlements re- 
duced to 8, and the rest so frightened that they dared not pursue 
their usual avocations. Even the public works, in most places, were 

XXVIII.— 1. What of Sir Thomas Wyatt ? State of the Virginia settlement in 1621 ? 
2. What of Powhatan and Opeohancanouirh ? What plot was laid? 3. Situation of the 
settlers? Of the Indians? Their population ? 4. Proceedings of Opeehancanough ? 
Secrecy of the Indians ? 5. What of the savage.-- on the day appointed for the massacre 1 
6. What took place the night before the massacre ? 7. What of the attack? Who 
were the victims? 8. What was singular? WTiat of the suddenness of the attack? 



SETTLEMENTS ON MASSACHUSETTS BAY. 



57 



abandoned. And to add to the general distress, famine and sick- 
ness followed the massacre, as well as a general war with the In- 
dians. 

10. The Indians, however, were but poorly provided with fire- 
arms, and a dozen, or even half a dozen white men, well armed, were 
able to cope with a hundred of them. When Smith was captured, he 
was defending himself, single-handed, till he stuck fast in the mire, 
against from one to two hundred Indians. 

11. Peace, it is true, was finally made ; but it was only a peace of 
compulsion, so far as the Indians were concerned. They gave up 
open war, because the colonists came over too fast, and were too 
strong for them. They still meditated revenge, as is obvious from 
the fact that only twenty-two years elapsed before they attempted 
another outrage. 

12. The 18th of April, 1644, was the time appointed for this second 
massacre, in which not only the settlers were aimed at, but their 
cattle and their other property. The attack was sudden and unex- 
pected, like the former. Providentially the savages took fright, from 
some unknown cause, and fled in the midst of their cruelties, not how- 
ever till they had slain 300 persons and destroyed much property. 

13. This second massacre, as well as the first, was succeeded by 
sickness and suffering, and both of them by emigration to New Eng- 
land and the return of some to the mother country. Not long after 
the second massacre, the aged chief, Opechancanough, died of a 
wound inflicted by a soldier, after he had fairly and honorably given 
himself up as a prisoner. . 



CHAPTER XXIX. 
Settlements on Massachusetts Bay. 

1. A settlement was begun at Weymouth, in 1622, by Thomas 
Weston, a merchant of London, and 50 or 60 more. The next year 
a plot was laid by the Indians to destroy it, which would no doubt 
have succeeded, had not Massasoit, the friendly chief, who supposed 
himself to be about to die, revealed it. 

2. As soon as the plot was known, it was decided to break it up 
if possible, lest the conspirators, if successful, should carry their 
work of butchery into the rest of the settlements. Captain Stan dish, 
with eight men, was therefore sent out to destroy the leaders in the 
conspiracy, and put the rest in fear. 

3. This was a most singular expedition, and one which to us, at 
the present day, seems almost incredible. What could nine men do 



9. How many persons were killed ? How were the settlements reduced ? Fears of the 
settlers 7 10. Comparative power of the whites and Indians ? Smith, when captured ? 
11. State'of feeling among the savages ? 12. What of the second massacre ? 13. What 
followed the massacres in Virginia ? Opechancanough ? 
XXJX.M. What of Wevmouth, in New England ? 2, 3. What did Captain Standish 



5S 



NEW IJAMPSHIRE. 



in the way of chastising a whole tribe, as it were, of Indians? Yet 
Captain Standish and his men ventured boldly among them, slew 
the conspirators and several others who opposed them, and drove the 
rest into the swamps, where many, it is said, perished from disease. 

4. A settlement was begun at Braintree, in 1625, on a hill not far 
from the seat of the Presidents Adams, and was called, in honor of 
Mr. Wollaston, the principal settler, Mount Wollaston. But the 
colonists were fifty servants, and it did not thrive. The following 
year a part of them were transported to Virgina. A settlement was 
begun, in 1624, at or near Gloucester, on Cape Ann. 

5. The same individuals, who settled Gloucester, proceeded soon 
after to settle Salem, Charlestown, Dorchester, Watertown, Rox- 
bury, and Boston. Among the number were several ministers of 
the gospel, and a Mr. John Endicot, afterward Governor Endicot. 

6. Salem, called by the Indians Naumkeag, was begun in 1628, 
by Mr. Endicot and about one hundred emigrants. They were 
reinforced the next year by three hundred or four hundred other emi- 
grants, w 7 ho brought with them one hundred and fortv head of cattle, 
and a few horses, sheep and goats. Two hundred of the Salem 
settlers proceeded, soon afterward, to Charlestown, and others to 
Dorchester and elsewhere. 

7. These various settlements were incorporated, in 1629, under the 
name of 11 The Colony of Massachusetts Bay," and extended as far 
north as the present boundary of New Hampshire. A form of gov- 
ernment was projected by their friends in England, and Matthew 
Cradock appointed governor : but he was succeeded, soon after, by 
John Endicot. 

8. A circumstance took place in 1628, which deserves to be re- 
corded and remembered. One Morton, a man greedy of gain, who 
came over to Weymouth with Captain Wollaston, sold guns, powder 
and shot to the Indians, and taught them how to use them. He was 
rebuked by Governor Endicot and others, but to no purpose. At last 
he was seized and sent to England, but not till he had done a work 
of mischief for which a long life could not atone. 



CHAPTER XXX. 

New Hampshire. 

1 . The first permanent settlement of New r Hampshire was made 
in the year 1623, on the Piscataqua river, not far from the place 
where Portsmouth now 7 stands. The first house built w r as called 
Mason Hall, in honor of John Mason, who, with Ferdinando Gorges, 
set on foot the enterprise and afterward procured a patent of the ter- 



and eight soldiers do ? 4. Braintree 1 5. What other towns were now settled ? 6. 
i^falem ? 7. What of the colony of Massachusetts Bay ! S. What of one Morton ? 
XXX — 1. When and where whi the first permanent settlement made in New Hamp- 



NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



o9 



ritory. He was the same Captain Mason who afterward commanded 
in the Pequod war. 

2. The place where they settled was called Little Harbor. It 
has often been mistaken for Portsmouth ; but this town was not 
settled till eight years afterward, and was two miles farther up the 
river, at a place called Strawberry Bank. Some parts of the wall 
and chimney of Mason Hall were standing till about half a century 
ago. 




First settlement in New Hampshire. 



3. Other places in New Hampshire were settled the same year, 
especially Cochecho, afterw-ard called Dover. But the progress of 
the colony was slow. It was not separated from Massachusetts till 
1680, and, as late as 1742, only contained six thousand persons 
liable to taxation. It suffered much from the Indian wars. 

4. The first legislative assembly convened in New Hampshire in 
1680 ; and John Mason was the first governor. A constitution was 
formed for the state in 1783, and went into operation the next year. 
This year is remarkable for an earthquake, which shook even the 
granite mountains of New Hampshire itself. It was felt as far south 
as Pennsylvania. 

5. There was an insurrection here in 1786, excited and led on by 
the insurrection in Massachusetts of the same period. On the 
twentieth of September, a body of two hundred men surrounded the 
court-house at Exeter, in which the general assembly were sitting, 
and held them prisoners for several hours. Other acts of violence 



shire ? What of the first house ?- What of Captain Mason ? 2. Portsmouth ? Re- 
mains of Mason Hall ? 3. Other settlements in New Hampshire ? Progress of the 
settlement? Separation from Massachusetts? Population in 1742 ? Indian wars? 
i. First legislation in New Hampshire? Constitution? Earthquake? 5. Insurrec- 
tion ? Characteristics of New Hampshire ? 6. The White Mountains ? 



60 



GOVERNMENT OF THE COLONIES. 



were also committed. There was, for a time, every appearance of 
a civil war. The insurrection was only quieted by calling out the 
militia. 

6. New Hampshire has been in general a peaceable and quiet 
state ; it is distinguished for its excellent pastures, and towering hills, 
and fine cattle. The White Mountains lift their lofty peaks in this 
state, and they may be seen at sea at a vast distance. They are 
the highest mountains in New England. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

Government of the colonies. 




Board of London. 



1. The agreement of the settlers at Plymouth, just before they 
landed, has been mentioned, as well as the names of some of their 
early governors. For four years the governor of the colony had no 
other counsellors or assistance in his office than what was afforded 
by one individual. In 1621, the number of assistants was increased 
to five. 

2. The lands had at first belonged to the Plymouth Company, but, 
in 1627, the colony purchased them for eighteen hundred pounds ; 
for which they received a patent, with ample powers of government. 
Seven assistants to the governor now became the order of the day. 
This was continued till 1639, when deputies or representatives of 



XXXI.— 1. "What assistant or council had the governor of the Plymouth Colony 
the first four years % How was their number increased in 1624 ? 2. What of the lands ? 



GOVERNMENT OF THE COLONIES. 



61 



the people began, for the first time, to have a voice in the govern- 
ment. 

3. The object of the first settlers of the colony of Massachusetts 
Bay, like that of the colonists at Plymouth, was to escape that per- 
secution to which they were exposed in England, and to enjoy the 
blessed privilege of worshipping God according to the dictates ot 
their own consciences. The settlers of both colonies were, for the 
most part, Puritans. * 

4. At first the government of the colony at Massachusetts Bay 
had been, to all intents and purposes, transacted in London. But in 
August, 1629, the Company very wisely concluded to transfer the 
government from London to Massachusetts ; and for this purpose 
proceeded to the choice of a new board of officers. 

5. In virtue of this arrangement John Winthrop was chosen 
governor, and Thomas Dudley deputy governor. They came over 
in June, 1630, with a fleet of eleven ships, and more than eight 
hundred emigrants, at an expense of one hundred thousand dollars. 
Seven hundred more emigrants are said to have come over the same 
year. 

6. Governor Winthrop and his associates brought with them a 
charter for the colony, which, among other things, empowered them 
to elect their own officers. They held this charter about sixty years, 
or till the union of the colonies of Massachusetts and Plymouth — an 
event which took place in the year 1691. 

7. Under the charter which has been mentioned, the legislature 
of the colony consisted of a governor, deputy governor, and eighteen 
assistants, to be elected annually by the freemen, and to constitute 
as it were an upper house or senate ; and of the general body of the 
freemen themselves. They met four times a year, and oftener if 
found necessary. 

8. The first legislative assembly, or general court, as it was called, 
met at Boston, October 19, 1630. Upwards of one hundred persons 
were made freemen. At the general court, in May, 1631, the num- 
ber of freemen had increased to about one hundred and fifty. 

9. The population did not increase at this time so rapidly as it 
had a little while before. Only three hundred and forty persons 
came over in the space of two whole years. They were probably 
deterred by sickness ; for during the single winter of 1629 more than 
two hundred of the Massachusetts settlers died. Such was the 
terror inspired by sickness and other causes that about one hundred 
returned to England. 

10. Nor was this all. Their dwellings, and perhaps their clothing, 
were insufficient for the climate. The winter of 1631 was one of 



The government of the colony from 1627? 3. Object of the settlers of Plymouth and 
Massachusetts Bay ? What were they, mostly ? 4. What of the government of Massa- 
chusetts Bay before 1629 ? What change then took place ? 5. What of John Win- 
throp ? What of emigrants in 1630 ) 6. What of a charter ? When were the colonies 
of Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth united ? 7. What was the government of Massa- 
chusetts Bay under the charter ? 8. When and where did the first general court meet ? 
Number of freemen in 1631 ? 9. What of the increase of the colony? Sickness in 



62 



SETTLEMENT OF MARYLAND. 



unusual severity even for a severe climate, and some were actually 
frozen to death. Famine followed the sickness. Not a few were 
compelled to live on shell-fish, ground-nuts and acorns. The gov- 
ernor himself, at one time, had " his last corn in the oven/' 

11. A day of fasting and prayer for the colony was appointed 
February 6, 1632 ; but on the 5th, a ship arrived from England, well 
laden with provisions. The day of fasting was changed to a day 
of thanksgiving — the first of the kind ever kept in the 1 nited States. 

12. It is worthy of being remembered that the custom of drinking 
healths at ordinary meals, which prevailed at this time in England, 
and had found its way to America, was early abolished in the colo- 
nies ; Governor Winthrop setting the example of self-denial at his 
own table, and urging it among his people. 

13. The first churches in Boston and Charlestown were founded 
in the summer of 1630, after a solemn fa*t. At the close of another 
fast, in August of the same year, a minister was installed. For two 

• or three of the first years of the colony, none but members of the 
church were allowed to vote in the general court or assembly. 



CHAPTER XXXII. 
Settlement of Maryland. 




Lord Baltimore. 



1. The settlement of Maryland was owing to the exertions of Sir 
George Calvert, a Catholic, afterwards called Lord Baltimore. He 



1629? Return of settlers to England ? 10. What of the winter of 1631 ? 11. Fast- 
in j? Arrival of a ship 7 The first thanksgiving i l5L Drinking healths 1 13. First 
churches I Who were the voters during the first years of the setusment 



SETTLEMENT OF MARYLAND. 



83 



had been a secretary of state under king James, and was made a 
lord on account of his services to the crown — one of which services, 
it is said, consisted in bringing about a marriage between the king's 
son and a Spanish princess. 

2. Lord Baltimore visited America in 1632, and having explored 
a tract of country lying on the Chesapeake Bay, belonging to what 
was then called South Virginia, he returned to England to procure 
a patent of it from the king. Before the patent was made out, he 
died, and it was given to his son Cecil. 

3. The province was named Maryland, by King Charles L, in the 
patent, in honor of his queen, Henrietta Maria, daughter of the king 
of France. A part of the province appears to have been included in 
the grant made some time afterward to William Penn, and to have 
given rise to much contention between the successors of Penn and 
Baltimore. 

4. In March, 1634, Leonard Calvert, the brother of Cecil, with 200 
emigrants, most of them Roman Catholic gentlemen, with their ser- 
vants, arrived at the mouth of the Potomac river, and leaving the 
vessel, ascended in a pinnace as far as Piscataqua, an Indian vil- 
lage, nearly opposite Mount Vernon. 

5. The sachem of Piscataqua gave Calvert full liberty to settle 
there if he chose, but, not deeming it on the whole safe, he began a 
settlement lower down, on a branch of the Potomac, at the Indian 
town of Yoacomoco. The settlement was called St. Mary's. 

6. To gain the good will of the Indians, Calvert made them pres- 
ents of clothes, axes, hoes, and knives. Their friendship was easily 
secured ; and their women, in return for the kindnesses of the English, 
taught them how to make corn bread. This, perhaps, was the first 
knowledge which the settlers had of t; hoe-cake" or johnny-cake. 

7. This colony of Maryland met with few of the troubles which 
had been experienced by its sister colonies. They arrived in season 
to cultivate the soil for that year, and the seasons for several of the 
succeeding years were all favorable. They had the Virginians, 
moreover, for next-door neighbors, who furnished them with cattle 
and many other necessaries, as well as, in effect, protected them from 
the Indians. In addition to all which, they enjoyed good health. 

8. In February, 1635, in less than one year from the date of the 
settlement, the freemen of the colony assembled to make the neces- 
sary laws. Their charter was exceedingly liberal. They were 
allowed the full power of legislation without the reserved privilege 
on the part of the crown to revoke or alter their acts. The govern- 
ment underwent some changes in 1639 ; and, in 1650, they had an 
upper and lower house in the legislature, like their neighbors. 

9. Ten or twelve years of peace having passed away,' a rebellion 
broke out in Maryland, headed by one Clayborne. Having formed a 



XXXII,— 1 . What of Lord Baltimore ? 2. What of his visit to America ? His death ? 
3. Name of Maryland ? What occasioned much contention ? 4. What took place in 
1624 ? 5. What of the sachem of Piscataqua ? What of the settlements 1 6. What of 
Calvert and the Indians ? Hoe-cake ? 7. In what respects did the Maryland settlers 
have advantage over the other colonists ? 8. What of the government of the colony ? 
9, Wtatf of Clayborne? 



64 



SETTLE3IENT OF CONNECTICUT. 



little colony before the arrival of Calvert, he refused to submit to his 
authority. Convicted, at length, of murder and other crimes, he fled 
from the province, but returned with a large mob and broke up the 
government. Order, however, was in a little time restored, and 
things again went on prosperously. 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 



Settlement of Connecticut. 




People going to settle in Connecticut. 



1. As early as 1631, an Indian sachem came from the valley of 
the Connecticut river to Boston and Plymouth, and urged the two 
governors to make settlements there. The soil, he said, was ex- 
ceeding rich ; in addition to which he offered them a yearly supply 
of corn and eighty beaver skins. He was treated with great kindness, 
but no steps were immediately taken to form a settlement. 

2. Sometime afterward, Governor Win slow, of Plymouth, made a 
tour to the valley of the Connecticut, and came back so well pleased 
with the country that preparations were soon made for establishing 
a trading-house there. But the Dutch of Manhattan, having heard 
of the plan, immediately proceeded to erect a fort there. This was 
in 1633. 

3. The movements of the Dutch did not at all intimidate the Ply- 
mouth people. Having got ready the frame of a house, they sailed for 
the Connecticut river. When they came opposite the Dutch fort — 



XXXIII.— 1. What of an Indian sachem in 1631? 2. Governor Winslow ? The Dutch? 

3. What of the Dutch and Plymouth people ? 4. Where did the emigrants land ? What 



SETTLEMENT OF CONNECTICUT. 



Go 



the spot where Hartford row stands — the Dutch forhade their pro- 
ceeding any farther, on penalty of being fired upon. They did not 
regard this, however, but proceeded up the river. 

4. They landed on the west side of the river, where Farming- 
ton river empties in, and laid the foundation of Windsor. The 
Dutch, with a band of 70 men, attempted to drive them away in 1631, 
but did not succeed. Thus was a foot-hold gained in Connecticut. 

5. Wethersfield and Hartford were settled in 1635, by a company of 
emigrants from Newton and Watertown, near Boston. It consisted 
of men, women and children, to the number of 60, with their cattle 
and horses. They left home on the 25th of October, and were a 
fortnight on the road, wading through rivers and swamps, and trav- 
ersing hills and mountains. 

6. But they had begun the journey too late in the season. The 
winter came upon them in their new residence, before they were pre- 
pared for it, and the snow was very deep. They had sent their 
goods and provisions by water, but the vessel did not arrive, and was 
supposed to be cast away. This produced a famine among them, at 
once. 

7. In this dreadful condition, they became quite discouraged, and 
some of them desperate. Fourteen of the number set out to return 
to Boston by the way in which they came ; but one was drowned in 
crossing the river. The rest would have perished on the road, had 
they not been relieved by the Indians. A great many of them re- 
turned by water. 

8. It is difficult to say which suffered most, those who went away 
or those who remained. They received a little of the promised aid 
from the Indians, but their fare was at times scanty — little more than 
acorns and grain. A part of their cattle subsisted by browsing on 
what they could find in the woods and meadows. 

9. The Plymouth Company in England had, in 1631, given to 
Lords Say and Seel and Lord Brook, a patent of the lands lying about 
the mouth of the Connecticut river. In 1635, a son of Governor Win- 
throp, of Massachusetts, with 20 men, built a fort there, which he 
called Saybrook, and became the governor of it. The Dutch tried 
to drive him away, but without effect. 

10. In June, 1636, 100 emigrants from Dorchester and Water- 
town, accompanied by two ministers of the gospel, Mr. Hooker and 
Mr. Stone, crossed the mountains, swamps, and rivers, to Connecti- 
cut. They journeyed on foot, and drove 160 head of cattle ; subsist- 
ing chiefly during the journey on milk. They were a fortnight on 
the road. They settled at Hartford, which they called Newtown. 

11. As they passed along, the woods resounded with their songs 
and hymns and prayers, and with the lowing of their kine. The}' 
had no guide but a compass, and Him who guarded the host of Is- 



did the Dutch of Hartford attempt to do ? 5. What of the settlement of Wethersfield 
nnd Hartford ? 6. What evils beset the settlers ? 7. What of the return of some of 
them ? 8. Situation of those that remained. 9 What had taken place in 1631 1 WTiat 
of a 3on of Governor Winthrop ? 10. What happened in 1636? 11. Describe the pro- 
gress of the emigrants through the woods 1 

6* 



66 



RHODE ISLAND AND ROGER WILLIAMS. 



rael in their travels from Egypt to Canaan ; and no pillows but heaps 
of stones. None saw them bat here and there a group of wandering 
savages, and the Eye which sees and observes all secrets. 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 



Bhode Island and Roger Williams. 




Roger Williams banished. 



1. In February, 1631, a Puritan minister arrived in New England, 
by the name of Roger Williams. He was as yet scarcely thirty 
years of age. He was a man of some enlightened views, but his 
temper was not properly disciplined. He was, however, an ardent 
friend of religious liberty, and a foe to every form of legal intoler- 
ance. 

2. He was, at first, pastor of a church in Salem, Here, having 
advanced the opinion that a commonwealth is bound to protect all 
denominations of Christians, rather more boldly than w r as acceptable 
to the Massachusetts government, and having also announced some 
strange opinions, with an overbearing spirit, he was tried for heresy, 
and was sentenced to leave the province. 

3. He first repaired to Seekonk, now in Rhode Island ; but having 
learned, soon after, that the place was within the jurisdiction of the 
Plymouth colony, he removed, June, 1636, to the place where Prov- 
idence now stands, and laid the foundation of a colony, of which he 
was, at one and the same time, minister, instructor and father. 



XXXIY — 1. What of Roger Williams ?- 2. Of what church was he at first a pastor ? 
What opinions did he announce 9 - "What was the consequence of this conduct ? 3. Where 



WAR WITH THE PEQUOD INDIANS. 



67 



4. But the labors of Roger Williams were not by any means con- 
fined to his own countrymen. Though his manners had been harsh, 
he had a good heart. Like Eliot, he did much for the conversion 
and improvement of the savages. He even took pains, like him, to 
learn their language, that he might the better conciliate, instruct, im- 
prove and elevate them ; and at the same time, preserve the colony 
from destructive and bloody wars. 

5. Providence was within the territory of the Narraganset Indians, 
but Mr. Williams very soon obtained a deed of it ; not for himself or 
his friends, for though it was his own property as much as the clothes 
he wore, yet he gave away every foot of it. Nor did he love power 
more than property, for, instead of making himself their magistrate, 
they had none till the year 1640. 

6. The Providence settlement soon became the asylum of all 
who were persecuted in the other colonies on account of their reli- 
gious opinions, especially the Baptists, to which sect Mr. Williams 
adhered. In 1639 a Baptist church was formed there ; the first in the 
United States. Twelve years later, the General Court of Massachu- 
setts, by their severe laws, drove a greater number to Rhode Island 
than ever before. 

7. Rhode Island, properly so called — that is, the beautiful island 
which goes by this name, was first settled in the spring of 1638, by 
William Coddington and seventeen others. In the following No- 
vember, Mr. Coddington was chosen governor. These last were the 
followers of one Anne Hutchinson, a fanatic in religion, but in many 
respects a wise and virtuous woman. 

8. Until 1640, the citizens of Providence had made their own rules 
and laws in a general convention. They now thought it best to 
adopt a more permanent form of government, and, in 1644, Roger 
Williams, with the aid of Governor Vane, of Massachusetts, procured 
a charter for the two settlements, under the name of the Rhode 
Island and Providence plantations. 



CHAPTER XXXV. 

War with the Pequod Indians. 

1. Connecticut was first organized as a government separate 
from Massachusetts and Plymouth, in 1636. Its inhabitants held 
their first general court or assembly at Hartford, on the 26th of 
April. The first law they passed was that arms and ammunition 
should not be sold to the Indians. 



did Williams first go ? Where did he establish himself? 4. What of Williams and the 
Indians ? 5. Did Williams take a deed of his land ? What did he do with his land 7 
What of the government of the colony till 1640 ? 6. Of whom did the Providence sp' ^ele- 
ments become the asylum ? The Baptists ? What happened in 1639 ? What \ happened- 
twelve years later? 7. What occurred in 16:33 ? What of Anne Hutchinson ' 1 s - w hat 
occurred in 1644 ? ? „ j 

XXXV. — 1 . When was Connecticut first organized as a government sep, > ;arat e from Mas- 



WAK WITH THE PEQUOD INDIANS. 



2. Enough, however, had been done, long before, by unprincipled 
men, like Hunt and Morton, to excite that savage jealousy, which, 
when once roused, makes little discrimination, but vents itself with 
nearly equal readiness on all who are white, without regard to age or 
sex. The period was at hand when the colonists of Connecticut 
were to feel the full force of savage vengeance. 

3. The Pequods, or Pequots were a very formidable tribe, having 
at least 700 warriors. Their principal settlement was on a hill in 
Groton, in Connecticut, though they had forts elsewhere. They 
were the terror of many other tribes of Indians, and they soon became 
a serious annovance to the Connecticut and Massachusetts settlers. 




Burning of the fort. 



4. Thev had, in the first place, murdered some of the traders from 
Massachusetts, especially one Oldham, at Block Island, and Governor 
Endicott had been sent to treat with them, or bring them to submis- 
sion ; but 'he had accomplished very little except to provoke them by 
burning their wigwams. 

5. In March. 1637, they became so bold as to attack the fort at 
Saybrook, and kill three of the soldiers. In April, they murdered 
several men and women at Wethersfield, carried away two girls into 
captivity, and destroyed twenty cows. The inhabitants could no 
longer consider themselves safe, by night or by day, in their houses 
or in their fields. 

6. The General Assembly, which convened at Hartford, May 1, 
resolved to make war upon them ; and 90 men — about half the 
colony who were able to bear arms — with Captain Mason at their 
head, accompanied by 70 friendly Mohegan Indians, and Rev. Mr. 



sa:h'usetfc>* agu^ Plvmouth 1 Where was the first general assemhly 7 What was the first 
law ? 2. W *>iiat had been done hv such men as Hunt and Morton ? 3. What of the Pe- 
quods ? 4. vvr\a</had the Pequods done 1 5. What happened in March. 1637 ? 6. What 
of the general a^^mblv ? What of the Indians ? 7. How did this detachment proceed : 



WAR WITH THE PEQUOD INDIANS. 



60 



Stone as their chaplain, were sent out to attack the Pequods in their 
own country. 

7. Sailing down the river, and thence to Narraganset Bay, they 
were joined at the latter place by 200 Narraganset Indians, and, after 
landing and proceeding toward the Pequod country, by 500 Nianticks. 
The Pequods had two forts, one at Mystic, in Stonington, and another 
farther on. They resolved to attack the former. 

8. They arrived at Mystic river, near the fort, late in the evening, 
and pitched their camp by two large rocks, now called Porter's rocks. 
About day-break the next morning, they were ready to advance and 
attack the fort. The first signal of their arrival was the barking of 
a dog, upon which an Indian in the fort cried out, " Owanux ! Owa- 
nux ! " which meant Englishmen ! Englishmen ! 

9. The battle soon began, and for a long time was severe. The 
fate of Connecticut, and perhaps of all New England, was to be de- 
termined by 77 men.* Every soldier, therefore, fought for his own 
life and the lives of his countrymen. With the Indians, too, every- 
thing was at stake ; and their arrows descended among the English 
like a shower of hail. 

10. At last, seeing his men begin to tire, Captain Mason cried out, 
" We must burn them ! " — and, seizing a fire-brand from one of the 
wigwams, he applied it to the combustible material of which it was 
composed, and in a few minutes the whole fort was in flames. The 
fire and sword together made terrible havoc ; and soon victory 
decided in favor of the colonists. 

11. But the contest was not yet over. Three hundred Pequods 
from the other fort came now to the assistance of their brethren, but 
these too were gallantly repulsed, and the colonists retired leisurely 
to go on board their vessels at the Pequod harbor. When the battle 
ended, their vessels were not yet in sight, but, as if guided by a 
Divine Hand, they came in sight soon afterward. 

12. The colonists had but two men killed and sixteen wounded in 
the contest; while the Indians lost 70 wigwams, and, as it was 
thought, from 500 to 600 men. But the blow was decisive. The 
Indians looked at the smoking ruins, stamped on the ground, tore 
their hair, and rushed on the colonists ; but to no purpose. 

13. The battle was scarcely ended, when a body of 200 troops 
from Massachusetts and Plymouth arrived. They renewed the war, 
burning wigwams, destroying cornfields, and killing men, women, 
and children. The survivors were driven to. a swamp, where they 
finally surrendered, except Sassacus, their chief, and a few of his 
men, who fled to the Mohawks, by whom Sassacus was afterwards 
murdered. 



8. What of their approach to Fort Mystic ? 9. What of the fight? 10. What of Cap- 
tain Mason ? 11. What more happened ? 12. Loss of the colonists ? Of the Indians ? 
13. What of 200 troops ? What of Sassacus and the rest of the Pequods ? 



* They set out with 90, but thirteen had fallen off at Saybrook, or elsewhere ; and as 
for the friendly Indians, they dared not to venture near the fort. 



70 



9 

\ t 

ANECDOTES OF THE PEQUOD WAR, 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 

Anecdotes of the Pequod War. 

1. One of the early laws of New England was, — " Some minister 
is to be sent forth to go along with the army for their instruction and 
encouragement." Moreover, they sometimes began their wars by a 
season of fasting and prayer. We may smile at this strange attempt 
to intermingle religion and blood-shed* ; but it exhibits the Puritan 
character. 

2. The whole night before Captain Mason set out from Hartford 
to attack the Pequods, was spent by Mr. Stone, at the request of the 
soldiers, in earnest prayer. Again ; having arrived at Narraganset 
Bay on Saturday, instead of proceeding on their journey the next 
day, they kept it as the Sabbath, with the most scrupulous exactness. 

3. War is horrible at best, but it is always delightful to find its 
horrors in any degree mitigated. While the soldiers of Captain 
Mason were slaughtering the Indians at Fort Mystic by hundreds, 
and actually piling the dead bodies in heaps, they spared the women. 
Many of the Indian warriors, observing this, cried out, "I squaw! I 
squaw !" But it did not save them. 

4. The friendly Indians, under Uncas, sachem of the Mohegans, 
and Miantonomoh, sachem of the Narragansets, were terribly afraid 
of the Pequods, and especially of Sassacus, their chief. When Cap- 
tain Mason inquired of Miantonomoh, why the Narragansets did not 
come forward and help him, he replied, " Sassacus is in the fort. 
Sassacus is all one God ; nobody can kill him.'' 

5. The two hundred Pequods — men, women, and children — who 
surrendered to the colonists, were either enslaved by the English or 
incorporated with the Mohegans or the Narragansets. There did 
not remain " a sannup or a squaw, a warrior or a child of the Pequod 
name. A nation had disappeared in a day ! " 

6. Still, this war would have been more dreadful than it was, but 
tor the benevolent and pious labors of Roger Williams. When the 
Pequods found they had provoked the colonists to make war upon 
them, they tried to enlist on their side the Mohegans and Narragan- 
sets. They hoped that by their united exertions they might be 
able entirely to sweep the colonists from the hunting ground of their 
fathers. 

7. There was no white man in New 7 England that dared, at this 
critical time, to expose himself to Indian fury, but Roger Williams. 
Aware of the danger to the colonies, this good man, amid storm and 
wind, and at the most imminent hazard of his life, embarked in a 
canoe, and hastened to the wigw r am of the Narraganset sachem, even 



XXXVI. — 1. How did the Puritans mingle religion with war ? 2. What of the night 
before Captain .Mason's departure, for the Pequod war ? What of the next Sunday ? 

What of wars ? What of i sparing the women and children 1 4. What of Sassacus and 
other Indians '! 5. What of the 200 Indians captured ? What of the Pequ-jd nation ? 
6. What rendered the Pequod war less dreadful 1 7, 3. What did Roger Williams do I 



SETTLEMENT OF NEW HAVEN. 



71 



while the Pequod ambassadors were there, still reeking with the 
blood of Oldham and others. 

8. Here, for three days and nights, he ate and drank and slept in 
their midst, in danger of being shot, or having his throat cut, every 
moment. The Narragansets for some time wavered, but he, at 
length, succeeded in preventing them from entering into a league 
with the Pequods, and thus, probably, saved the colonies from 
extinction . 

^^B;-- ■ . y 
CHAPTER XXXVII. 



Settlement of Neio Haven, 




First Settlement at New Haven. 



1. The Indian name of New Haven was Quinnipiack. The people 
of the Connecticut colony had become acquainted with it during the 
war with the Pequods. About this time Rev. Mr. Davenport, and 
two merchants of London, by the name of Eaton and Hopkins, and 
a company of emigrants, came over to America ; and Mr. Eaton and 
a few others went to Quinnipiack and built a hut, and remained there 
during the winter. 

2. In the spring of 1638, Mr. Davenport and his whole companv 
went there to reside permanently. At two different purchases, they 
bought of the Indians nearly the whole of what now constitutes the 
county of New Haven. For the first and smallest portion, they 
gave a dozen, each, of coats, hoes, hatchets, spoons and porringers, 
two dozen knives, and four cases of French knives and scissors ; and, 
for the largest, thirteen coats, only. 



XXXVII. — 1. What was the Indian name of the country where New Haven now stands ? 
When did the people of Connecticut become acquainted with it i What of Mr. Daven- 



72 



SETTLEMENT OF NEW HAVEN. 



3. Some may think the Indians were defrauded by these pur- 
chases ; or, at least, would be likely to think themselves so after- 
ward. But such persons forget that these articles were worth more 
them than they now are ; and, besides that, the land was really 
worth nothing to the Indians, nor much to anybody else. Besides, 
the Indians retained the right to hunt on the land, and, if they 
pleased, to plant a certain portion. 

4. On the first Sabbath, which the colonists kept regularly at 
New Haven, April 8, Mr. Davenport preached to the people under 
a large spreading oak. Mr. Davenport was a most excellent man, 
and with his coadjutors gave a tone to the character of New Haven 
that has never been wholly lost. The laying of the city into squares, 
and the beautiful green, or common, are memorials of their efforts. 

5. The three towns, Windsor, Hartford and Wethersfield, early 
in the year 1639, formed themselves into a distinct government, and 
adopted a constitution, and John Haynes was elected their first 
governor. Their constitution has been much admired. It lasted, 
with little alteration, till 1818, or about one hundred and eighty 
years ; and was in substance as follows. 

6. The general court, or legislative assembly, was to be held 
twice a year, viz., in spring and autumn; but the officers of the 
government — the governor, deputy governor and five or six assis- 
tants — with the representatives from the several towns, were to be 
elected on the first Monday of April annually. The settlement at 
Saybrook soon became united with that at Hartford. 

7. Until the year 1665, New Haven was a colony by itself, 
separate from Hartford, under the name of the Colony of New 
Haven. A constitution was formed and adopted by the colony 
essentially like that of Connecticut, in the autumn of the same year, 
1639 ; and Theophilus Eaton was chosen the first governor, and 
re-elected every year till his death, which happened about twenty 
years afterward. 

8. The first inhabitants of New Haven, almost without exception, 
were men of learning and piety. They paid great attention both to 
education and religion. At first they had all their property in com- 
mon, as at Jamestown and Plymouth. Not a few of their first 
governors, moreover, as well as several other officers, refused to 
receive any salary or special compensation for their public services. 

9. The Dutch, who still claimed the country, seemed inclined, 
from time to time, to molest the Connecticut colony, but no serious 
or at least bloody engagement ever took place between them. Their 
greatest trouble was with the Indians. With this exception, and a 
continual series of disasters at sea, their first years were quite pros- 
perous. 

10. The first great earthquake in New England, after its settlement, 



port and others ? 2. What was done in 1638 ? 3. How doe3 it appear that the Indians 
were not cheated by the whites? 4. What of Mr. Davenport? 5. What of three 
towns ? Who was the first governor of the Connecticut colony ? What of the consti- 
tution adopted then? 6. What were the general provisions of this constitution? 7. 
W'Vil of the New Hav<3n colony ? 6. First .settlers of New Haven ? What of property ? 
The governors ? 9. The Dutch S 10. Earthquakes ! 



UNION OF THE NEW ENGLAND COLONIES. 



73 



took place June 1st, 1638. The earth shook with such violence 
that in some places people could not stand without difficulty, and 
the furniture in the houses was thrown down. Similar shocks were 
felt in 1663, 1727, 1761, and 1783. 



CHAPTER XXXV111. 
Union of the New England colonies. 




Delegates signing agreement. 



1. The conduct of the Puritans in New England did not fail to 
keep up the spirit of persecution in those whose high-handed 
measures had driven them there. The forms of the English church 
discipline were seen to he disregarded, and marriage to be celebrated 
even by the civil magistrate. And in spite of all this, good and 
loyal subjects of the king were continually emigrating. 

2. What could be done? In the first place, ships freighted with 
passengers and bound for New England were forbidden to sail. In 
the next place the archbishop of Canterbury, and others, obtained 
power to legislate for the colonies ; to revoke their charters if thought 
necessary ; to regulate and govern their church, and to inflict pun- 
ishment for refractory conduct. 

3. Such power, lodged in the hands of an Episcopal bishop three 
thousand miles distant, greatly alarmed the colonies. In January, 
1635, the ministers assembled at Boston to consult with the civil 
officers and see what to do. They were unanimous in the opinion 



xxxviii.-: 



1. Conduct of the Puritans 1 Consequences of this ? 2. What was done 
7 



74 



UNION OF THE NEW ENGLAND COLONIES. 



that they ought not to submit to a general governor from abroad, 
should one be appointed, which they had great reason to expect. 



*\Z.cm<j7 tud c Eb . 



Wash in 6 gto n 




Map of New England. 

4. Nor was this all. Poor as the colonies were, they raised six 
hundred pounds sterling among them, and applied it immediately to 
the erection of fortifications. But this only so much the more 



in England ? 3. What was done at Eoston in 1635 ? 4. What steps did the colonies 



THE INDIANS OF NEW ENGLAND. 



75 



offended their enemies in England, and increased their disposition 
to stand in the way of their liberties. 

5. Whole squadrons, ready to sail for America with passengers, 
were stopped. It is even said that Cromwell and Hampden, who 
afterward became so conspicuous in the measures which led to the 
death of the king, were on board of one of the vessels, and would 
have sailed for America had not the king himself prevented it. Little 
did he know what he was doing. 

6. It was impossible, however, to check the tide of emigration, 
except for a short time. Persecution, for religious opinions, had 
awakened a spirit of emigration in Europe, which had not been 
known before. One hundred and ninety-eight ships had already 
crossed the Atlantic to New England, carrying with them twenty 
thousand passengers ; and the plantations there had cost nearly a 
million of dollars. 

7. It was just at this period of the colonial history, when they were 
in danger, not only from foes at home but from enemies of their 
liberty abroad, that a union of the colonies, for mutual preservation 
and defence, began to be discussed. Nor did their victory over the 
Pequods, nor the temporary suspension of Dutch hostilities, lull them 
into security. The measure was not only talked of, but executed. 

8. The articles of confederation were signed May 19, 1643. Tru? 
union which was formed took the name of " The United Colonies of 
New England." It embraced Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecti- 
cut and New Haven, and should have included Rhode Island and 
Providence plantations. This colony petitioned for admittance, but 
was refused, because it would not be merged in the colony of Ply- 
mouth. 

9. This union lasted forty years or more, and was of great service 
while it lasted. If it did not prevent that foreign interference which 
was threatened, it defended them, at the least, from the Indians and 
Dutch, and other enemies at home, both by leading them to feel 
more strongly the ties of sympathy and brotherhood, and by enabling 
them to make treaties on a more certain and permanent basis. 



CHAPTER XXXIX. 

The Indians of New England. 

1. Our New England ancestors had so much to do with the 
Indians, whom they found here before them, that a history of the 
country will hardly be intelligible without a brief notice of this singu- 
lar people. 



take ? 5 What of Cromwell and Hampden ? 6. Emigration ? Persecution ? How 
many ships and passengers had come to America ? How much had the plantations 
cost ? 7. What of a union of the colonies ? SC^Let the teachtr put such questions as 
may be necessary on the map. 8. What of the articles of confederation? Why was 
Rhode Island excluded ? 9. What of this union ? 
XXXIX— 1, 2. What of the tribes of Indians in New England ? 3. Other tribe*? 



76 



THE INDIANS OF NEW ENGLAND. 



2. They were, principally, the Penobscots in Maine ; the Paw- 
tuckets between Maine and Salem ; the Massachusetts around the 
Massachusetts Bay ; the Pokanokets in south eastern Massachusetts ; 
the Narragansets about Rhode Island ; and the Pequods in the 
southern or south-eastern part of Connecticut. 

3. There were indeed other tribes and divisions of tribes, such as 
the Mohegans, the Nipmucks, the Wampanoags, &c. ; but they 
were not numerous, and were generally tributary to the larger 
tribes. Nor were the larger tribes so numerous as some have hastily 
supposed. The best authors on the subject have set them down at 
only one hundred and fifty thousand for the eastern, middle and 
southern states. 




Indians and village. 



4. The Indians had no houses, but lived cliiefly in rude huts, or, 
as they were called, wigwams. They were built in the shape of 
tents. These wigwams were usually arranged in small clusters or 
villages ; one wigwam often serving for several families. Like the 
wandering Tartars they often removed their villages. A village 
contained, usually, from fifty to two hundred inhabitants. 

5. They knew little of agriculture, though in some places they 
raised corn and beans and a few peas, melons, &c. The employ- 
ments of the men were chiefly hunting, fishing and war. Of arts 
and manufactures they barely knew enough to be able t<J make 
their wigwams, weapons of war and hunting, articles of dress and 
ornaments, and a few domestic utensils and agricultural imple- 
ments. 

6. Their food was simple, coarse, plainly cooked, and, from their 
natural indolence, sometimes scanty. At times they subsisted chief! y 
on flesh — raw, roasted, or boiled, according to convenience. At 
other times, when not too lazy to procure it, they subsisted on 



4. Indian dwellings?- Villages* 5. Agriculture? Employments of the men? Arts 



THE INDIANS OF NEW ENGLAND. 



77 



parched corn, hommony, or a mixture of corn and beans, which they 
called succotash. The females usually prepared the food and raised 
the vegetables. 

7. Their dress, except in winter, consisted chiefly of a slight 
covering about the waist, with ornaments about the face, wrists or 
ankles. In winter they dressed in untanned skins and in furs. 
They were little affected by external beauty, even personal beauty, 
notwithstanding their fondness for ornament. In war, they painted 
their faces. For amusements, they danced around a fire, or sung 
songs, or recited stories of their victories. 

8. Their hatchets, knives, and other implements, whether culi- 
nary or warlike, were chiefly shells or sharp stones ; more frequently 
the latter. They pounded their corn in large stones, scooped or 
hollow T ed out. The ground served them for chairs, tables, and beds. 
Their thread for nets, &c, was made of the tendons of animals, or of 
coarse bark, and their fish-hooks, of bones. For money, they used 
wampum or beads made of shells. 

9. The Indians had no books, or schools, or churches. They had, 
it is true, some ideas of good and evil spirits, and perhaps of a future 
existence beyond the grave ; but their notions on this subject were 
very crude, not to say confused ; and their religion and religious 
worship, when they had any, exerted but little influence on their 
general conduct. 

10. Polyg-amy was allowed among them ; and though they could 
hardly be said to be distinguished for licentiousness, there was not 
among them that tender and respectful regard for the female sex 
which is not only a principal element of human happiness, but one 
of the strongest bonds of society. Their government and customs 
of war will be seen in the progress of our history. 




Indian sorcerer and sick man. 



11. Diseases among the savages of America we^re fewer in num- 
and manufactures ? 0. Food ? The women ? 7. Dress ? Amusements ? 8. Utensils ? 



7S 



ELIOT,. THE INDIAN APOSTLE. 



ber than in civilized society ; but they were sometimes very fatal, as 
in the case of the small-pox. Their medical treatment was simple, 
consisting, for the most part, of a little herb tea, and warm or cold 
bathing ; sometimes, however, they resorted to powows or sor- 
cerers, who pretended to charm away diseases. 

12. When an Indian died, the survivers dug a hole in the ground, 
and, having wrapped the corpse in skins and mats, laid it therein. 
Whatever was deemed most useful to the individual while living, as 
his implements of wai or hunting, were buried with him ; probably 
in the vague belief that they might be useful to him in a future state. 
Some corpses were buried sitting, with their faces to the east. 



CHAPTER XL. 



Eliot, the Indian apostle. 




Eliot preaching. 



1. One of the more important as well as more interesting results 
of the union of the colonists was the civilization and improvement of 
the Indians. During the peace with them, between the Pequpd war 
and the war with Philip, it pleased God to put it into the hearts of 
many to do them good. Among these benefactors were several 
persons of the name of Mayhew, and John Eliot. 

2. One of the Mayhews had a church of one hundred communi- 
cants, at Martha's Vineyard. His son, Experience Mayhew, besides 



Nets ? Hooks ? Money ? 9. Books ? Schools ? Churches ? Religious notions ? 
10. Wives? Respect for the female sex ? 11. Diseases? Medical treatment? Pow- 
ows ? 12. Burial ceremonies ? 
XL.— 1. What followed the union of the colonies? 2. The Mayhews? 3. Eliot's 



ELIOT, THE INDIAN APOSTLE. 



79 



having the charge of five or six congregations of Indians, learned 
their language, and translated portions of the Bible into it. He also 
wrote the lives of thirty native Indian preachers, and eighty pious 
Indian men, women and children. He spent sixty-three years of 
his life in the ministry, chiefly among the Indians. 

3. But no man was so greatly distinguished for his labors of love 
among the Indians as John Eliot. He was born in England, in 1604. 
In early life he was an usher in a grammar-school, under the Rev. 
Thomas Hooker, the celebrated individual who led sixty men, 
women and children across the woods, from Boston to Hartford, to 
settle Connecticut. 

4. Mr. Eliot came to Boston in 1631, and was settled as a minis- 
ter in Roxbury the next year, where he remained about sixty years, 
or till his death. He had not been in Roxbury long before he began 
to take a deep interest in the Indians, whom he believed to be the 
descendants of the lost tribes of Israel. 

5. The first thing he did for them was to learn their language. 
This took him several years. The translation of the Bible into the 
Indian language took up two years more. At the age of forty-two 
he found himself sufficiently acquainted with their language to con- 
verse with them and teach them both publicly and in private. 

6. Soon he was found in their wigwams, teaching them and their 
children to read, praying with them, telling them about God, preach- 
ing short and plain sermons to them, discouraging the use of strong 
drinks, as w r ell as all their favorite vices, instructing them in farm- 
ing and gardening, and endeavoring in every possible way to make 
them wiser and better. 

7. Mr. Eliot not only told them what to do, but he actually set 
them to work, and sometimes worked with them. He furnished the 
men with spades, shovels, crow-bars, &c, and the women with 
spinning-wheels. He set up schools and churches among them, and 
prepared ministers and schoolmasters. So faithful and numerous 
were his labors, that he has obtained the name of the Indian 
Apostle. 

8. The following anecdote will serve to show the nature of Mr. 
Eliot's influence. One Sabbath evening, at coming in from church, 
a converted Indian found his fire gone out, and, in order to kindle it, 
he split a little dry wood with his hatchet. This was thought by 
many of the Indians a breach of the Sabbath, and was at their next 
meeting taken up and discussed. 

9. Mr. Eliot labored more particularly around Boston — in Rox- 
bury, Dorchester, Newton, Watertown and Natick. He was espe- 
cially employed at a place called Nonantum, now in Newton, and at 
Natick. But he also went abroad, and labored in the region about 
Lowell, Lancaster, Brookfield, Yarmouth and elsewhere. He trans- 
lated the Bible and other books into the Indian language. 

10. In short, the good he did was incalculable. In 1660, there 



early life ? 4. Where was he settled ? 5. What of his learning the Indian language ? 
Translating the Bible ? 6, 7. How did Eliot proceed with the Indians ? 8. Anecdote 
of Eliot? 9. Where did Eliot chiefly bestow his efforts ? 10. What effect did Eliot's 
efforts produce ? 11. Character of Eliot. 



so 



WITCHCRAFT IN NEW ENGLAND. 



were ten towns near Boston in which the Indians were, for the most 
part, professedly pious, and were, till Philip's war, fast adopting the 
customs, &c, of civilization. Even in 1686, after Mr. E.'s death, 
the number of "Praying- Indians," as they were called, was esti- 
mated at five thousand ; and, in 1696, thirty Indian churches ex- 
isted. 

11. Mr. Eliot was regarded, in his day, as somewhat eccentric ; 
but it was chiefly because he was good. He hated personal orna- 
ments and useless expenditures. He was opposed to wigs, wine 
and tobacco. He wished to have everything so managed that it 
might accomplish the greatest good to mankind, and the greatest 
glory to God. 



CHAPTER XLI. 

Witchcraft in New England. 

1. It was during the long period of peace which has been alluded 
to in the foregoing chapter, that the troubles arose in Massachusetts 
about witchcraft, of which so much has been said in history, and on 
account of which such heavy charges have been made against our 
forefathers. 

2. The first case of the kind occurred in Springfield, in 1645. In 
June, 1648, the charge of witchcraft was brought against Margaret 
Jones, of Charlestown, and she was executed. Ann Hibbins, of 
Boston, came next ; she was executed in 1656. Here the subject 
rested for about thirty years, when it was again revived ; and there 
was one more execution in Boston. 

3. Four years afterward, viz., in 169*2, the supposed witchcraft 
broke out in Salem and Danvers. Here the first subjects of it were 
children. The disorder, whatever its character may have been, 
spread to the neighboring country towns, particularly Andover, Ips- 
wich and Gloucester. At first it affected the lower classes only ; 
but at length it pervaded all ranks and conditions. 

4. Two daughters of a minister, in Salem, were strangely 
affected. Before this, they had been quiet, happy children, but now 
they began to look wild, shriek, tell strange stories, sit barefoot 
among the ashes, or go abroad with their clothes and hair in great 
disorder, looking like insane people. Sometimes they were dumb ; 
at others they would complain of being pricked severely with pins. 

5. The madness continuing to spread, the charge of witchcraft 
was at length brought against one poor minister himself. All sorts 
of strange stories were told about him. It was especially said that 
he had intercourse with the devil ; and the fact that he was an 
uncommonly athletic and strong man, with many, favored this idea. 



XLI.— 1. What of witchcraft 1 2. What cases occurred prior to 1692? 3. What 
happened in 1692 ? 4. What of two daughters of a minister ? 5. What of the mania ? 



NEW YORK, NEW JERSEY AND DELAWARE. 



81 



He would not confess guilt, and was hanged. Those who confessed 
the crime were not executed. 

6. It was, indeed, a fearful time. Multitudes were suspected 
and accused, and, at one period, no less than one hundred and fifty 
were in prison for witchcraft. What number were actually executed, 
while " the fever lasted," is not quite certain. It is generally said 
that two hundred were accused, one hundred and fifty imprisoned, 
twenty-eight condemned, nineteen hanged, and one pressed to death. 

7. But the excitement at length passed away ; and the more 
rapidly in proportion as the criminals were treated with clemency. 
Multitudes owned, at length, that they confessed their guilt to save 
their lives ! For a century past little has been said of witchcraft in 
the United States, and still less has been actually believed. 

8. Nor was this disease, or delusion, much known in this country, 
even in its day, out of New England. One old woman was indeed 
accused of the crime in Pennsylvania. Penn, himself, happened to 
be the judge, and gave the charge to the jury. They brought in a 
verdict that her friends should be bound for her to keep the peace ; 
which put an end to witchcraft in that province. 

9. Supposed cases of witchcraft had been common in Europe for 
centuries, and, about the time of the excitement in New England, 
thousands were executed in England and other countries there. 



CHAPTER XLII. 

New York, New Jersey and Delaware. 

1. New Jersey began to be settled in 1624, at Bergen. A few 
Dutch families crossed from New York about the same time, and 
settled at Jersey city. The English began a settlement on the Dela- 
ware, in 1640, but it was soon broken up by the Swedes who had 
settled on the opposite side of the river, and who retained the country 
fifteen years, till it was taken by the Dutch and held till 1664, when 
it passed into the hands of the English. 

2. In 1674 the province was divided into East and West Jersey ; 
and it continued thus till the year 1702, when the two provinces 
were again united in one, though they were still considered as form- 
ing a part of the state of New York. They were not finally sepa- 
rated from New York till the year 1738. 

3. The first settlement effected in the present state of Delaware 
was in the year 1627, by the Swedes and Finns. The Dutch 
claimed the country, and a quarrel was kept up a long time between 
them and the Swedes. When the former gave up New York and 
New Jersey, Delaware was given up with them, but was still consid- 



A poor minister ? 6. What of the state of things during the excitement ? How many 
were imprisoned ? How many accused ? How many executed ? 7. What of the 
passing away of the excitement ? 8. What of the delusion elsewhere ? 9. In Europe ? 
XLII.— 1. What of New Jersey? 2. Division of the province? Its union? Sepa- 



82 



SETTLEMENT OF THE CAROLIXAS. 



ered a part of New York. From 1682 to 1703, it was a part of 
Pennsylvania. 

4. The Dutch at New York with some difficulty held out against 
the Indians and other nations till 1664. when Stuyvesant, the governor, 
surrendered all their possessions on or about the Hudson, to the 
English. The Dutch, it is true, retook the town of New York, 
during a war with the English in 1673 ; but they restored it again 
the next year. 

5. Colonel Richard Nichols, the officer to whom the Dutch sur- 
rendered, was the first English governor of New York. He was 
succeeded, three years afterward, by Colonel Lovelace. It was not, 
however, till 16S3, that the people had any voice in the election of 
their rulers. Some changes were made, at this time, but they gave 
only partial satisfaction. 

6. Bad or defective, however, as the government may have been 
at the first, more real progress was made, not only in agriculture, 
but in almost everything else, in one year under the English, than in 
five years under the Dutch rulers. The Dutch, in the United States, 
with the best soil, accomplished less than the emigrants of any other 
nation. 



CHAPTER XLIII. 

Settlement of the Carolinas. 

J,-. The coast of Carolina was explored in 1563, and named after 
Charles IX., of France. The first attempt at a settlement, and in- 
deed one of the first ever made within the present limits of the United 
States, was by Sir Walter Raleigh, in 1585, twenty-two years before 
Jamestown was settled, and thirty-five years before the landing at 
Plymouth. 

2. The fleet, which brought out the first colonists to Carolina, 
anchored off the island of Wocokon, the southern point of the chain 
of islands and sand-bars which form Ocracoke inlet. From this 
island, the chief officer of the fleet went to the continent, and, during 
an absence of eight days, discovered several Indian towns. 

3. He next sailed to the Roanoke river, where he landed with 
one hundred and seven persons, designed to form a colony. After 
remaining with them a short time, he left them under the care of a 
Mr. Lane, and returned to England. 

4. The selection of a governor for the colonists could not have 
been more unfortunate. After remaining at the spot about a year, 
and accomplishing nothing, except to manifest a high degree of self- 
ishness and shake the faith of the natives in all white men, Sir 
Francis Drake, who had touched there with a fleet, took them back 
to England. 



ration from New York ? 3. What of Delaware ? 4. New York ? 5. First English 
governor of New York 1 The government ? 6. Progress of the colony ? 
XLIII.— 1 . What of the coast of Carolina ? First attempt at a settlement ? 2. The 



THE WAR WITH PHILIP. 



83 



5. No farther attempts were made to settle the country till some- 
time between the years 1640 and 1650, when a few planters from 
Virginia, under the direction of Governor Berkley, of that province, 
began a colony in Albemarle county, within the present limits of 
North Carolina. 

6. In 1663, the whole country, from the 30th to the 36th degree of 
north latitude, and, in the extravagant language of those times, from 
the Atlantic to the South Sea, was conveyed by Charles II. to Lord 
Clarendon and his associates, with full power to settle and govern it. 
In 1665, a settlement was made near the mouth of the Clarendon, or 
Cape Fear river, by emigrants from Barbadoes ; and Sir James 
Yeomans was appointed governor. 

7. A settlement was made, in 1670, at Port Royal, in South Caro- 
lina, by Governor Sayle ; and, in 1671, a few persons located them- 
selves at Old Charleston, as it was called, on Ashley river. In 1680, 
the latter spot was abandoned , and the foundation laid of the present 
city of Charleston, several miles nearer the sea. 

8. Up to that year, 1671, all the various settlements, which have 
here been mentioned, went by the general name of Carolina. At this 
time, however, a division took place, and the northern and southern 
provinces began to be known by the distinctive names of North and 
South Carolina. 

9. It was not far from this time, during the administration of 
Governor Sayle, that an attempt was made, in South Carolina, to 
reduce to practice the notions respecting government, of John Locke, 
the philosopher. But the plan was opposed with a degree of bitter- 
ness which led to its speedy abandonment, and a return to the old 
form of government. 



CHAPTER XLIV. 

The war with Philip. 

1. We have elsewhere seen that Massasoit, the sachem of the 
Wampanoags, remained a true friend of the English to the time of 
his death. He left two sons, whom, in his zeal to show his affection 
for the English, he had called Alexander and Philip. The early 
death of Alexander left the kingdom to Philip. 

2. Philip resided at Mount Hope, now Bristol, R. I. Though 
at first friendly to the whites, he soon proved to be their most power- 
ful and deadly foe. No doubt he had reasons for his conduct, which 
satisfied himself ; for the English, in their dealings, were not always 
either prudent or just. Bancroft says he was " hurried into his 
rebellion." 



fleet? 3. What of the landing of the colony ? 4. The governor ? Sir Francis Drake ? 
5. What of further attempts ? 6. Lord Clarendon ? What settlement was made ? 
7. Port Royal ? Charleston ? 8. Name of the colony ? Division of North and South 
Carolina ? 9. Locke ? 
XLIV.— 1. What of Massasoit ? 2. Philip? 3. The conspiracy ? 4. The first attack 



ft4 



THE WAR WITH PHILIP. 



3. A conspiracy appears to have been got up among the Indians, 
about the year 1675, of which Philip was supposed to be the leader, 




Philip stirring up the Indians. 



to destroy the English, or at least to drive them out of the country. 
Sassamon, a native Indian preacher, revealed the secret, and Philip 
murdered him ; and then, perhaps, to cover his own crimes, rushed 
into a war. 

4. The first attack which the Indians made, under Philip, was at 
Swanzey, in Plymouth colony, June 24, 1675. In the fear of war, 
a day of fasting and prayer had been appointed, and the people were 
going home from church, when the savages fell upon them and 
killed eight or nine of their number. They had, however, begun to 
rob houses and kill cattle some time before. 

5. Massachusetts, on hearing the news, immediately sent troops 
to aid Plymouth in opposing Philip. On the 29th of June, the united 
forces made an attack on the chief and killed six of his men, and 
compelled him to flee to a swamp now in Tiverton. Here, for some 
time, he was able to defend himself, and even to gain some advan- 
tages over his assailants. 

6. It was at length determined to surround the swamp and starve 
out the Indians, as the only method of conquering them ; but Philip, 
suspecting the design, found mdkns to escape to the Nipmucks, a 
small tribe in Worcester county, and induce them to join him. The 
English sent ambassadors and troops to make a treaty with the Nip- 
mucks, but they were ambushed and eight of them killed and as 
many wounded. 

7. Those of the colonists who escaped, fled to Brookfield. The 
Indians pursued them and burnt the village, excepting only the house 
they occupied. To this also they laid siege, and for two days poured 



of the Indians ? 5. What of Massachusetts 7 Wliat did the troops do 1 6. Philip ? 



EVENTS OF THE WAR WITH PHILIP. 



85 



their musket balls upon it, though to little purpose, except to destroy 
one man. 

8. Unable to gain their point by force, the Indians attempted a 
stratagem. They dipped rags and other combustibles in brimstone, 
and, by means of these and other things, they set fire to the house, 
guarding the doors at the same time, in order to destroy any who 
should attempt to escape. A sudden shower of rain, as if designed 
for this purpose, extinguished the flames and saved its inmates. 

9. It was August 4, — that very day, and, according to historians, 
at the critical moment when the Indians, seeing the fire extinguished, 
were about to renew the attempt to burn it, a reinforcement of fifty 
men arrived. The Indians were dispersed and some of them 
slain. 

10. But this did not put an end to hostilities. In truth, the storm 
of war was but now gathering — a most fearful war, too. It was the 
season of harvest ; and every hour of time and every sheaf of grain 
were needed to meet the wants of the coming winter. This period 
is thus described by the historian : 

11. " The laborer in the field, the reapers as they went forth to 
harvest, men as they went to mill, the shepherd boy among the 
sheep, were shot down by skulking foes, whose approach was 
invisible. Who can tell the heavy hours of woman ? The mother, 
if left alone in the house, feared the tomahawk for herself and chil- 
dren. On the sudden attack, the husband would fly with one child, 
the wife with another, and perhaps only one escape. 

12. " The village cavalcade making its way to meeting, on Sun- 
day, in files on horseback, the farmer holding the bridle in one hand 
and a child in the other, his wife seated on a pillion behind him — it 
may be with a child in her lap — as was the custom of those days, 
could not proceed safely — bullets would come whizzing by them. 
The Indians hung upon the skirts of the English villages, like the 
lightning upon the edge of the clouds." 



CHAPTER XLV. 

Events of the tear with Philip. 

1. But Philip, with his warriors well armed, and the Nipmucks 
were not alone. He had drawn to his alliance most of the tribes 
throughout New England, and was prosecuting the war with new 
vigor. During the summer and autumn, Hadley, Deerfield, North- 
ampton and Springfield, in the west, and Dover, Exeter, Saco, 
Scarborough and Kittery, in the north and east, were made to feel 
the force of his vengeance. 

2. The fate of Captain Lathrop was most melancholy. With 



7, 8, 9. What of the colonists who fled to Brookfield ? 9. What happened August 4 ? 
10. Did this end the war ? 11, 12. Describe the state of things ? 
XLV— 1. What of Philip? 2. Captain Lathrop and his party? 3. What of Uo 
8 



86 



EVENTS OF THE WAR WITH PHILrP. 



eighty young men — the flower of Essex county — he was escorting 
some teams, with grain, from Deerfleld to Hadley. In passing 
through a thick wood, soon after leaving Deerfleld, they stopped to 
pick a few grapes. Suddenly they were attacked by several hun- 
dred Indians, and seventy of them slain, with twenty of the team- 
sters, f 

3. On hearing the noise of the guns, troops were sent from Deer- 
fleld to their assistance, who arrived in time to kill or wound one 
hundred and fifty of the Indians, and disperse the rest, with the loss 
of only two men. The battle ground was long known by the name 
of Bloody-Brook, now near the village of Muddy Brook. 

4. Another anecdote of this war is curious. GofTe. one of the 
judges who had doomed Charles I. to death, was in New England 
at this time, and one of his hiding-places was at Hadley. The 
Indians attacked that place in September. On their arrival, GofTe, in 
a strange dress, suddenly placed himself at the head of the citizens, 
drove off the Indians, and disappeared. The wondering inhabitants 
believed, for some time, that an angel had been sent for their 
relief. 

5. The Narraganset Indians, though they would not fight the 
English, were known to afford shelter to their enemies, and thus act 
against them indirectly. It was, therefore, resolved to wage war 
against them ; and the united colonies sent out a body of eighteen 
hundred men, with one hundred and fifty friendly Indians, to attack 
them in their quarters, amid the deep snows of December. 

6. They found them in a great swamp in Kingston, Rhode Island. 
On a rising ground, in the swamp, was their fort. After a severe 
battle of three hours the fort was taken and burnt. The Indians lost 
about one thousand of their number, including women and children, 
and five hundred or six hundred wigwams. Only a few of them 
escaped. The English had about two hundred and thirty killed and 
wounded. 

7. The few remaining Indians were greatly distressed by this 
defeat. Without food or shelter, many perished ; and, of those who 
survived, the most were compelled to subsist on anything they could 
find — acorns, ground-nuts, horse-flesh, &c. But they would not 
yield. " We will fight," said Canonchet, their chief, " to the last 
man." 

8. Relics of the great Narraganset fight were to be seen within 
the memory of some persons now living. It is not long since an 
Indian pipe and various Indian utensils were dug up on the battle 
ground. Nor is it yet half a century since charred corn was dug up, 
having lain there one hundred and twenty or one hundred and thirty 
years. 



troops from Deerfleld ? 4. What of Goffe ? 5, 6. What of the Narragansets ? 7. What 
of the surviring Indians ? 8. Relics ? 



DEATH OF PHILIP. 



87 



CHAPTER XLVI. 

Death of Philip. 

1. We have seen that the Indians, though greatly reduced, were 
not yet destroyed. Philip had at first fled to the far west, to induce 
the Mohawks to join him, but his countrymen of the various tribes in 
New England had become roused to the work of burning and mur- 
dering ; and, in the spring of 1676, Philip returned and joined 
them. 

2. The depredations of the savages, during the winter of 1675 
and the spring of 1676, were almost innumerable. Among the 
bands of men murdered were Captains Wadsworth and Pierce, with 
fifty men each ; the latter having twenty friendly Indians, besides. 
Among the towns burnt, either partly or wholly, were Lancaster, 
Medfield, Weymouth, Groton, Springfield, Sudbury and Marl- 
borough in Massachusetts, and Providence and Warwick in Rhode 
Island. 

3. Philip, at his return from the west, attempted to conceal him- 
self near Mount Hope. Concealment, however, was impossible. 
All New England was in arms against him, as he was in arms 
against all New England. Even his own followers — perhaps to 
make better terms for themselves with the English — began to plot 
against him. 

4. One cannot help pitying the poor man ; for, though a savage, 
he had a soul. He could, perhaps, have borne the mere loss of a 
nation, but he met with a loss, soon after his return, which affected 
him more than the loss of a nation, and severed the last ties which 
bound him to the land of his fathers. 

5. The loss referred to, was that of his wife and only son, then a 
.mere boy, but the king, in prospect, of the ancient tribe of the Wam- 

panoags. The mother and the boy were taken prisoners by the 
English, and the boy was transported to Bermuda and sold as a slave. 
" My heart breaks," said the despairing chief, when he knew it; 
' ; now I am ready to die." 

6. Nor did he survive long. His hiding-place, in the swamp, was 
soon found out, and Captain Church, with a body of troops, was sent 
against him. On his arrival at the swamp he placed his men around 
it in such a way that Philip might be discovered, should he try to 
escape, and commenced firing. 

7. The soldiers had scarcely begun the attack when Philip seized 
his gun and attempted to escape ; but, in doing so, ran towards an 
English soldier and a friendly Indian. The Englishman snapped 
his gun, but it missed fire. The Indian then fired, and Philip 
received the contents in his heart. 

8. The war continued, for a time, in the province of Maine, but 

XLVI.— 1. What of the Indians ? Philip? 2. Deeds of the Indians in the winter of 
1675 ? 3. Philip ? 4. What feelings are excited for Philip ? 5. Wife and child of 
Philip? 6, 7. Death of Philip ? 8. The war ? White population In New England at 
this time ? 



88 



BACON'S REBELLION. 



at length it ceased. The chiefs came and submitted themselves to the 
English, and a permanent treaty was concluded. The war, how- 
ever, was a terrible one for feeble colonies to sustain. They lost, 
at least, six hundred men, six hundred dwelling-houses, and from 
twelve to twenty villages. The whole of New England scarcely 
contained, at the time, one hundred and twenty-five thousand white 
inhabitants, or twenty-five thousand fighting men. 



CHAPTER XLVII. 

Bacon's Rebellion. 

1. Between the years 1624 and 1639 serious difficulties had 
arisen in Virginia about their government. The king had taken 
away their charter, and was governing them in his own way, and by 
means of such governors as he was pleased to send out. In one 
instance, so much dissatisfaction existed with regard to the royal 
governor, that they sent him home to England. The king, how- 
ever, sent him back. 

2. In 1639, however, Governor Berkley was appointed in his 
stead, and the people were, once more, permitted to choose their 
own representatives. Grateful for the privilege, they remained 
attached to the cause of the king, even after Cromwell had taken 
the reins of government. For this the parliament was offended, and 
Governor Berkley was removed ; but, at the death of Cromwell, he 
was restored to them. 

3. But, by this time, either he or the Virginians were somewhat 
changed. They grew dissatisfied with his conduct, and sent in 
petitions to the crown against him; but the petitions were disre- 
garded. At length, in 1676, the year of Philip's death, the difficul- 
ties which existed, ripened into an open rebellion. 

4. Nathaniel Bacon, a bold, enterprising, eloquent, but ambitious 
young man, a member of the governor's council, was at the head of 
the rebel party. The colony had just engaged in a war with the 
Susquehannah Indians. General Bacon demanded of the governor 
a commission in the army, but being refused, a contention ensued 
between them, which ended in his suspension from the council. 

5. He was, however, soon afterward restored to his office, upon 
which he renewed his request for a commission, but, being again 
refused, he collected a band of six hundred men, and marched at once 
to Jamestown. The general assembly was in session, and, being 
unarmed, was forced to submit to his terms, and give him a com- 
mission. 

6. But he was no sooner gone, than the governor denounced him 
as a rebel ; upon which, instead of marching against the Susque- 
hannah Indians, according to the intention of his commission, he 

XLVII.—l. What of the government of Virginia between 1624 and 1639? 2. What 
occurred in 1639? 3. What" happened in 1676 ? 4. 5. 6. What of Nathaniel Bacon? 



RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION. 



89 



returned in great wrath to Jamestown. The aged governor fled to 
the eastern shore, and, having collected a small force, recrossed the 
bay to oppose him. 

7. The colony was thus involved in all the horrors of a civil war. 
The rebel party burnt Jamestown, many houses in the country were 
pillaged, and whole districts laid waste. The wives of some of the 
governor's party were even taken from their homes, and carried to 
the rebel camp. 

8. But, in the midst of these calamities, Bacon suddenly sickened 
and died. His followers, left without a leader, and without a 
definite object in view, began to disperse. His generals surrendered 
and were pardoned. And thus expired the flames of a war that had 
already cost the colony about half a million of dollars. 

9. Governor Berkley now re-entered upon the duties of his office. 
But, though peace was restored, the progress of the colony had been 
retarded in various ways. Husbandry, in particular, had been 
greatly neglected, and the people were once more threatened with 
famine. About this time Governor Berkley returned to England, 
and soon after died. 

10. The colony had other difficulties, in the years 1679 and 1680, 
in regard to raising a revenue ; and much dissatisfaction prevailed 
with Lord Culpepper, the successor of Berkley. The truth is, the 
great question of liberty and independence was already germinating 
in the colonies — to shoot forth, a century afterward, into full 
growth. 



CHAPTER XLVIIL 

Religious Persecution. 

1 . We have seen that it was persecution for the sake of religious 
opinion that drove our ancestors, the Puritans, to seek a home in the 
woods of New England ; but we have not yet shown, except, per- 
haps, in the case of Roger Williams, that they brought with them 
a measure of the same intolerance from which they had attempted to 

fl y- 

2. The spirit of persecution appeared, in the greatest violence, in 
their proceedings against the Friends or Quakers. These people 
were the followers of George Fox, who believed and taught that we 
must obey a divine light within as superior to all other guides, and 
that we must not think too much of external forms. He began to 
spread his doctrines in England in 1647. 

3. In 1656, twelve of his followers appeared in Massachusetts. 



7. Civil war ? 8. "What of Bacon 1 Effect of his death ? 9. Governor Berkley ? 
10. What other difficulties in the colony ? 

XL VIII. — 1 . What can you say of the Puritans? 2. Whom did thev persecute? 
What of George Fox ? What was done in 1647 ? 3. In 1656 ? What measures did the 
8* 



90 



RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION. 



The general court, believing their doctrine to be hostile to good 
order and pure religion, banished them from the colony, and passed 
laws to prevent the coming of any more. The penalty of bringing a 
Quaker into the province was one hundred pounds sterling, and the 
Quaker himself was to be whipped twenty lashes, and sentenced to 
hard labor. 




A Quaker on trial. 



4. Still worse than even this afterwards happened. In 1657 it was 
decreed that Quakers coming into the province should have their 
tongues bored with a hot iron, and banished. In short, no severities 
were deemed too great for a people so heretical. 

5. Their books even were prohibited. Any person who spread 
or secreted such books, was to be fined five pounds. For defending 
their doctrines in any way, there was a fine of two pounds for the 
first offence, four for the second, and confinement and banishment for 
the third. 

6. The persecution against the Quakers continuing, the king wrote 
a letter to the governor of Massachusetts, requesting him to send 
them to England for trial. The governor and the court were so far 
moved to toleration by this letter, that twenty-eight Quakers then in 
prison — some of them under sentence of death — were released from 
prison and only banished from the province. 

7. But, though the king was unwilling the colonists should pro- 
ceed so violently against the Quakers, he suffered them to be fined 
because they would not take oaths, and for the third offence to be 
banished. Similar persecutions also took place in Virginia, or those 
rather which were worse ; for laws were made against every sect 
but the prevailing one — the Episcopal or English church. 



court take against the Quakers ? 4, 5. What laws were passed in 1657 ? 6. "What did 
the kine do ? What was then done by the governor and the courfcof Massachusetts? 



THE MIDDLE STATES.- PENNSYLVANIA. 



91 



8. The truth is, that the spirit of persecution has always been in 
the world, and is not confined to age, country or religion. Mr. Jeffer- 
son, in speaking of the persecution of the Quakers in Virginia, 
observes, that if no execution took place there, as there did in New 
England, "it was not owing to the moderation of the church or 
spirit of the legislature." 

9. There seems to be one exception to the general truth of the 
sentiment that the spirit of persecution has always prevailed. The 
government of Rhode Island, having passed an act to outlaw Quakers 
and seize their estates, because they would not bear arms, the people 
were so opposed to it that the law could not be carried into effect. 
For this, however, the world is probably indebted to Roger Williams. 

10. Even in Massachusetts the persecution was carried so far that 
the colony lost many friends by it. A law, passed in 1677, for appre- 
hending and punishing by fine and correction every person found at 
a Quaker's meeting, had this effect. As a consequence, we hear 
little more afterward of laws against the Quakers. 

11. It maybe true — it no doubt is true — that the heretics, as they 
were called, were sometimes in fault. Ann Hutchinson certainly 
uttered some foolish things ; and the Quakers did that which it was 
not wise for them to do ; and so, perhaps, of the Baptists and Jesuits. 
This, however, did not justify violent persecutions against them. 

12. But persecution began in this country even before 1656, the 
time of proceeding against the Quakers. John Wheelwright was 
banished, in 1637, for preaching sedition — and, also, Ann Hutchinson. 
The Anabaptists or Baptists were persecuted in 1644 ; though no 
prosecution was actually brought against them till 1666. One of 
the charges against Roger Williams w T as that he was a Baptist. 

13. In 1647, moreover, an act was passed in Massachusetts against 
the Jesuits. Again, in 1700, the assembly of New York passed an 
act against Jesuits and Popish priests, which was followed by a 
similar law in Massachusetts, the same year. These were, accord- 
ingly, compelled to leave the province. 



CHAPTER XLIX. 

The Middle States, — Pennsylvania. 

1. As we are about to notice the settlement of Pennsylvania, it 
may be well to cast the eye over a map of the middle states, consist- 
ing of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware and Mary- 
land ; and to impress upon the mind their forms and relative 
position. 

7. What persecution did the king allow ? 8. What can you say of persecution ? 
9. What of the government of Rhode Island 1 10. What was the consequence of the 
persecution of the Quakers in Massachusetts ? 12. Who was banished in 1637 ? Who 
in 1644 1 What was disliked in Roger Williams ? 13. What act was passed in 1647 % 
What in 1700 J 

XLIX.— 1. Of what do the middle states consist? Let the teacher ask what que*- 



92 



THE MIDDLE STATES.— PENNSYLVANIA. 




2. In March, 1681, "William Penn received the territory of Penn- 
sylvania, comprising 26,000,000 acres, on account of a claim of his 
father on the British government for sixteen thousand pounds, ster- 
ling—or less than one third of a cent an acre. At first the grant 
interfered with prior grants to the founders of Maryland and Vir- 
ginia, and caused long and angry contentions, but they were finally 
adjusted. 



lions he thinks proper upon the map. 2. What happened in 16S1 1 What caused con- 



THE MIDDLE STATES.— PENNSYLVANIA. 



93 



3. The lands were offered for sale, in lots of one thousand acres 
each, at about a penny an acre ; and many of the persecuted Quakers 
in England were induced to purchase. In the autumn of 1681, two 
ships, with passengers, arrived in the Delaware, and began a settle- 
ment just above the entrance of the Schuylkill. 

4. Swedish settlements, along the western bank of the Delaware, 
had existed, at the arrival of the Quakers, for about fifty years, but 
they had been considered as belonging to New Jersey ; nor were 
they, in fact, very flourishing. Penn may, therefore, be justly con- 
sidered as the founder and father of Pennsylvania. 

5. With the emigrants, who were to occupy his lands, Penn had 
transmitted full instructions how to proceed. They were early to 
lay the foundation of a new city, but, instead of having it resemble 
the crowded cities of the old world, it was to be so planted with 
gardens around each house, as to form a 64 greene country towne." 
This was the origin of the beautiful squares and commons of Phila- 
delphia. 

6. He also wrote to the Indians, at the same time, assuring them 
of his disposition to treat them kindly as brethren and to deal with 
them justly ; entreating them, as they were all children of the Great 
Spirit, to receive and treat his people in the same kind manner. 

7. In October, 1682, Penn took leave of his family and came over 
to America himself. He was accompanied by a hundred emigrants ; 
or, according to some authorities, by many more. These were fol- 
lowed, soon, by others, so that the whole Quaker population of the 
province amounted to two thousand. Of the Swedes and Finns there 
were, at this time, about three thousand. 

8. Penn had planned a form of government before he set out, but 
found it necessary to modify it after his arrival. It provided for a 
governor, a council of three, and a house of delegates to be chosen 
by the freemen. Every person was to be a freeman who professed 
faith in Christ and sustained a good moral character ; and all who 
believed in one God were to worship according to the dictates of 
their consciences. 

9. He had not been long in the country before he made an effort 
to bring together the Indians from various parts, to form a treaty of 
peace and friendship. They met at Philadelphia, and made the 
treaty at what is now called Kensington, under a large elm tree. This 
treaty, unlike most Indian treaties, was never broken. " Not a drop 
of Quaker blood was ever shed by an Indian." 

10. Penn was, for some time, the governor of the colony; and, 
under his wise and excellent management, both of the white people 
and the Indians, the colony was peaceful, prosperous and happy, 
almost beyond example. It is true it had a fine climate and soil, m 
addition to its peaceable inhabitants. 



tentions ? 3. At what price were lots of land sold in Pennsylvania ? What took place 
in 1631 ? 4. What of settlements ? How may Penn be considered ? 5. What instruc- 
tions did he give to the emigrants as to the building of a city ? 6. What did Penn write 
to the Indians ? 7. What took place in 1632 ? How large was the Quaker population ? 
What of Swedes and Finns ? 8. What can you say of Penn's form of government 1 
9. What did Penn arrange with the Indians ? Was the treaty ever broken ? 10. What 



94 



CHARACTER OF PENN. 



11. But Penn did something more than merely to act as the 
executive officer of the colony. He was, at once, governor, magis- 
trate, preacher, teacher and laborer. He was, in truth, all things to 
all men, and acceptable to all. He obeyed the golden rule of the 
Divine law, and taught everybody else to obey it. 

12. In 1684, he returned to England, leaving the colony in the 
care of five commissioners. Here he w T as imprisoned several times 
for disloyalty, and the government of Pennsylvania, in one instance, 
was taken away from him. But it was afterwards restored to him ; 
and, in 1699, he came once more to America. 

13. Delaware, as we have seen, was, at first, included in the 
province of Pennsylvania. But, about the time of which we are 
now speaking, Delaware became a distinct colony, with its own 
government and officers. This was the result of a new charter by 
Penn, in which the rights and limits of Pennsylvania were distinctly 
defined. 

14. For more than seventy years all things went on prosperously 
in Pennsylvania, especially in all their transactions with the Indians. 
It was not till the year 1754, when Penn and his pacific principles 
had begun to be forgotten, that the colony became involved in an 
Indian war. 



CHAPTER L. 

Character of Penn. 

1. William PENN^the founder of Pennsylvania, and one of the 
truly great men of the earth, was the son of Admiral Penn, of Lon- 
don. He was early placed at the University of Oxford, but having, 
while there, become inclined to the doctrines of the Quakers, he was 
expelled, 

2. His expulsion from college w T as a sore trial to his father, who 
aimed at his preferment ; and he resorted to every measure in his 
power to reclaim him. Sometimes, for this purpose, he kept him in 
his own family ; at others, he sent him abroad. But he was so 
firmly attached to the Quaker principles, that all would not do. He 
would not even uncover his head in the presence of great or dis- 
tinguished men. 

3. His father consented to indulge him in all his peculiarities 
except the last. His hat, he insisted, must be pulled off, at least in 
the presence of the king and the Duke of York. He begged his son 
to consider the matter, and give him an answer. The latter, after 
much fasting and prayer, decided not to comply w 7 ith his father's 
wishes. 



wa3 the state of the colony under Penn's administration ? 11. What numerous offices 
were filled by Penn ? What was the rule of his conduct ? 12. What happened to Penn 
in England ? When did he return to America? 13. What can you say of Delaware ? 
When was it separated from Pennsylvania ? 14. What happened in 1754? 

L. — 1. Who was the father of William Penn ? Why was Penn expelled from Oxford ? 
2. What did his father strive to do ? 3. What peculiarity would he not allow ? Upon 



CHARACTER OF PENN. 



96 



4. Admiral Perm, enraged at this, turned his son out of doors, and 
would not, for a considerable time, be reconciled to him. During a 




Portrait of Penn. 



long exile from the paternal roof, he was supported by the charity 
of his mother and other relatives. At length the father, finding 
him irreclaimable, restored him to his family. 

5. Many a time was he persecuted, out of the precincts of the 
family, and many a time was he imprisoned. All, however, did not 
avail to change him. What he regarded as right, he was determined 
to do, even though his conduct were to lead him to the stake or the 
gibbet. 

6. Yet, strongly resolved as he was to do right, he seems to 
have been but rarely, if ever, vindictive ; on the contrary, he was 
one of the mildest, most forbearing men in the world. Even in the 
neat and rashness of youth he would not injure anybody — not so 
much as an enemy. While in the streets of Paris, one day, a man 
drew his sword upon him, but Penn only disarmed him, without 
attempting to hurt him. 

7. Such a man deserves to be remembered while time shall 



what did he insist? 4. How did the admiral treat his son ? 5. What persecutions did 
Penn endure ? 6. What temper did he show at this time ? 7. How are mankind 
inconsistent ? When did Penn die, and at what age 'I 



96 



GOVERNOR ANDROS AND THE CHARTER OAK. 



endure. How strange it is that, while Alexander and Cesar and 
Napoleon find thousands to celebrate their bravery, those who 
conquer and govern in the spirit of the Prince of peace live com- 
paratively unnoticed and die almost unknown ! Penn died in England 
about the year 1718, aged seventy-four years. 



CHAPTER LI. n 

Governor Andros and the Charter Oak. 

1. About the year 1685, king James, of England, took away the 
charters of Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Plymouth, resolving to 
govern them in his own way. Joseph Dudley was, by his direction, 
made president of all the provinces, except Plymouth. He came 
over early the following year. He was, however, succeeded, the 
next December, by Edmund Andros. 

2. The short administration of Dudley had been comparatively 
tolerable ; but Andros was a complete tyrant. He glittered in scarlet 
and lace, but they had beneath them a little soul. He vainly sought 
to please his king and immortalize his own name, by retarding the 
prosperity of a few petty settlements in the wilds of America. 

3. He was instructed to restrain the printing press as much as he 
could. Printing had been introduced in 1639, and the freeman's oath, 
an almanac, and some other things had been printed. The press had 
been watched all this while ; still it had been free. But Andros 
would not allow so much as an almanac to be printed without his 
consent. 

4. The schools of learning, hitherto so well attended to, he suf- 
fered to go to decay. The usual support was withheld from reli- 
gious institutions. Obstacles were thrown in the way of freedom in 
civil elections. The customs of the country were made light of and 
ridiculed, and even personal liberty was endangered. 

5. As Connecticut seemed disinclined to give up her charter, Andros 
attempted compulsion. While the general assembly was in session 
at Hartford, in 1687, he went there, entered the hall, and demanded 
their charter. The governor objected to giving it up, and the dis- 
cussion was intentionally continued till it was quite dark. 

6. As evening came on, and the candles were lighted, the charter 
was brought in and laid on the table, as if it was about to be given 
up. At a concerted signal every light was extinguished and a guard 
of men seized the charter, and, under cover of the darkness, carried 
it to the south part of the city and hid it in a hollow oak ; which, to 
this day, goes by the name of the Charter Oak. 



LI. — 1. What happened in the year 1635 ? Who succeeded Joseph Dudley as presi- 
dent ? 2. What can you say of Edmund Andros ? 3. When was printing introduced? 
What was printed at this time ? 4. How was the country affected by Andros' adminis- 
tration? 5. What means did he take to deprive Connecticut of her charter? 6. De- 
scribe the secretion of the charter. Where is Charter Oak ? 7. Upon what did Andros 
sail insist? 



KING WILLIAM'S WAR. 



97 



7. The candles were relighted, but nothing was to be found of the 
charter. Andros did not give up his purpose, however. He still 
insisted on holding the reins of the government, and the people sub- 
mitted to the haughty dictator. Though they retained the charter, 
Andros selected his counsellors, and proceeded to manage the govern- 
ment of the colony in his own way. 



CHAPTER LII. 

King William's War. 

L. While Andros was pursuing his course of tyranny over the 
colonies, an unseen hand was preparing for their relief. What is 
usually called the Revolution in England, had taken place. King 
James had fled, and William, prince of Orange, had succeeded him. 
This gave great joy throughout England and America. 

2. In the moment of exultation, and in remembrance of past 
abuses, the people of Boston seized Governor Andros and fifty of 
his most active supporters, and sent them away to England, to answer 
for their misdeeds. Connecticut and Rhode Island resumed their 
charters, and Massachusetts obtained a new one ; and thus they 
returned to the old order of things. 

3. But, though relieved in one way, by the Revolution, they 
were burdened by it in another. King James had fled to France, 
and stirred up the French to a war with England, in which the 
northern American colonies were most deeply concerned ; and, on 
account of which, they became, in the end, very great sufferers. 

4. The governor of Canada, as a good and loyal subject of the 
king of France, not only prepared to annoy the English colonies, but 
also to set the Indians at work. Still worse than all this, he not 
only set them to work, but encouraged them to plunder, burn and 
put to death without regarding age or sex. 

5. It needed but little to excite the Indians to deeds of cruelty. 
Accordingly, we find that, on the night of Feb. 8, 1690, one division 
of the French Canadian and Indian army attacked Schenectady, while 
the inhabitants were asleep, with the gates open, suspecting no dan- 
ger, and completely depopulated the village. 

6. The scene was one of the most terrible which can be imagined. 
In a very few minutes only, after the attack, the whole village, or 
nearly the whole of it, was in a blaze. The unoffending citizens, 
sick or well, old or young, male or female, were dragged from their 
beds and murdered. Sixty were killed, thirty made prisoners ; and 
the rest fled — most of them naked — through deep snow, to Albany. 
Of those who fled, twenty-five lost their limbs merely by the 
cold. 



LII— 1. What had been going on in the meantime in England ? 2. What effect had 
the Revolution on the colonies of America ? 3. What of king James? 4. What did 
the government of Canada do 1 5. What did the Indians do in 1690 ? 6. Describe the 
9 



98 



STORY OF GOVERNOR FLETCHER. 



7. Another party of the enemy fell upon the village of Salmon 
Falls, in New Hampshire, which, after killing thirty of its inhabi- 
tants, they burnt. Fifty-four were carried into captivity, to suffer 
tortures more dreadful than death. And thus it was. in a greater or 
less degree, all along the northern frontier of the colonies. 

8. The spirit of the colonists was roused by these atrocities, and 
they were determined on a stern resistance. A fleet of eight small 
vessels, with seven hundred or eight hundred men, under the com- 
mand of Sir William Phipps, was sent against Port Royal, in Nova 
Scotia, which surrendered with little or no resistance ; and the 
invading army took possession of the whole coast from Port Royal 
to Maine. 

9. Sir William Phipps was also to sail up the St. Lawrence, with 
his fleet, while two thousand men, from New York and New England, 
were to march by way of Lake Champlain, and meet him before 
Quebec. The land forces arrived in October, but, owing to adverse 
winds and other causes, the fleet did not arrive, and the troops were 
obliged to return. 

10. Instead, therefore, of ending the war by a heavy blow at 
Canada, it seems to have been but little more than begun. The 
Indians, on the northern and western frontier, became more and more 
troublesome, and the French more and more warlike. An attempt 
against them, by Major Schuyler, in 1692, was little more successful 
than that of the preceding year. 

11. At last, the war became one of continual attack on our fron- 
tiers, and of feeble attempts of the colonies at defence. Thus matters 
went on about seven years, during which period the sufferings of 
our countrymen were severe, almost beyond description ; and their 
condition seemed almost without hope. 

12. Tired themselves of this sort of war, the French, in 1697, 
sent out a lar?e fleet, to be aided by fifteen hundred men from 
Canada, with orders to burn Boston and New York and ravage the 
country. The fleet arrived on the coast too late to meet the laud 
army, and thus the colonies were saved. A treaty of peace was 
concluded in the month of December following. 



CHAPTER LIU. 

Story of Governor Fletcher. 

1. During the progress of King William's war, probably about 
the second year, Governor Fletcher, of New York, having assumed 



sufferings of the people. 7. What took place at Salmon Falls ? 8. What roused the 
spirit of the colonists ? What did Sir William Phipps do % 9. What other places were 
formed? 10. What of the Indians in the north and west 1 What took place in 1692 1 
11. In what state were the colonies for seven years 1 12. What did the French do in 
1697 1 How were the colonies saved ? 
LIII. — 1. What of Governor Fletcher, of New York 1 2. What can you say of the 



STORY OF GOVERNOR FLETCHER. 



99 



the right to command the Connecticut militia, and being desirous of 
employing them on the Canadian frontier, sent orders to Hartford for 
that purpose. 




Governor Fletcher and Captain Wadsworth. 



2. Connecticut and New Haven had been united long before this, 
and the general assembly met alternately at Hartford and New 
Haven. It was now sitting at Hartford. They refused to obey the 
request of Governor Fletcher. At this refusal the governor w r ent to 
Hartford himself to compel them to obey. 

3. On his arrival a military company had assembled for exercise 
and review. When Governor Fletcher rode up, Captain Wadsworth, 
the senior officer of the company, was walking in front of his men 
and giving the word of command in the usual way, and appeared to 
take no notice of any one else. 

4. The governor ordered his secretary to read aloud a paper, which 
he called his commission for commanding the troops. " Beat the 
drums," said Captain Wadsworth, as soon as he perceived what 
was coming ; and forthwith there was such a rattling of half a dozen 
kettle drums that nothing else could be heard. 

5. "Silence!" said Governor Fletcher; "begin again with the 
commission." The secretary began again. " Music ! music !" said 
Wadsworth. The drummers understood their duty, and thumped 
and pounded away at a terrible rate, bass drums as well as kettle 
drums, to say nothing of the other instruments. 

6. " Silence ! silence !" cried the governor again. But no sooner 
was there a moment of silence, than Wadsworth, who was a very 
stout man, with keen eyes and fierce-looking whiskers, called out 
again to his troops to drum, and turning to Fletcher, said, " If I am 
interrupted again, I will make daylight shine through you." 



general assembly? What did the governor do ? 3, 4. 5, 6. Describe the reception of 
I be governor and secretary. 7. What did Governor Fletcher do after his failure with 
the militia? 



1U0 



RELIGION EN THE COLONIES. 



7. Captain Wadsworth was interrupted no more by Governor 
Fletcher. The latter soon made the best of his way back to New 
York, where he had more authority than he found himself likely, 
soon, to obtain over the Connecticut militia. 



CHAPTER LIV. 



Religion in the colonies. 




A church in early times and a Puritan preacher. 



1. Governor Fletcher was more successful in another direction 
than he had been at the east. The king, in 1693, having taken the 
government of Pennsylvania into his own hand, Fletcher was placed 
over that colony as well as New York. Here he met with no 
opposition. 

2. Indeed, he was not without merit. For, to say nothing at pres- 
ent of what he did for the promotion of common education, he was 
at great pains to introduce public worship into the provinces he 
governed, especially New York. The Episcopal church was his 
favorite ; and he did much to introduce Episcopal ministers and build 
churches in the province. 

3. Religion, as we have seen, had been introduced into most of 
the colonies from the very first. The colonies of New England, 
however, were greatly distinguished for their piety, and especially 
for a pious and learned ministry. As early as 1642, a number of 



LIT. — What hdd the king done in 1693 1 2. What can you say in favor of Governor 
Fletcher ? 3. What of religion 1 How were the colonies of New England distinguished ? 



RELIGION IN THE COLONIES. 



101 



ministers had been sent for to go to Virginia. Others were sent 
for, in 1698. to go to the West Indies. 

4. The Dutch Reformed Church was introduced into New York 
with its first settlers. The Mennonites came to Pennsylvania in 
1692. The Tunkers. or General Baptists, arrived in 1719. The 
Moravians came over in 1741. Whitefield came over in 1742, and 
though he did not found a sect, he exerted much influence. The 
Shakers first reached America in 1774. 

5. The progress and decline of infidelity will be mentioned in 
connection with the history of the country during the revolutionary 
war and subsequently to that period. It revived again, soon after 
the close of the second war, which ended in 1815, but in other and 
'often less odious forms. 

6. The first Wesley an Methodist society in the United States was 
formed in New York, as late as 1766, by some Irish emigrants. They 
soon increased rapidly ; at present their number is very great. The 
Methodists are not generally Calvinists, though we sometimes hear 
of Calvinistic Methodists. 

7. The Universalists made their appearance about the year 1760 ; 
though John Murray, their principal leader, did not arrive till 1770. 
They are most numerous in Massachusetts, Maine, and the other 
eastern states. 

8. The first church at Boston was built in the year 1632, by the 
two congregations of Boston and Charlestown ; neither of the two 
being able to erect it alone. It had mud walls and a thatched roof, 
and stood on the south side of State street. 

9. In 1642, from thirty to forty churches had been erected and a 
greater number of ministers' houses built. The progress of these 
things was not so great immediately afterwards. The long and 
tedious Indian wars made the people feel poor. In 1700 there were 
reckoned only one hundred and twenty ministers in all New England. 
In 1760 they had increased to five hundred and thirty. 

10. The Westminster Assembly of Divines, in 1642, sent an invi- 
tation to some of the ministers in the New England colonies, but 
they did not attend their meeting. The next year an attempt was 
made by the Assembly of Divines to establish the Presbyterian 
government in New England, in place of the Congregational, but it 
did not succeed. 

11. The Cambridge Platform, as it was called, was adopted by 
the churches in 1648. The Saybrook Confession of Faith, sometimes 
called the Saybrook Platform, was adopted in Connecticut in 1708. 



What had been done in 1642 ?- What in 1693 ? 4. What church was introduced into 
New York by the first settlers ? When did the Mennonites come to Pennsylvania 7 
The Tunkers? Moravians? What of Whitefield ? The Shakers 7 5. What of infi- 
delity ? 6. What was founded in 1766 ? What can you say of the Methodists ? 7. The 
Universalists ? 8. When was the first church in Boston built ? Describe it. 9. What 
had been done in 1642 ? What was the increase of ministers from 1700 to 1760 ? 
10. What was done by the Westminster Assembly ? 11. What was adopted in 1643 ? 
W r hat m 1708 ? 

9* 



102 



EDUCATION IN THE COLONIES. 



CHAPTER LV. 

Education in the Colonies. 

1. One of the first acts, passed by the Pennsylvania assembly, 
after Governor Fletcher came into office, was an act requiring all 
parents and guardians to have their children instructed in reading 
and writing, and taught some useful trade. 

2. The subject of education had not been forgotten in the 
other colonies. As early as 1619, a college for Indian children 
had been contemplated in Virginia, to be located at Henrico ; and, 
in 1621, measures were taken to connect with it a free school, and 
to extend its benefits to the children of the settlers ; and, soon, fifteen 
hundred pounds sterling, with large grants of land, had been 
appropriated to each purpose. 

3. Harvard College was founded in 1638, by Rev. John Harvard, 
a minister ; and something had been done for the encouragement of 
reading and writing in the colony — not excepting the Indian chil- 
dren. Catholic Maryland had even spread among the people books 
of devotion, and encouraged the formation of libraries. 

4. The college of William and Mary, in Virginia, was founded in 
1692. Maryland passed laws in favor of free schools in 1694 and in 
1696. Yale College was founded in 1701, and the college at Prince- 
ton, in New Jersey, in 1738. A grammar school was established in 
New York in 1702, and a free school in Charleston, South Carolina, 
in 1712. An Indian charity school, founded at Lebanon, Connecti- 
cut, about the year 1760, was, in the year 1770, removed to Han- 
over, New Hampshire ; and, by a large grant of land and a charter 
of incorporation, became, in the end, Dartmouth College. 

5. In 1740, George Whitefield laid the foundation of an Orphan 
House, a few miles from Savannah, in Georgia, and afterwards 
finished it at great expense. It was designed to be an asylum for 
poor children, who were to be clothed and fed, and educated in 
religious knowledge, free of expense. The institution, however, did 
not flourish. 

6. Something was early done in the colonies for libraries. A 
considerable library was given to the Free School, in Virginia, by Rev. 
Thomas Bangave. Subscription libraries were, however, first set 
on foot by Dr. Franklin, in the year 1731. 



LV. — 1. What was one of the first acts of the assembly ? 2. What was done for the 
cause of education ? 3. When was Harvard College founded ? What of reading and 
writing ? Maryland ? 4. What college was founded in 1692 ? What was done in 
1694 and 1696? When was Yale College founded ? Princeton College? What was 
established in 1702 ? In 1712 ? 5. What of an Orphan Asylum ? 6. What was done 
for libraries ? What was done in 1731 ? 



THE WAR OF QUEEN ANNE. 



103 



CHAPTER LVI. 

The War of Queen Anne. 

1. But we must return to the wars of the colonies. The winter 
before the close of King William's war had been unusually severe. 
This, added to the expense and losses of a long and tedious war, 
produced a state of very great suffering. Everything, for man or 
beast, was scarce and dear, and every day becoming still more so. 

2. And yet only five years passed away, before another French 
and Indian war broke out, little less dreadful than the former. It 
began in 1702, and continued till 1713, a period of eleven years ; 
though for the first four or five years it was chiefly confined to 
skirmishing on the one part, and to plundering, burning, capturing 
and murdering on the other. 

3. But, in 1707, another expedition was fitted out against Port 
Royal. It consisted of one thousand men. They sailed from Nan- 
tucket. Little, however, was accomplished except to exasperate 
the enemy and increase the suffering on our frontiers. A land 
expedition against Canada, made with three thousand men, in 1708, 
also failed. 

4. But the idea of reducing Port Royal was not yet given up by 
the colonists. After repeated applications to England for help, 
Colonel Nicholson was sent over with a fleet, who, with the aid of 
a few regiments of troops, from New England, invaded and took it, 
and changed the name of the place to Annapolis, in honor of the 
queen. 

5. Encouraged by this success, another attack was planned against 
Canada. A fleet came over from England, but they were without 
provisions enough to last them a single month. The colonies sup- 
plied them with every necessary — both provisions and men. Fifteen 
ships of war, forty transports, and six store-ships, with 7000 men, 
soon sailed from Boston. 

6. But this mighty armament, in proceeding up the Bay of the 
St. Lawrence was misdirected by its pilots, and dispersed by storms. 
A part of the transports, with seventeen hundred of the men, were 
cast away, and one thousand were lost. A land force of four thou- 
sand men, from Connecticut, New York and New Jersey, which was 
to cross the country by way of Lake George, and unite with them, 
hearing the sad news, returned home again. 

7. This last failure was charged by England on the colonies, but 
the charge was unfounded They had not only done their part, but 
much more. They had not only furnished their own troops, at least 
for the most part and at their own expense, but they had done a 



LVI. — What was the cause of the sufferings of the colonies ? 2. Describe the war 
from 1702 till 1713. 3. What was done by the expedition of 1707 ? Of 1708 ? 4. What 
was done by Colonel Nicholson ? 5. What fleet sailed for Boston ? 6. What became 
of t his mighty armament ? What of the land force ? 7. What had been done by the 



104 



THE WAR AT THE SOUTH. 



great deal towards sustaining the forces sent over by the mother 
country. 

8. The French and the Indians, all this while, continued their 
depredations. Along the extended frontiers of Maine and New 
Hampshire, the attacks were so frequent and the murders so numer- 
ous that one half the whole body of the militia were continually on 
duty. I 

9. The reader may be anxious to know what half the militia, at 
this early period, would amount to. Massachusetts, the most thickly 
settled of the colonies, had a population, in 1710, of about eighty 
thousand. The population of all the colonies was estimated at two 
hundred and sixty thousand. From these data, we may conjecture 
the number of the militia, but have no exact statement of the number. 



CHAPTER LVII. 

The War at the South. 

1. This war of Queen Anne had been declared against Spain as 
w r ell as France ; and the colonies of the south, from their nearness to 
the Spanish settlements in that region, had their full share of its 
expenses, dangers, and sufferings. They, too, had Indians on their 
borders, which fact, of itself, describes their condition. 

2. An expedition had been fitted out by Governor Moore, of the 
South Carolina settlement, almost before hostilities had begun else- 
where, against Florida. He had sailed, with twelve hundred colo- 
nists and Indians, to take St, Augustine. This, it was supposed, 
would give him the key of the province, and, perhaps, unlock to 
him treasures of gold and silver. 

3. But he found greater difficulty in taking St. Augustine than 
had been expected. The town was, indeed, soon conquered, but the 
fort held out for some time. For want of a proper understanding 
between the officers commanding the land and naval forces employed, 
he was at length obliged to raise the siege and return. 

4. This, to the colony, was not only a failure, but worse, if possible, 
than a failure. It involved the infant colony in an immense debt, to 
get rid of which they resorted to a paper currency, as Massachusetts 
had already done in circumstances somewhat similar ; and subjected 
themselves to all its attendant evil consequences. 

5. A more successful expedition was made, soon after, against the 
Apalachian Indians. They had become quite hostile and trouble- 
some, and Governor Moore, in order to chastise them, led his troops 
into the very heart of their country, burnt their villages and towns, 
made six hundred or eight hundred of them prisoners, and compelled 
the rest to submission. 



colonies for England ? 8. What of the French and Indians ? 9. What of the militia at 
this early period ? Population ? 

LVII. — 1. "What can you say of the southern colonies 1 2. What of Governor Moore ? 
3. What success had he in Florida ? 4. What was the consequence of the failure of his 
plans to the colony ? 5. What can you say of the Apalachian Indians ? 6. What look 



THE YAMASEE WAR. 



105 



6. In 1607, the tide of war, in this quarter, became turned, and 
the Spaniards and French invaded Carolina, with a view to annex it 
to Florida. Governor Johnson had succeeded Governor Moore, and 
was a more efficient warrior. By his prompt and energetic move- 
ments, the assailants were defeated, and the Carolinas became 
able, in their turn, to attack their invaders, and to make some 
captures. 

7. About the year 1710, a body of six hundred and fifty German 
emigrants settled on the Roanoke river, in North Carolina. They 
were called Palatinates. They had been stripped of their property 
by the ravages of war in Europe, and by the benevolence of their 
countrymen had found their way to America. Three thousand of the 
same class came at once to New York. 

8. The settlers on the Roanoke were headed by one Baron 
Graffenried, a Swiss, who called the place where they settled, New 
Bern, in honor of his native city. These colonists where among the 
best and most worthy citizens, who had as yet made their appear- 
ance in the United States. 

9. But the savages, whenever their vengeance is aroused, do not 
discriminate very nicely between good and bad citizens. They fell 
upon the poor Palatinates in their houses, and butchered one hundred 
and thirty-seven of them in a single night. The militia rallied, drove 
them back, and kept them in check till they could send for help to 
South Carolina. 

10. Governor Craven, of the latter colony, soon despatched, for 
their relief, a body of six hundred militia and three hundred and 
seventy friendly Indians, who, attacking the enemy with great 
energy, killed eight hundred, made one hundred prisoners, and pur- 
sued the rest to their own settlements, where, after destroying some 
six hundred or seven hundred more of them, and burning their huts, 
they compelled them to make peace. 

11. The colonies at the north were also relieved, in March, 1713 ; 
but the relief came from a distant quarter. A peace was concluded 
between France and England. They were not, however, imme- 
diately delivered from the depredations of the Indians. They con- 
tinued their barbarities two years longer, and many hundreds of 
valuable lives were sacrificed. 



CHAPTER LVIII. 

The Yamasee War. 

1. There was at this time, at the southern point of the colony 
of South Carolina, a numerous and powerful tribe of Indians, called 

place in 1607 ? What of Governor Johnson ? 7. Who settled North Carolina 1 What 
were these settlers called? What had happened to them? 8. Who settled the 
Roanoke ? What was the character of these colonists ? 9. What did the savages do ? 
10. What of Governor Craven ? 11. What took place in the year 1713 ? 
LVIII.— 1. What can you say of the Yamasees ? 2. What happened in the year 



106 



THE YAMASEE WAR. 



Yamasees. These Indians, becoming somehow or other excited, 
devised a plot to destroy the colony. They had also drawn into their 
scheme every other tribe of Indians, from Cape Fear to Florida. 

2. On the 15th of April, 1715, about break of day, they came 
upon the village of Pocotaligo and the plantations around, and mur- 
dered, in a very short time, above ninety persons. The news soon 
reached Port Royal, the nearest village of any considerable size, and 
a vessel happening to be in the harbor, the inhabitants all went 
on board, and sailed for Charleston. 

3. The Indians came on, and, but for their timely escape, would, 
no doubt, have massacred the whole of them. A few families on 
scattered plantations, who had not time to get on board, were all 
either killed or captured. The tribes in the north, towards North 
Carolina, also began a work of destruction in that region. 

4. So great was the danger that many began to fear for the safety 
of Charleston. The governor ordered out every man in the city and 
neighborhood who was able to bear arms, except the slaves, and 
even some of the most trusty of these were enrolled ; and the 
most vigorous efforts were made to defend the place, and prosecute 
successfully the war. 

5. Meanwhile, the Indians on the northern frontier had gained 
some advantages over the colonists already. Captain Barker, with 
a party of ninety horsemen, had been drawn into an ambush, and 
many of his men slain. Another party of seventy whites and forty 
negroes had surrendered and been afterwards murdered. 

6. The alarm increasing, Governor Craven sent to Virginia for 
aid, and even to England. He put the whole country under martial 
law, and forbade any ships leaving the province. He also ordered 
bills of credit to be issued to pay the troops, already amounting to 
twelve hundred men. 

7. But he did not act merely upon the defensive. He marched 
slowly and cautiously against the Yamasees. Arriving at a place 
called the Saltcatchers, he attacked them in their camp. Here was 
fought, from behind trees and bushes, one of the most severe and 
bloody battles which had ever been fought in the provinces, and the 
issue was for a long time doubtful. 

8. The Indians were several times repulsed ; but, as- they were 
thick as grasshoppers in the woods, fresh bodies of them continually 
came on to the attack. At last the governor was victorious. He 
drove them from their camp, and pursued them across the Savannah 
river, and slew great numbers. The few who survived went to 
Florida and joined the Spaniards. 

9. What number of the colonial troops were killed, in this bloody 
battle, history does not say. Four hundred were slain, in all, during 
the war. But the defeat of the savages was decisive. Several forts 
were, indeed, erected on the frontiers against them, but they did not 
return to molest the settlers any more. 



1715? What was done by the people of Port Royal? 3. What did the Indians do ? 
4 What was done by the Governor of Charleston ? 5. Describe the troubles between 
the Indians and the whites. 6. What was done now by Governor Craven ? 7,8. De- 
scribe the battle with the Yamasees. 9. What was the effect of these Indian wars ? 



THE AMERICAN PIRATES. 



107 



CHAPTER LIX. 

The American Pirates. 




Wreck of the Whidah. 



1. In the year 1717, a remarkable shipwreck took place on the 
shores of Cape Cod. It was the Whidah, a ship of twenty- three 
guns and one hundred and thirty men, commanded by Samuel 
Bellamey. More than one hundred dead bodies of the pirates floated 
on shore. Six escaped with their lives, but were afterwards taken 
and executed. 

2. This vessel had long been troublesome on the coast of New 
England. She had made many captures and was greatly feared, 
and no one was sorry for her loss. But she was not the only pirati- 
cal vessel on the coast. The Atlantic Ocean had been infested with 
pirates for many years. 

3. Among the more distinguished of these lawless plunderers of 
the ocean was William Kidd. The people of England, wishing to 
suppress piracy, had, about the year 1696, sent out Captain Kidd for 
this purpose. But he turned pirate himself, and after infesting the 
seas three years he returned to the eastern end of Long Island, and 
anchored in Gardener's Bay. 

4. Here and in other places he is said to have buried great quan- 
tities of treasure, which he had stolen on the ocean. But how 
many of the stories concerning him are true, and how many fabulous, 
is uncertain. Only twenty thousand dollars of his hidden treasure 
were ever found . The most we know with certainty , is , th at there w as 



LIX. — I. What took place in the vear 1717? 2. What injury had been done bv the 
Whidah? 3,4. Tell the story of Captain Kidd. When wa'i he executed? 5. What 



108 



SETTLEMENT OF GEORGIA. 



such a pirate as Kidd, and that he was taken in Boston in 1699, sent 
to England, tried, condemned, and in 1701 executed. 

5. In 1700, the year that Kidd was sent to England, the coast of 
Carolina was greatly disturbed. In a quarrel among themselves, 
nine of the pirates were turned adrift in a long-boat, and, on getting 
ashore, were taken, carried to Charleston, tried, and seven of them 
executed. 

6. Still the pirates continued to be troublesome both at the north 
and south. The Whidah was only one of many pirate ships that 
infested the ocean. In the West Indies their depredations had been 
checked by the English. But off the coast of North Carolina they 
seemed as thick as ever. 

7. One vessel, with thirty men, was taken and carried into Charles- 
ton, and the crew tried and condemned. Another vessel was taken, 
but the pirates were all slain, except two, before they would sur- 
render. The survivers of both vessels were executed. One his- 
torian says the whole number executed at this period was forty- 
two. 

8. But the decisive blow against them was not struck till the 
year 1723. This year the Greyhound man-of-war took a crew of 
twenty-five, and carried them into Rhode Island, where, upon trial, 
they were found guilty and sentenced to be executed. Their execu- 
tion took place at Newport, July 19. 



CHAPTER LX. 

Settlement of Georgia- 

1. In 1732, the country between the Savannah and the Altamaha 
rivers was granted by George II. to General Oglethorpe and a com- 
pany of twenty-one others, as trustees for the establishment of a 
colony in Georgia, in America. The first colony which was sent 
over consisted of one hundred and fourteen men, women and 
children ; and they arrived at Charleston in January, 1733. 

2. The people of Charleston received them with great kindness, 
and did all they could to aid them in getting forward to their new 
residence. The legislature voted them one hundred and four head 
of cattle, twenty-five hogs, and twenty barrels of rice. They also 
furnished them with a small body of troops to protect them while 
surveying the country and building habitations. 

3. General Oglethorpe and his people sailed from Charleston, in 
a few days after their arrival, to explore the country they intended 
to settle in, and landed near Yamacraw Bluff. On this bluff Gen. 



happened in the year 1700 ? 6. Were the pirates troublesome after the destruction 
of the Whidah ? 7. What retribution fell upon the pirates ? 8. What took place in the 
year 1723 ? 

LX.— 1. What happened in 1732 ? What did the first colony consist of? When did 
U arrive at Charleston ? 2. How was the colony received 1 3. On what bluff was 



SETTLEMENT OF GEORGIA. 109 
/ 

Oglethorpe marked out a town, and called it Savannah ; and, by 
the 9th of February, they were ready to erect buildings. 




4. For some time, however, the colony did not flourish. The 
trustees had ordered that all lands bought or held by the settlers 
should go back to the original owner, in case the settler had no male 
heirs. Nor were they allowed to import rum, or trade with the 
Indians, or make use of negroes. 

5. Beneficial as a part of these prohibitions must undoubtedly 
have been, it is highly probable that the condition, in regard to the 
descent of property, did harm. The people remained poor, and 
seemed to lack enterprise. Other inducements were at last held out 
to settlers, and not without success. In three years they drew into 
the colony fourteen hundred planters. 

6. At length, the passion for conquest, or at least for power, 
began to spring up. In 1740, only eight years after the settlement 
of the colony, General Oglethorpe, as commander-in-chief of the 
forces of South Carolina and Georgia, at the head of two thousand 
men, marched to Florida, and, having taken a few small forts, 
besieged St. Augustine ; but, after some time and much loss, he was 
obliged to raise the siege. 

7. In 1742, the Spaniards, in their turn, invaded Georgia with 
thirty-two sail of vessels and three thousand men. They did not, 
however, accomplish their object. General Oglethorpe was too 
skilful for them. To rid himself of his invaders, he adopted a 
stratagem. 

8. A French soldier from the Georgian army, having deserted from 



Savannah situated ? 4. What restrictions were placed upon the colony ? 5. What was 
t heir condition in three years '/ 6. What was done in 1740 ? 7. What did the Spaniards 
do in 1712 1 How did General Oglethorpe treat them ? 8, 9 ; 10. Describe the stratagem 
adopted. 

10 



110 



CAPTURE OF LOUISBURG. 



them and gone to the Spaniards, Gen. 0. feared he would inform them 
how weak his forces were, and thus encourage them to prosecute the 
w r ar. To prevent this, he endeavored to make the Spaniards think 
the deserter w r as a Georgian spy. He, therefore, wrote to him as a 
spy, and bribed one of the captive Spaniards, whom he had in his 
camp, to carry the letter. 

9. In this letter he had directed the desetter to tell the Spanish 
general that the Georgian forces were weak and feeble, and urge him 
on to an immediate attack. But, if unsuccessful in this, he wished 
him, if possible, to remain with the troops, w r here they were, three 
days longer, as he expected within that time six British ships of war 
and two thousand troops from Carolina. 

10. This letter, as was intended, fell into the hands of the Spanish 
general, and the deserter was put in irons. A council of war being 
called, lo ! three ships appeared in sight. Believing them the 
British ships of w T ar which w T ere expected, they burnt the fortress 
and fled in confusion, leaving behind them their cannon and 
stores. 

11. Such glaring deception in an officer and magistrate, even in 
time of war, may startle the conscientious reader — and so it ought. 
But he must remember that almost all kinds of iniquity are tolerated 
in war. People will do almost anything to save themselves or their 
country. Hence the obvious and certain tendency of war to immo- 
rality. 



CHAPTER LXI. 

Capture of Loitisburg. 

1. By the treaty of 1713, the French had given up Nova Scotia 
and Newfoundland to Great Britain. Finding by experience the 
want of a fortress in this region, they had built Louisburg on the 
island of Cape Breton. They had been twenty-five years at work 
on it, and had made it so strong that it was regarded as a sort of 
Gibraltar. 

2. Another w T ar having broken out, in 1744, between Great 
Britain and France and Spain, the New England colonies soon found 
that the French made use of this fortress as a hiding place for the 
privateers which annoyed or took their fishing vessels : they were, 
therefore, anxious to get possession of it ; and, in 1745, having 
privately obtained the sanction of the British ministry, they set them- 
selves at work. 

3. A naval force was first got ready for sea. Next, four thou- 
sand three hundred and sixty-six men were raised from the various 
colonies, and properly equipped. These forces, aided by Com. 



LXI.— 1 . What had the French done by the treaty of 1713 ? What can you say of Louis- 
burg ? 2. What were the New England colonies anxious to do ? What did they do in 



CAPTURE OF LOUISBURG. 



Ill 



Warren, a British officer from the West Indies, were soon before 
Louisburg. The French were taken by surprise, but they made 
every preparation to resist which was in their power. 

4. Louisburg was in two divisions — the town and the batteries. 
Both, however, were well fortified. The colonists found no great 
difficulty in landing and taking possession of the batteries ; but to get 
possession of the town was quite another thing. It was the last 
hope of the French, and was, therefore, resolutely defended. 

5. But the assailants, having taken two months' provisions with 
them, were determined on a siege. They had captured the outposts, 
and, with these, many implements convenient to them in carrying on 
the siege ; but there was yet a great work to do. " Rome was not 
built in a day ;" neither could Louisburg be taken in a day. 

6. Between them and the town was a deep morass or swamp, 
which horses and oxen could not pass. There had, indeed, been a 
draw-bridge over it, but this was now destroyed. Over this morass 
it took them fourteen days and nights to transport their cannon. 
But their end was at length gained, and a fire was opened upon the 
town. 

7. The siege lasted forty-nine days. Com. Warren was of great 
service to the assailants. He not only bombarded the town, and did 
much at battering down the walls, but he captured one seventy-four 
gun-ship with all its men and stores. The town and island sur- 
rendered June 17. 

8. But the capture of this important post was no sooner known in 
France than a heavy naval force was despatched to America to 
retake it and punish the colonies for their insolence. A fleet of forty 
ships of war, fifty-six transports, three thousand five hundred men, 
and forty thousand stand of arms, under the direction of the Duke 
d'Anville, an excellent officer, sailed early in the spring of 1716. 

9. When the colonies heard of this armament they were alarmed. 
They had made the attack on Louisburg without the public appro- 
bation of the mother country ; and, though they had gained their 
end, they had incurred the displeasure of the French, and would 
Britain now protect them from their vengeance ? 

10. But there is a Power unseen, who had already interposed in 
their behalf. A violent storm had destroyed some of the vessels and 
injured others, and one had returned to France. Only two or three 
of the ships, and a few of the transports, ever reached Halifax ; and 
the admiral and vice-admiral both died soon after their arrival. And. 
though an attempt was still made to do something, violent storms 
prevented the remnant of the fleet from acting in concert. 

11. This expedition being frustrated, nothing of importance was 
done except upon the Canadian frontiers, where the French and 
Indians were, of course, troublesome. But negotiations, at last, 



1745? 3. What forces attacked Louisburg? 4. How was Louisburg divided? Was 
the town well defended ? 5. What was determined upon ? 6. What obstacles were 
there in the way of the besiegers ? 7. Length of the siege ? What of Com. Warren ? 
8. What did the French do when they heard of the capture of Louisburg ? 9. Why 
were the colonists alarmed ? 10. How were the French forces made harmless ? 
H, W%at was done on the Canadian frontiers ? What treaty was made in 1748? 



112 



PROGRESS OF AGRICULTURE AND MANUFACTURES. 



took place between England and Fiance, and a treaty was made, and 
the colonies relieved from their anxiety. The treaty of peace was 
signed at Aix la Chapelle, in October, 1748. 



CHAPTER LXII. 

Progress of Agriculture and Manufactures. 




1. The colonies had been so much involved in the long French 
and Indian wars, that agriculture had been, as yet, but little attended 
to. The forests were, indeed, cleared, and a large amount of pro- 
duce was raised, and not a little of it exported to the West Indies 
and England. Still, the more enlightened modes of husbandry were 
almost as little known among the English colonies as among the 
Dutch. 

2. Nor had the arts and manufactures made much greater pro- 
gress, and for similar reasons. But there was another difficulty 
with regard to manufactures. The regulations and prohibitions of 
the mother country continually came in their way. It was not Sir 
Edmund Andros alone that had sought to throw obstacles in their 
path. The parliament had done it continually. 

3. In 1732, for example, they had passed an act prohibiting the 
exportation of American hats, as well as limiting the number of 
apprentices taken by hat-makers. Again, in 1750, an act was 
passed to check the progress of the iron and steel manufacture, 
under a penalty of two hundred pounds sterling. 



LXII. — 1. What of agriculture ? 2. Arts and manufactures? How had the mother 
country int^rfarred with them? 3. What art was passed in 173? ? What irr 1750 ? 



PROGRESS OF AGRICULTURE AND MANUFACTURES. 



113 



4. Still, something had been done both in agriculture and manu- 
factures. The introduction of tobacco into Virginia had been 
effected, and had been cultivated to a very great extent. Virginia, 
in 1758, is said to have exported seventy million pounds. Rye was 
first harvested in Massachusetts in 1633. 

5. The cultivation of the grape, for the manufacture of wine, was 
introduced into Virginia in 1622 ; into South Carolina in 1690 ; and 
into Illinois, by the French settlers, in 1769. 

6. Silk-making was introduced into Virginia quite early. In 1669, 
the legislature passed an act for its encouragement. It was tried in 
South Carolina in 1703. In 1759, the manufacture of silk had 
become so common in Georgia, that ten thousand pounds of raw 
silk were received in a single year at Savannah ; and it brought 
half a dollar more, a pound, in London, than any other silk. 

7. Hemp and flax must have been introduced into Maryland early, 
for the legislature passed an act for their encouragement, in 1671. 
Hemp was introduced, in 1701 , into Massachusetts. Tea began to be 
cultivated in Georgia in 1770, but it did not thrive very well. Rice 
was introduced into Carolina in 1695. The exports, from South 
Carolina, in 1729, were two hundred and sixty-four thousand, four 
hundred and eighty-eight barrels. 

8. Cotton, the great staple of the southern Atlantic states, does 
not appear to have been cultivated till after the war — viz., in 1788. 
Indigo was brought to South Carolina, in 1743, by Miss Lucas. 
The Spanish potato was introduced into New England in 1764, but 
the Irish kind was here much earlier. 

9. The introduction of the art of printing into the colonies has 
been mentioned. The Boston News Letter — the first newspaper in 
North America — was begun in 1704, by Bartholomew Green. 
During the next fifty years four more newspapers were established 
in New England, four in the middle states, and two at the south. 
Books, also, began to be published. 

10. Little was it thought, in 1704, that in 1754 there would be 
ten papers in the provinces. Still less was it thought, that, in 
1844, or ninety years later than 1754, the number of periodicals, 
in the United States, would be more than twenty-five hundred. 



4. What can be said of tobacco ? When was rye first gathered in Massachusetts ? 

5. When was the grape first introduced into Virginia ? Into South Carolina ? Illi- 
nois ? 6. When was the manufacture of silk introduced into Virginia ? South Caro- 
lina J Georgia ? 7. What of hemp ? Flax ? What of tea ? Rice ? What of the 
exports in 1729? 8. When was cotton first cultivated? When was indigo taken to 
South Carolina? What of potatoes? 9. What was the first newspaper in North 
America ? When begun ? What of other newspapers and books ? What was not 
thought in 1704? 

10* 



114 



SUFFERINGS OF THE COLONIES. 



CHAPTER LXII1. 

Sufferings of the colonies. 

1. It is impossible for us, at the present day, to understand the full 
extent of the losses and sufferings of the colonies at this early period . 
For, when we draw away a few thousand men from our present 
population, or a few thousand dollars from a national or state 
treasury, the loss is scarcely perceived ; but it was far otherwise one 
hundred and fifty, or even one hundred years ago. 

2. The expenses of New England and New York, in the war of 
1744, though it hardly lasted four years, were estimated at over one 
million of pounds sterling. Massachusetts herself is said to have 
expended four hundred thousand pounds in the expedition against 
Louisburg. 

3. Here, again, paper money was issued, which seemed to answer, 
as it usually does, a very good purpose for the time. But it did 
injury in the end. Two or three millions of it were hardly worth 
half a million of gold or silver at the first ; and, in the end, twenty 
pounds, in bank notes, were only worth about one pound sterling, in 
good money. 

4. The emission of paper money, while it seemed to afford relief, 
and, in truth, did afford relief to particular individuals at the time, 
was a loss to the whole community. It divided the losses of the 
war, it is true, by compelling every man, whether soldier or laborer, 
who held the money at the time of its depreciation, to bear his 
share. 

5. Losses had, moreover, been sustained by sea, as well as by 
land, through the odious practice of privateering. Massachusetts 
soon learned the art of trading, not only at home, but even with 
England and the West Indies. A trade was begun with the West 
Indies as early as 1641, and, in 1642, the colony had five ships, 
already, at sea. 

6. Nor were the other colonies backward to engage in commercial 
enterprise. It is mentioned as a great drawback upon the pros- 
perity of the New Haven colony during the first years of its exist- 
ence, especially about the year 1647, that the trade with the West 
Indies was unfortunate and many vessels were lost at sea. 

7. But we have other facts on this subject. In 1676, there were, 
in the whole of New England, thirty shipwrights. In 1680, Con- 
necticut had twenty-four vessels engaged in trade with Boston and 
other places. In 1681, forty-nine trading vessels entered the single 
harbor of Portsmouth. And, in 1731, Massachusetts alone had six 



LXIII. — 1. What difference is there in the state of things between the present time 
and one hundred yeans ago ? 2. What were the expenses of the wars of New England and 
New York ? 3. What was the value of paper money ? How was the emission of this 
"money hurtful?- 5. How had losses been sustained ? What happened in 1641 and 1642 ? 
6. What circumstance was prejudicial to the New Haven colony ? 7. What m com- 



DISCOVERIES IN THE WEST. 



lib 



hundred sloops and vessels, with five thousand or six thousand men, 
engaged in the fisheries. 

8. It is easy, then, to see that the losses, by means of privateers, 
during a war, to say nothing of the depredations of pirates, must be 
very great. But the loss of property, by sea and by land, was not 
all. Multitudes of the best of the citizens, of every age, especially 
in the prime of life, had fallen in the wars. 

9. What the loss of men, women and children actually was, during 
the long French and Indian wars, is not known. The loss of Massa- 
chusetts, including Maine and New Hampshire, between the years 
1722 and 1749, when there was as little war as at any period of 
twenty-seven years after the settlement of the country, has been sup- 
posed to be fifty thousand. 

10. No wonder the colonies were glad to enjoy, when it came, the 
blessing of peace. No wonder trade and commerce revived, agri- 
culture flourished, and the arts and manufactures made progress. 
"What a pity the peace between the nations could not have been 
permanent ! How strange that the early history of the United 
States, like that of almost every nation, should be, as it were, but a 
series of wars and sufferings ! 



CHAPTER LXIV. 

Discoveries in the West. 

1. It is time, now, to attend to the history o tne great West. 
The travels of Ferdinand de Soto have been mentioned. He saw 
and crossed the great Mississippi ; but the French, under Joliet and 
Marquette, two Canadians, first explored it, together with some of 
its principal branches, such as the Fox, Wisconsin, Arkansas, and 
Illinois. This was a little before the time of Philip's war. 

2. In 1679, M. de La Salle, a French Canadian officer, equipped 
a small vessel at the lower end of Lake Erie, nearly opposite where 
Buffalo now stands, and, in company with Louis Hennepin, a friar, 
and thirty-four other persons, explored the shores of several of the 
northern lakes, and, having built a small fort, wintered near the 
mouth of the Maumee river. 

3. The next spring they set out again and travelled among the 
Illinois Indians. Their travels, the year before, had given them 
much knowledge of the Indian character. They crossed the wilder- 
ness to the Illinois river, a journey of four days, with their canoes 
and provisions upon their shoulders, and then descended it. 

4. In passing along, down the river, they came to an Indian 



merce from 1630 to 1731 ? 8. What losses were sustained during the war ? 9. What 
of the reduction of population ? 10. What was not surprising ? What is the history 
of almost every nation ? 

LXJV.—l. Where did Ferdinand De Soto travel ? At what time ? 2. What was dona 
in 1679? 3.4. Describe the journey among the Indians. 5. What did the travellers 



■ 



116 



MAP OF THE WESTERN STATES. 




Note. In looking at a map of our country, representing it as it now is, we see that 
the valley of the Mississippi and the region'of the Great Lakes are occupied by several 
large states and territories. These are as - follows : the states of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, and the territories of Iowa and "Wisconsin, at the north. 

South of these, are Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, Louisiana 
and Alabama. Between these territories and the Rocky Mountains, is avast space, 
occupied by the Indians ; and west of the Rocky Mountains is the territory of Oregon, 
which borders on the Pacific Ocean. 

This whole region, occupying nearly three fourths of the present territory of the U. 
States, was almost entirely unsettled until about the period of the revolutionary war. 

£C3rr" The teacher will here put Bach questions as he deems proper. 



DISCOVERIES IN THE WEST. 117 

village of five hundred huts, but without inhabitants. Going on 
about one hundred miles farther, they suddenly found themselves in 
the midst of a host of Indian warriors, on both sides of the river, 
who offered them battle. The company made signs of peace, how- 
ever, and soon quieted their fears. 




La Salle on his exploring expedition. 



5. More than even this was accomplished. The curiosity of the 
Indians was awakened and their friendship secured, and our travellers 
concluded to remain among them for a time. Accordingly, they 
built a small fort and made it their residence. But the men grew 
tired of the place, and not only tired, but mutinous, against La Salle. 
They even tried to excite the prejudices of the Indians against 
him. 

6. La Salle found it easier to regain the confidence of the savages 
than that of his own men. They were, still, uneasy, and at length 
laid a plan to destroy him and some of his strongest friends, by 
mixing poison with their food. The poisoned food, in fact, made 
them sick, but they all recovered. 

7. Early in the spring of 1680, La Salle set out again on his jour- 
ney down the river. On reaching its mouth they sailed up the 
Mississippi almost to its source. The voyage occupied them many 
months. On the 8th of November he set out for home. 

8. In returning, however, they passed through the country, w r here 
they had seen the destitute Indian village. While in this region 
they met with new troubles, on account of the hostility of the Iroquois 
tribe of Indians, and Father Hennepin came near losing his life. 
They escaped, finally, without any injury. 

9. In 1683, La Salle sailed down the Illinois river the second 



conclude to do ? 6. What plan was formed against La Salle i 7. What was done in 
J6S0 ? 8. What troubles, did the party of T,a Salle encounter ? 9, What took place in 



118 



SETTLEMENTS IN THE WEST. 



time, and, also, down the Mississippi. Here he encountered many- 
dangers, and had many hair -breadth escapes, especially from the 
Natchez tribe of Indians. They reached the mouth of the river on 
the 7th of April. La Salle is supposed to have been the first white 
man who ever navigated the Mississippi for any considerable dis- 
tance. 

10. Here, standing together on the shore of the Gulf of Mexico, 
at the end of a voyage of two thousand miles, in small open boats, on 
an unknown stream, whose banks were lined with savages, the party 
united in thanking God for their preservation, and in singing a hymn 
together, after which they prepared for themselves a temporary 
shelter. 

11. On the 11th of April, they set out on their return up the river, 
visiting the Indians as they passed along. They reached Michili- 
mackinac in the month of September, soon after which La Salle 
sailed for Quebec, and thence to France, to make a report of his dib~ 
coveries to the king. 

12. He returned once more to America, but not to the north. He 
undertook to explore the country about the mouth of the Mississippi, 
where, after many curious adventures and not a few discoveries, he 
was basely murdered, about the year 1686, by one of his com- 
panions. 

^ 

CHAPTER LXV. 

Settlements hi the West. 

1. Father Hennepin resumed his travels in the west after La 
Salle's death, but made no permanent settlements. La Salle and 
he had, however, paved the way for other adventurers and fur-traders, 
and ultimately for emigrants. The French claimed the country on 
both sides of the Mississippi, and, in fact, all the way from the Gulf 
of Mexico to Canada. 

2. The first permanent settlement in the great Mississippi valley, 
as it is now called, was at Kaskaskia, in Illinois — perhaps about 1688 
or 1690 ; for the year is not exactly known. There were, indeed, 
military forts there as early as 1687 ; certainly one where St. Louis 
now stands. 

3. The second known white settlement — the first in the Louisi- 
ana country — was made by DTberville, of Canada, in May, 1699, 
with forty or fifty men, at the bay of Biloxi. It did not flourish, but 
paved the way to better things. Pensacola, in Florida, was begun 



1693 ? What is said of La Salle ? 10. What did the travellers do on the shores of the 
Gulf of Mexico? 11. When did they return home? 12. What was the fate of La 
Salle? 

LXV. — 1. What of Father Hennepin ? What did the French claim ? 2. What settle- 
ment was made at Kaskaskia? 3. What settlement was made by D'Iberville ? What 



SETTLEMENTS IN THE WEST. 



119 



about the same time. Detroit, in Michigan, was settled in June, 
1701. A settlement was made on the Mobile river, in 1702, and at 
New Orleans in 1717. 




Settlement at Kaskaskia. 



4. The settlements in the Mississippi valley received a terrible 
check in the year 1729. The warlike tribe of Indians, called the 
Natchez, having become excited against the French, seized their 
opportunity and murdered all the settlers they could find. Of seven 
hundred, or more, scarcely enough survived to carry the tidings to 
New Orleans. 

5. But, instead of giving up the country, the French troops, in 
New Orleans and elsewhere, only meditated revenge. They pur- 
sued the Natchez, till they had driven them to their villages and forts, 
where they fell upon them and cut them to pieces. The few who 
survived were made slaves of, and the tribe perished. 

6. By about the year 1730, the French had a line of forts and 
settlements all the way from New Orleans to Quebec. They had 
even ascended the Ohio, and built a fort where Pittsburg now stands, 
which they called Fort du Quesne. The English colonists were 
jealous of their movements, and their jealousy, at length, ripened 
into hostility. 

7. A trading company, called the Ohio company, was formed in 
the year 1749, consisting of English and Virginia merchants, whose 
object it was to trade with the Indians for furs. They had obtained 
a grant of six hundred thousand acres of land near the river Ohio. 
This, in turn, raised the jealousy of the governor of Canada, and he 
ordered the traders to be seized. 

8. He also opened a line of communication between Presque Isle, 
as it was then called, on Lake Erie, where the town of Erie now 



were made in 1701 ? In 1702 ? In 1717 ? 4. What took place in 1729 ? 5. What was 
aone by the French troops % 6. What of tho French in the vear 1730 ? 7. What trading 



120 



G EOlUiE WASHIN G J ( I N . 



stands, and Fort du Quesne, at the head of the Ohio, and stationed 
troops and built fortifications along this line. His object, in short, 
was to break up the trade of the Ohio Company, and hold the 
country. 

9. The Company complained of the French to Governor Din- 
widdie, of Virginia, who laid the subject before the General Assem- 
bly. They ordered a messenger to be sent to the French com- 
mander to inquire into the cause of the severe measures which were 
pursued, and to ask that the forts might be evacuated and the troops 
removed. 



CHAPTER LXVI. 



George Washington begins his public career. 




• Washington going to Pittsburg. 

1. The messenger entrusted with this important errand was 
George Washington, then scarcely twenty-one years of age. He 
was a Virginian by birth, and had received no other education than 
that of the family and the common school. Yet his mind, at 
school, had taken quite a mathematical turn ; and he had early 
become a surveyor. 

2. But he was most distinguished for his excellent moral charac- 
ter. In this respect few young men of his time stood higher. His 
passions were indeed strong, but he strove to govern and subdue 



Company was formed in the year 1749? S. What was done by the governor of Canada? 
3. What was done by the Company ? The General Assembly ? 
LXVI. — 1.2. Give some accouat of Washington. 3. How did he differ from other 



GEOKGE WASHINGTON. 



121 



them. At the age of nineteen he had been made an adjutant general 
of some troops, raised for the defence of the country against the 
Indians, and had the rank of major ; but he had never been called 
into service. 

3. This was the individual selected by Governor Dinwiddie for 
an expedition at once difficult and dangerous. Several young men, 
to whom the commission had been offered, refused it, for want of 
courage to engage in the undertaking. But Washington was born 
to save his country, and not solely to seek his own ease and com- 
fort. 

4. He set out on his journey from Williamsburg, the capital of 
Virginia, October 31, 1753. He had with him an Indian interpre- 
ter, a French interpreter, a guide, and four other persons, two of 
whom were Indian traders ; making, in all, a company of eight men, 
with their horses, tents, baggage and provisions. 

5. The distance from Williamsburg to the principal fort of the 
French was about five hundred and fifty miles. They were to pass 
high and rugged mountains and cross deep rivers. Half the dis- 
tance, moreover, was through a pathless wilderness, where no traces 
of civilization had yet appeared, and where, perhaps, none but 
savages and wild beasts had ever trodden. 

6. But danger did not move Washington where duty was con- 
cerned. He pursued his way and performed the services assigned 
him ; and, if the mission did not prevent a war from breaking out, 
it was, at least, satisfactory to him to know that he had done what 
he could. He received the thanks of the governor and council of 
Virginia for his services. 

7. Some few anecdotes of this journey are worth relating. On 
their return homeward, Washington was shot at by a French 
Indian, but, though the savage was not fifteen paces off, according 
to Washington's own statement, and probably meant to kill him, not 
the slightest injury was done him. 

8. Again, as they were obliged to cross the rivers on rafts and in 
such other ways as they could, and as it was winter, they some- 
times narrowly escaped being drowned. In one instance they were 
wrecked on an island and obliged to remain there all night ; the 
cold, in the mean time, being so intense that the hands and feefcof 
the guide were frozen. 

9. In another instance, while descending a river in a canoe, per- 
plexed by rocks, shallows, drifting trees and currents, they came to 
a place where the ice had lodged, which made it impassable by 
water. They were, consequently, obliged to land and carry their 
canoe across a neck of land for a quarter of a mile or more. 



young men 7 4. Who did he take with him on his journey ? From what place did he 
go ? 5. How far was he to travel ? What country were they to cross ? 6. Did Wash- 
ington succeed in his enterprise ? 7, 8, 9. Tell some anecdotes of the journey. 
11 



7.22 



BATTLE OF THE GREAT MEADOWS. 



CHAPTER LXVII. 

Battle at the Great Meadows. 

1. The French continuing their aggressions, the British ministry 
encouraged the colonies, especially Virginia, to arm themselves and 
resist them in the best way they could. This was in the beginning 
of the year 1754, two years before the British and French came to 
an open rupture, by what has usually been called the " French and 
English war." 

2. Virginia raised a regiment of two or three companies, of whom 
Washington was made lieutenant general. The case was thought 
an urgent one, and, as the chief officers in command did not arrive, 
nor any aid from the other colonies, though it had been promised, 
Washington, with his little army, boldly entered the wilderness. 

3. On the 28th of May, at a place called the Red Stones, they 
came up with a party of the French and Indians, whom they 
attacked and defeated, killing ten or twelve and taking twenty-two 
prisoners. From the prisoners, he learned that the French forces 
on the Ohio amounted to a thousand regular troops, besides Indians. 
Nothing daunted, however, he continued his march. 

4. At a place called the " Great Meadows" he halted and built a 
fort, calling it Fort Necessity. Here he waited a long time for 
troops from the other colonies ; but none came, except a company 
of one hundred independents from South Carolina. The forces now 
amounted to four hundred men. 

5. On the 3d of July, Washington received information that the 
whole body of French and Indians were marching to attack him. At 
eleven o'clock they arrived, and commenced their assault. They 
were met, however, with a bravery that could hardly have been 
expected from troops so inexperienced. 

6. The battle lasted from eleven in the forenoon, to eight in the 
evening. " Scarcely, since the days of Leonidas and his three hun- 
dred deathless Spartans," says Trumbull, in his " Indian wars," 
" had the sun beheld its equal. With hideous whoops and yells, the 
enemy came on like a host of tigers. The woods and rocks and tall 
tree-tops, as the Indians climbed into them to pour down their 
bullets into the fort, were in one continued blaze and crash of fire- 
arms." 

7. Nor were the young Virginians idle. Animated by their 
chief, they plied their rifles with so much spirit that their little fort 
seemed a volcano in full blast, roaring and discharging its thick 
sheets of liquid death. For full nine hours, salamander like, 
enveloped in smoke and flame, they sustained the shock, and laid 
two hundred of the enemy on the field . 



LXTIT. — 1. What took place in the year 1754 ? What caused the French and English 
war ? 2. What was done hy Virginia? What was done by Washington ? 3. What 
happened at Red Stones ? 4. What did he do at Great Meadows ? 5. What happened 
on the 3d of July ? 6. Give Trumbull's description of the battle. 7. What of the young 



DEFEAT OF BKADDOCK, Sec. 



123 



8. Discouraged by such desperate resistance, Count de Villiers, the 
French commander, sent in a flag of truce, extolling their gallantry 
and offering to treat with them on the most honorable terms. 
They were to give up the fort, but the troops were to be permitted 
to march away with all the honors of war, carrying with them their 
stores and baggage. The terms were accepted, and, accordingly, 
they left the fort early the next morning. 

9. Although the French commander had promised that the Vir- 
ginia troops should not be molested, they had not retreated far, 
before a party of a hundred Indians came upon them and robbed 
them of a part of their baggage. They soon arrived, however, 
without any further loss of life, at Williamsburg. 

10. A vote of thanks was passed, by the legislature, to Colonel 
Washington and his brave companions, and a pistole granted to each 
of the soldiers ; for, although defeated, they had conducted bravely. 
Of the three hundred Virginians engaged in the defence of the fort, 
only twelve had been killed. 



• CHAPTER LXVIII. 

Defeat of Braddock, &c. 

1. The French and Indians continuing their depredations on the 
frontiers of the colonies, the British ministry, without formally 
declaring war, encouraged the colonists to defend themselves, and 
to unite for the purpose. They accordingly sent delegates, who met 
at Albany, in 1754, and a plan of union was adopted, not unlike the 
present federal constitution. 

2. This plan, or system, was signed by Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire, Rhode Island, New York, Pennsylvania and Mary- 
land, July 4, the very day of Washington's retreat from Fort 
Necessity. Connecticut alone refused to sign it. It was also dis- 
liked, in some of its features, by the colonial assemblies and the 
members of the councils. 

3. Early in 1755, the colonies proceeded to attack the French at 
four different points — Nova Scotia, Crown Point, Niagara and Ohio 
river. The expedition against Nova Scotia, under Generals Monck- 
ton and Winslow, was completely successful ; the whole country 
was subdued, with the loss of only twenty men. 

4. The expedition against Crown Point, on Lake Champlain, led 
by General Johnson of New York, though a failure as to its main 
object, was yet honorable to the officers and men who were 
employed in it. In a great battle fought near Whitehall, seven 
hundred of the French were killed and three hundred wounded, 



Virginians ? 8. What of Count de Villiers 1 9. What had the French commander 
promised } 10. What was granted to Washington and his men ? 

LXVIII.— 1. What was done by the British ministry ? What plan was adopted by 
the colonies ? 2 What of the system ?- 3. What took place in 1755 1 4. What of the 



124 



DEFEAT OF BRADDOCK. Sec. 



while the whole loss of the colonies scarcely exceeded two hun- 
dred. 

5. It was at this battle that a noble French officer, by the name 
of Dieskau, was wounded and taken prisoner. He was shot in the 
leg, and, being unable to retreat, was taken by an English soldier. 
Fearing for his safety, he was feeling for his watch to give it up to 
the soldier, when the latter, supposing him to be feeling for his 
pistol, inflicted a deep wound in his hips. He was treated with 
great kindness, but died soon afterwards. 

6. The expedition against Niagara, with twenty-five hundred 
men, under Governor Shirley, of Massachusetts, was begun too late 
in the year. The troops proceeded no farther than Oswego, on 
Lake Ontario, when the proposed attack was abandoned. No more 
attempts were made, in this quarter, till after the declaration of 
war, which took place June 9, of the next year. 

7. In the operations against the French, on the Ohio, there was 
not only a want of success, but a signal failure in the memorable 
defeat of General Braddock, whom the British had sent over, in 
February, with two thousand men, to the aid of the colonies. He 
was an aged and experienced officer ; one who not only thought 
well of himself, but was thought well of by others. 

8. No sooner had he arrived than the Virginian Assembly raised 
a body of eight hundred men to join him, and Washington agreed 
to serve as his aid de camp. The army marched without being 
molested till they were within seven miles of Fort du Quesne, or 
Pittsburg. 




Franklin, 



9. It was on this occasion that Franklin rendered his country a 



expedition to Crown Point 7 5. Tell the anecdote of the French officer ? 6. What of 
the expedition asrainst Niagara ? 7 What of Gmpral Braddock ? 8. How did Wash- 



DEFEAT OF ERADDOCK, &c. 



125 



most important service. The troops being in want of a suitable num- 
ber of wagons to transport their baggage, Franklin persuaded the 
farmers of Pennsylvania to let them have both wagons and horses. 
In the end, the wagons and horses were lost, and Franklin was 
expected to pay for them. The damage was about one hundred 
thousand dollars. 

10. Franklin would have paid the debt had he been able, but he 
was not. He had advanced considerable money already. The 
owners of the horses and wagons at last began to sue him. The 
government, however, at length, interposed, as they ought, and paid 
the debt. 

11. But to return to General Braddock. On the morning of July 
9, when within a few miles of Pittsburg, a large party of French 
and Indians were discovered in ambush. Washington now, for the 
first time, informed General Braddock what sort of an enemy he had 
to deal with — an enemy who would fight chiefly from behind 
hedges and rocks and trees, where they could not be easily seen. 

12. General Braddock, instead of receiving the information with 
gratitude, was only angry, and said it was high times when a young 
Virginian could teach a British general how to fight. He would not 
even grant the modest request of Washington to let him place him- 
self at the head of the Virginian riflemen, and fight the savages in 
their own way. 

13. Washington bit his lips with anguish, for he knew, too well, 
what would be the result. The troops were soon assailed on all 
sides, not by an enemy whom they could see and meet in fair fight, 
but a foe which, to them, was invisible. Slain by hundreds, and 
unable to resist, they soon fell into confusion, and General Braddock 
himself was mortally wounded. 

14. Washington, however, was calm. As soon as Braddock fell, 
he placed himself at the head of the Virginian blues, as they were 
called, led them against the enemy, checked their fury, and enabled 
the shattered British army to retreat. Braddock lived long enough 
to see his folly and to applaud the bravery of the Virginians. But 
he died ; and Washington, to prevent the savages from disturbing his 
remains, buried him in the road, and ordered the wagons, in their 
retreat, to drive over his grave. 

15. In this battle, the English and the colonists had seven hun- 
dred and seventy-seven men killed and wounded, while the enemy 
scarcely lost fifty. Washington had four bullets sent through his 
clothes, and two horses slain under him, and yet he escaped unhurt. 
He again received the thanks of his country, though not in a formal 
manner. 

16. It was not long after this battle that, near Pittsburgh, an 
Indian warrior is reported to have said that Washington was not 



ington serve ? 9. Describe the service rendered by Franklin ? 10. Who paid for the 
wagons and horses ? 11. What did Washington tell General Braddock ? 12. How did 
Braddock receive the information ? 13. What was the result of the battle ? 14. What 
of Washington when Braddock fell 7 Where was Braddock buried ? 15. What was the 
loss in this battle ? What happened to Washington ? 16. What did a savage say of 
him ? 

11* 



126 



THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 



born to be killed by a bullet ; for he had seventeen fair fires at him 
with his rifle, during the engagement, and yet, after all, he could 
not kill him. Such a sentiment, whether uttered by a savage or 
invented for the occasion, seems to have been almost prophetic. 



1. In May, 1756, war was declared by Great Britain against 
France, in due form. In the full expectation of immediate aid from 
the mother country, the colonies laid a plan to take Crown Point and 
Niagara, and, for this purpose, raised seven thousand men, and 
placed them under the command of General Winslow, of Massa- 
chusetts. 

2. Governor Shirley had been, for some time past, the commander 
of the Massachusetts forces. But now the British ministry appointed 
the Earl of Loudon to this office ; though, until his arrival, General 
Abercrombie was to have the command of the troops of Massachu- 
setts. But General Abercrombie was an inefficient officer, and 
nothing decisive was done this year. 

3. In the meantime, the Canadian and Indian forces, amounting 
to eight thousand men, under General Montcalm, had attacked and 
taken Oswego, the American key to Lake Ontario, with sixteen 
hundred of our troops and a large quantity of cannon and military 



CHAPTER LXIX. 



The French and Indian War. 




Lord Chatham. 



LXIX— 1. When was war declared? What forces were raised? 2. What of 
Governor Shirley? What of General Abercrombie ? 3. What had the Canadian and 



THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. 



127 



stores — as signal a disaster to the colonies, as could have befallen 
them. 

4. Lord Loudon at length arrived in America; and great prepa- 
ration was made in England and America for the campaign of the 
next year. In 1757, eleven ships of the line, fifty transports, and six 
thousand troops arrived, destined to act against Louisburg, which 
had again fallen into the hands of the French. But the attack was 
delayed till it was so well fortified that it was not thought advisable 
to besiege it. 

5. General Montcalm, the French commander, in pursuing his 
successes, had, by this time, besieged and taken Fort William Henry, 
on Lake George. Nor did he meet with much resistance, although 
General Webb, with four thousand men, lay at Fort Edward, only 
fifteen miles off, and evidently knew what was going on. 

6. It was a condition, in the surrender of the troops, at Fort 
William Henry, that their lives should be spared after the surrender ; 
and yet the Indians butchered great multitudes — the French officers 
pretending they could not restrain them. Yet they had a regular 
force of at least seven thousand men ! 

7. In 1758, the celebrated Mr. Pitt, or Lord Chatham, was placed 
at the head of the British ministry. This event infused a new spirit 
into all the affairs of the government, and what was done, with 
regard to the prosecution of the war in America, was done promptly 
and efficiently. 

8. He sent letters to all the American governors, requiring them 
to raise as many troops as they could, at the same time promising to 
send a large British force to their aid. The colonies complied with 
the request, and Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Hampshire, 
alone, raised fifteen thousand men. They were to be ready for 
action in May. 

9. The first movement was against Louisburg, in the months of 
June and July. This fortress, after a stout resistance, surrendered, 
and, with it, five thousand seven hundred and thirty-seven men. 
A considerable amount of cannon also was taken. The whole 
country, from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to Nova Scotia, fell into 
the hands of the English. 

10. An attack was next made on Ticonderoga. As Lord Loudon 
had returned to England, the expedition was conducted by the 
inefficient, undecided Abercrombie. Though he had a force of seven 
thousand British and nine thousand colonists, and though the garrison 
consisted of but three thousand men, he was repulsed with a loss, 
in killed and wounded, of nearly two thousand men. 

11. The passage of General Abercrombie over Lake George, 
when going to Ticonderoga, is said to have been one of the most 
splendid and imposing scenes ever witnessed. The morning was 
bright and beautiful, the music fine ; the ensigns glittered in the 



Indian forces done ? 4. What of Lord Loudon ? What took place in 1757 ? 5. What 
of General Montcalm ? 6. What happened at Fort William Henry ? 7. When was 
Pitt made prime minister ? 8. What steps did he take ? 9. What was first taken ? 
What fell into the hands of the English ? 10. Who attacked Ticonderoga, and with 
what success ? 11. Describe the passage over Lake George. 12. What did Abercrombie 



128 



QUEEEC TAKEN.— WOLFE SLAIN. 



sunbeams, and a fleet of one thousand and thirty-five boats, with six- 
teen thousand men, moved along in the most exact order. How 
different must have been their return ! 

12. General Abercrombie, as if to atone for past remissness, now 
sent out three thousand men against Fort Frontenac, near the outlet 
of Lake Ontario, which, in two days, surrendered. An expedition 
was also fitted out against Fort du Quesne, but the French had 
evacuated it the evening before they arrived. It was now that it 
took the name of Pittsburg. 

13. A treaty was made this year at Easton, sixty miles from 
Philadelphia, with the principal tribes of Indians between the 
Atlantic and the Rocky Mountains. No less than five hundred 
Indian representatives, including women and children, were present, 
in their national costume. 

14. Among them were Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, 
Senecas, Tuscaroras, Nanticoques, Conays, Tuteloes, Chugnuts, 
Delawares, Unamies, Minisinks, Mohicans and Wappingers. Such 
an assembly had not been seen before, since the days of Penn. 



CHAPTER LXX. 



Quebec taken. — Wolfe slain. 




Death of Wolfe. 



1. The campaign of 1759 was opened with an invasion of Canada. 
General Amherst had succeeded General Abercrombie, as the com- 



nowdo? 13. What treaty was made this year? 14. What tribes of Indians were 
present ? 

LXX.— 1. What took place in 1759? What of General Amherst? 2. What was 



QUEBEC TAKEN. 



129 



mander of the colonial forces, and was a far more efficient officer. 
In July of this year, he led a part of his forces against Ticonderoga 
and Crown Point, both of which were taken without much resis- 
tance. 

2. Another division of the army went against Niagara. Here 
was some hard fighting. A serious accident also occurred. General 
Prideaux, the English commander, was killed by the bursting of a 
gun. He was succeeded in the command by GeneralJohnson, who, 
in a few days, gained possession of the post. 

3. It now became the great object of the English and American 
forces to take Quebec. It was quite an ancient place, as old, 
within one year, as Jamestown, and was strongly fortified. It 
was considered almost as difficult to be captured as Louisburg or 
Gibraltar. 

4. Quebec is on the northwest side of the St. Lawrence, and is 
divided into the upper and lower town. The upper town consists of 
a high limestone rock, two hundred feet higher than the river ; but 
the lower town is a plain, almost level with the water. Where the 
upper town joins the river is an abrupt precipice, the summit of 
which is called the heights of Abraham ; around it, or near it, is the 
plain of Abraham. 

5. General Wolfe, a brave and experienced British officer, sailed 
from Louisburg, with eight thousand men, in the month of June, to 
meet General Amherst there, and attack Quebec. He landed on the 
island of Orleans, a little below the city. After many unsuccess- 
ful attempts to approach the city, which took up the time till 
September, he conceived the bold plan of ascending the heights of 
Abraham. 

6. After waiting as long for General Amherst as the season 
would admit, he resolved to proceed alone. Leaving the island of 
Orleans, he first went up the river nine miles ; which the French 
observing, they immediately detached a part of their forces at Que- 
bec to oppose his landing in that direction. 

7. But he did not mean to land there ; he had another end in 
view. He was about to attempt what no one before him had ever 
attempted, and what the French did not suspect. During the night 
of September 12, the troops, in flat-bottomed boats, with some diffi- 
culty, succeeded in landing at the heights, and, by an hour or two 
before day-light, had begun to climb the precipice. 

8. It was no light matter for eight thousand men to climb an 
almost perpendicular precipice, of two hundred feet, and draw up 
after thern all their artillery, baggage, &c. But they persevered, 
General Wolfe himself leading the way. At day-break, the whole 
army had fairly scaled the heights, and were on the plains of 
x^braham. 

9. Though surprised at their appearance, General Montcalm 
rallied the French troops, and made the best possible preparation 



done by another division of the army ? What of General Prideaux ? 3. What of Que- 
bec ? 4. Describe it. 5. What of General Wolfe ?- 6. What did he first attempt ? 
7. What end had he in view ? What was done September 12 ? 8. Describe the ascent. 
9. What of General Montcalm ? Who were victorious ? 10. What was the loss on both 



130 



DEATH OF WOLFE AND MONTCALM. 



for a stout defence. About the middle of the forenoon, the two 
armies met. A hard-fought battle followed, often contested at the 
point of the bayonet, but the English were, at last, victorious. 

10. The battle was not only severe, but exceedingly bloody. The 
English lost six hundred in killed and wounded, and the French many 
more — besides a thousand prisoners. But the loss was most striking 
in valuable officers. The commanders of both armies were killed, as 
well as the second in command. Two other principal generals of 
the French army were also wounded. 

11. General Wolfe, who had placed himself in the front of his 
army to encourage the troops, received a wound in his wrist, early 
in the action, but he wrapped his handkerchief around it, and con- 
tinued at his post. Soon after a ball pierced his groin, but he con- 
cealed the anguish, and fought on. At length, a shot pierced his 
breast, and he fell. 

12. He did not expire, however, immediately, but lived long 
enough to know the issue of the battle. "They fly! they fly!" 
said the men, at a little distance, as he leaned, in the agonies of 
death, on the shoulders of one of his lieutenants. " Who fly?" 
said he, raising, for an instant, his drooping head. Being told it 
was the French, " Then," said he, " I die happy." 

13. The death of Montcalm, the French commander, was not less 
striking. When told that his wound would be fatal in a short time, 
he replied, "Then I shall not live to see Quebec surrendered." 
He spent his last moments in writing a letter to the English 
commander, recommending the French prisoners to his care and 
attention. 

14. The death of these generals has been the theme of frequent 
eulogy — and we cannot deny to them the soldierly merit of courage 
and devotion to their cause. But there is a courage occasionally 
met with, in the hour of death, of a very different kind, and much 
more worthy of being imitated ; we mean that moral courage, which 
arises from the consciousness of being prepared to meet God and an 
assembled universe, in judgment. The field of battle, however, is' 
not well adapted to the display of this high quality ; nor is the hero- 
ism of the soldier the loftiest exhibition of human virtue. 

15. Wolfe was a young man — scarcely thirty-three years of age, 
and much beloved. Montcalm was something over forty-five. Both 
were men of genius and worth. How much is it to be regretted 
that such men cannot spend their lives in deeds of charity and love, 
rather than in war ! 



sides? 11. How many wounds did Wolfe receive? 12. Describe his death. 13. De- 
scribe the death of Montcalm. 14. What of the death of the two generals ? 15. What 
were trie ages of these two great commanders ? 



THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR CONCLUDED. 



131 



CHAPTER LXXI. ^ 

The French and Indian war concluded, &c. 

1. Important to the colonies as were the events described in the 
last chapter, they did not end the struggle. The French were still 
in possession of a powerful army and many strongly-fortified posts. 
Indeed, they were not yet reconciled to the loss of Quebec. 

2. In April of the ensuing spring, the French approached Que- 
bec with a view to retake it, when General Murray, who had been 
left in command of the garrison during the winter, marched out 
to meet them. A bloody battle was fought, about three miles from 
the city, in which the colonists were defeated with the loss of a 
thousand men. 

3. Though the loss of the French in this battle was twice as great 
as that of the English, yet, with their superior numbers, they were 
still able to invest the city. Soon after the siege was begun, an 
English squadron arrived in the river, which attacked and destroyed 
a French fleet of six frigates, and compelled the invading army to 
raise the siege. 

4. The English and colonists now united all their strength to 
take Montreal. They had assembled at its gates a force of more 
than ten thousand men, and new troops were daily arriving, when 
the commander, believing resistance would be useless, surrendered 
the city. Detroit and Michilimackinac and all the fortified posts of 
Canada surrendered a few days afterwards. 

5. During the campaign of 1759, Major Rogers, with two hundred 
men, was sent against the St. Francis Indians. Their principal 
town was St. Francis, situated near the river St. Lawrence, about 
half way between Montreal and Quebec. Major Rogers succeeded 
in burning their town, killing two hundred of their people, and taking 
twenty women and children ; most of whom he, however, afterward 
set free. 

6. These St. Francis Indians had been the most barbarous 
enemies with which New England had been obliged to contend. 
They had, in six years, killed and taken four hundred of the colo- 
nists, and hundreds of scalps were found hanging over the doors of 
their wigwams when Major Rogers entered the village. 

7. But the victory over them, though complete, was dearly 
bought. " We marched nine days," says Major Rogers, " through 
wet, sunken ground, the water, for most of the way, nearly a foot 
deep." In going and returning, and in the battle, he lost about a 
quarter of his men. 

8. In 1760, there was much trouble with the Cherokee Indians at 
the south. A quarrel between them and the Virginians had long 



LXXI.— 1. What of the French ? 2. What of General Murray 7 3. To what city did 
the French lay siege ? What was done by the English squadron ? 4. Why did the 
commander surrender Montreal ? What places afterwards surrendered ? 5. What did 
Major Rogers do % 6. What of the St. Francis Indians ) 7. What does Major Fvogers 



132 



TAXATION OF THE COLONIES. 



existed, but the French traders, it was supposed, inflamed the minds 
of the Indians anew. A detachment of twelve hundred men was 
sent out against them, hut nothing effectual was accomplished. 

9. In 1761, a body of twenty-six hundred men, under Colonel 
Grant, met them in a great battle, in their own country, in which 
the Cherokees were completely defeated. Their houses, magazines 
and cornfields were burnt, and they were driven to the mountains. 
A few days afterwards, the chiefs came in, however, and signed a 
treaty of peace. 

10. Although Canada was conquered and the war ended in that 
quarter, peace was not fully concluded between Great Britain and 
France till the year 1763. In the year 1762, Great Britain and 
Spain were at war, and a force being about to be sent against 
Martinico, in the West Indies, eleven battalions, consisting of four 
thousand men, under the command of General Monckton, were 
ordered for New York. 

11. The French struggled hard, this year, to retake Newfound- 
land, but without success. This was their last effort. Peace was 
made between the contending nations in 1763, by which all the pos- 
sessions of the French, to the northward of the United Colonies, 
were ceded to Great Britain, to which country they still belong. 
Louisiana was also ceded by the French to Spain about the same 
time. 



CHAPTER LXXII. 

Taxation of the colonics. 

1. As early as the year 1651, Great Britain had begun to pass 
laws to restrain and direct the colonial trade. Similar attempts 
were made in 1660 ; again in 1672, 1676, 1691, and 1692. In the 
vear 1696, a pamphlet was published — not indeed by the ministry, 
l)ut by some person of distinction — in which it was recommended to 
iky a tax on one of the colonies. 

2. This pamphlet was answered by two others, which denied the 
power to tax colonies which were not represented in parliament, and 
which had never consented to such taxation. Indeed, the colonies 
had always felt aggrieved by the British restrictions upon their trade 
and commerce ; and Massachusetts and New York had shown their 
dissatisfaction by public acts of their assemblies. 

3. It is true that the British had incurred a heavy expense on 
account of the colonies, but then the trade of the latter was of 
immense value to them. Still they seemed determined to impose 



say of the march?- 8. What happened in 1760? 9. In 1761 ? 10. When was peace 
concluded ? What of the year 1762 ? 11. What of the French ? What was the conse- 
quence of the peace of 1763 ? 

LXXII. — 1. What passed between the years 1651 and 1696? 2. How was the pam- 
phlet answered ? What of the colonies ? 3. What of British taxation ? What was done 



TAXATION OF THE COLONIES. 



133 



taxes in some form. In 1764, it was distinctly stated in the English 
papers that they were about to defray the expenses of quartering a 
body of troops among our countrymen, by requiring a duty on sugar, 
molasses, indigo, coffee, &c. 

4. The sugar act, as it was called, was passed the 5th of April , 
and it was at the same time determined that ten thousand soldiers 
should be kept in America. The British had a large standing army, 
and they must be quartered somewhere ; and why not, they doubtless 
thought, keep a part of them in America, where there is of late 
such a frequent demand for their services 1 

5. But the colonists complained loudly of both these measures, 
especially as they had not given their assent to them. The Massa- 
chusetts agent, in England, had indeed partially assented to them, 
but the colonists had immediately protested against the concession, 
as admitting a principle which they had never intended to yield. It 
was all to no purpose, however ; the parliament were determined to 
make the experiment of taxation without representation. 

6. How much the British were influenced, at this time, by a fear 
of the rising power of the colonies, that had shown themselves able 
to overcome, almost single-handed, the whole host of French and 
Indians from Newfoundland to the Gulf of Mexico, cannot now be 
known. Certain it is, however, that they began to entertain hostile 
feelings towards our country on this account. 

7. On the other hand, the determination of the mother country to 
pay no regard to the complaints of the colonies, respecting taxation 
without representation, had laid the foundation of much ill-will, on the 
part of the colonies, toward her ; and much was said and written on 
the subject by their ablest statesmen and writers, especially by James 
Otis, of Boston, and Richard Henry Lee, of Virginia. 

8. The sugar act led to a great deal of smuggling, and finally to 
an almost entire extinction of the colonial trade with the French 
and Spanish West Indies. The colonies, as if to retaliate, resolved 
not to purchase clothing of the English, but to use, as much as 
possible, their own manufactures. 

9. This resolution was so generally adhered to, that the con- 
sumption of British merchandise was greatly diminished in the 
colonies, especially in the large and populous towns. In Boston, 
alone, it was lessened, in the year 1764, more than ten thousand 
pounds sterling.* But this, instead of inducing the parent country 
to relax the severity of their measures, only induced them to perse- 
vere in their oppression. 



in 1764 1 4. "What was determined upon ? 5. What of the colonists 'f What of Massa- 
chusetts 1 What were the parliament determined to do ? 6. What cannot be known % 
What is certain % 7. What of the determination of the mother country ? Who wrote 
on the subject of taxation? 8. What of the sugar act 7 Upon what did the colonies 
resolve ? 9. What of the consumption of British merchandise 2 What of the parent 
country 1 

* Boston contained, in 1764, about fifteen thousand inhabitants. 
12 



134 



THE STAMP ACT. 



CHAPTER LXXIII. 



The Stamp Act. 




Patrick Henry. 



1. In 1765, the British parliament passed what has always been 
known by the name of the Stamp Act. According to this act, no 
colonial instruments, in writing, such as deeds, bonds and notes were 
to be binding, or of any force whatever, unless they were executed 
on stamped paper, for which a duty was to be paid to the crown of 
Great Britain. 

2. As the result of this act, a ream of stamped bail-bonds would 
come to one hundred pounds sterling, or nearly five hundred dollars, 
and a ream of stamped policies of insurance one hundred and ninety 
pounds ; whereas, before this, the former cost only fifteen pounds 
and the latter twenty. It was only a tax of some eight or ten cents 
on each sheet, and was not, in itself, aside from the principle on 
which it was based, very oppressive. 

3. Though the act passed the House of Lords, in Great Britain, 
unanimously, it met with opposition in the House of Commons. 
Colonel Barre, in particular, spoke against it with great warmth 
and eloquence. And when the question was put, whether or not 
it should be passed, fifty members out of three hundred were 
against it. 

4. It is also worthy of note that while the act was in debate there, 
Dr. Franklin, who was then in London, and much respected for his 
good sense, was sent for and consulted. He told them, plainly, the 
Americans would never submit to it. After the act passed, he wrote 



LXXH1.— 1. What was done in 1765 ? 2. What was the result of this act ? 3. What 
of Colonel Barre 1 4. Relate the anecdote of Franklin. 5. What effect had the stamp 



SOCIETIES AND MOBS. 



135 



to a friend ; " The sun of liberty is set. The Americans must now 
light the torches of industry and economy." 

5. But the opposition the stamp act had met with in England was 
as nothing to the opposition it was destined to meet with in the 
colonies.* A general burst of indignation pervaded the country, 
and most of the legislative assemblies passed resolves, and some of 
them protests, against it. Nowhere, however, was more spirit mani- 
fested on the subject than in Virginia. 

6. The assembly of this colony having met soon after the news of 
the stamp act arrived, a series of resolutions, strongly expressive of 
disapprobation, w r as introduced, which occasioned a warm debate 
and some very hard words. It was on this occasion that Patrick 
Henry, then quite a young man, by a bold remark of his, gave 
an impulse that was felt from one end of the continent to the 
other. 

7. He had been asserting that the British king had acted the part 
of a tyrant. Then, alluding to the fate of other tyrants, he observed, 
" Cesar had his Brutus, Charles I. his Cromwell, and George III." 

. Here he paused; upon which the cry of "Treason! 

treason !" being raised in the house, he only added, " may profit from 
their example! If that be treason, make the most of it." 

8. A congress of the colonies having been recommended by 
Massachusetts, one was accordingly convened in New York, in 
October. It consisted of three members from each of the colonies 
of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and South Carolina. 
They remonstrated against the stamp act, and drew up a declaration 
of their rights, declaring taxation and representation to be insep- 
arable. 

9. But the public disapprobation was expressed in another way. 
The people had burnt, or reshipped, or hid the stamped paper already 
in the colonies, ko that, on the day in w T hich the law went into opera- 
tion, little, if any, could be found. They would not even receive the 
Canadian gazettes, because they were on stamped paper. Such a 
course was indeed equivalent to the suspension of nearly all business, 
but it was resolutely persevered in. 



CHAPTER LXXIV. 

Societies and ?nobs. 

1. Newspapers had as great an influence on the public mind, in 
proportion to their number, in 1765, as now, and perhaps even 



act in the colonies ? 6. What resolutions were passed ? What of Patrick Henry ? 
7. Relate the anecdote of him. 8. What of a congress ? 9. How was disapprobation 
expressed? 

* Massachusetts had passed a stamp act of her own, in 1759, which included even 
newspapers ; but she was not willing to be taxed by the British government. 



136 



SOCIETIES AND MOBS. 



greater. These continued to be published, though on inferior paper. 
They were, as with one voice, clamorous against the stamp act, 
and severe in their denunciations of those who were friendly 
to it. 

2. Societies in great numbers were formed, during this year, of 
those who were determined to unite in resisting parliamentary 
oppression. They called themselves " Sons of Liberty." They 
were particularly numerous in New York, Connecticut, and Massa- 
chusetts. Towards the close of the year, these associations, in the 
several colonies, became united by a kind of national compact. 

3. Societies of quite another kind were also formed. Dr. Frank- 
lin had advised the people to 'Might the lamps of industry and 
economy." These associations, just now referred to, embraced per- 
sons of all ages and of both sexes, who were more willing to do 
without luxuries, and live by their own industry, than to depend on 
Great Britain. 

4. Instead of wearing imported cloth, the more wealthy people 
were soon seen in dresses of their own manufacture ; and for fear 
there might not be wool enough for their purpose, the use of sheep 
for food was discouraged. The most fashionable people could now 
card, spin, and weave their own cloth, and deny themselves the use 
of all foreign luxuries. 

5. Nor were these resolutions and changes in modes of living 
confined to cities and towns, and to the more wealthy. Close 
economy became the order of the day. Multitudes of artists and 
manufacturers, in England, were left without employment, as the 
consequence of the diminished sale of their productions in the 
colonies ; and Great Britain everywhere began to feel the conse- 
quences of her folly. 

6. Meanwhile, mobs began to be got up in the colonies. In 
August, two images, called effigies, were found hanging on the 
branch of an old elm tree, near the southern limits of Boston. One 
represented a stamp officer. There was a great jack-boot, also, out 
of wffich rose a horned head, which seemed to gaze around. Multi- 
tudes collected from all parts to witness the strange sight. 

7. This, however, was but the beginning of mobs and mob law. 
About dark the same day. the effigies in Boston were taken down, 
placed on a bier, and carried about the city in solemn procession. The 
mob followed, shouting aloud, " Liberty and property, forever ; and 
no stamps." 

8. After passing through several of the principal streets, they 
halted at the house of one Oliver, which they supposed to be intended 
for a stamp-office, and having demolished it, carried off the wood 
through the streets, with a tremendous noise, to the dwelling of Mr. 
Oliver ; where, having gone through the ceremony of cutting off his 
head, in effigy, they finished by breaking his windows. 

9. They then marched up Fort Hill, still following the two 



LXJJV.— 1. What of newspapers? 2. Societies? 3. Other societies? 4. What 
was done by the more wealthy people ? 5. Describe other changes in the modes of 
living. 6. Describe the effigies. 7. What more was done? 8 3 9. Describe the pro- 
cession of effigies. 10. What took place in New England 1 



REPEAL OF THE STAMP ACT. 



137 



figures, jack-boot, horns and all. Here they kindled a bonfire with 
them — returned to Oliver's house with clubs and staves, and destroyed 
his gardens, fences and out-houses. Oliver fled. They then broke 
open his doors and destroyed much of his furniture. The next day, 
Mr. Oliver gave notice that he would not serve as a stamp officer ; 
upon which the farce ended. 

10. These riotous acts, or those which were similar, were repeated 
in_ Boston and elsewhere throughout New England, and even in 
New York, Maryland and the Carolinas. At Newport and New 
York, the effigies of various persons, who were disliked, were 
dragged about, hung, burned, &c. ; and, in a few instances, houses 
were plundered. 



CHAPTER LXXV. 



Repeal of the Stamp Act. 




. 1. The king and parliament of Great Britain finally saw their 
error, but they were too proud to retrace their steps by repeal- 
ing the offensive law. However, something must be done to quiet 
the colonies ; and this became, at the opening of the parliament in 
1766, a leading object of inquiry. 

2. Dr. Franklin was again consulted on the subject. He did not 
assume an air of triumph and say, " I told you all this would hap- 
pen." He knew, too well, the weakness and folly of human nature, 
even in members of parliament. He only repeated what he had 



LXXV.— 1. What of the kinsr and parliament ? 2. What of Dr. Franklin ? 3. Was 
12* 



13S 



REPEAL OF THE STAMP ACT. 



before said, " That, though the Americans were a reasonable 
people, they would never submit to taxation of any kind without 
representation, unless compelled to do so by mere force of arms." 

3. Fortunately for Great Britain, as well as America, there had 
been, about this time, a change in the administration, and the repeal 
of the stamp act had become, at length, a subject of earnest and 
deep consideration. And though there was great and even obsti- 
nate opposition to its repeal, the measure was at length carried. 

4. The repeal of the act was hailed with universal joy. The 
American merchants, in London, were among the first to testify 
their gratitude. The ships lying in the river Thames, displayed 
their colors. The houses of the city were lighted up, cannon fired, 
bonfires kindled, and messengers sent to spread the news, as fast as 
possible, in England and America. 



5. But it was in America that the tidings were received with joy 
the most heartfelt and sincere. The general assemblies of Massa- 
chusetts and Virginia went so far as to vote thanks to Mr. Pitt and 
the other members of parliament, who had done so much to effect a 
repeal ; and in Virginia it was proposed to erect a statue to the 
king. Mr. Pitt, Colonel Barre and Edmund Burke, who had favored 
our cause in parliament, received the thanks of the people, and 
Charles Grenville, who had opposed it with great ability, excited 
general feelings of indignation. 

6. There was one drawback upon the general joy ; for, at the 
time of voting for the repeal of the stamp act, parliament also voted 
that they had a right to tax America whenever they should think it 
expedient. This, of course, was an adherence to the general 




Edmund Burke. 



the stamp act repealed ? 4. How was the joy of the Americans, in London, expressed ? 
5. What was done in America ? 6. What was still to be lamented ? 



MORE TAXATION. 



139 



principle against which the colonists had been all along con- 
tending. 

7. Well had it been, no doubt, for the mother country, had sbe 
stopped here ; and though the right to tax America had been 
asserted, refrained from any other offensive or oppressive acts. But 
Providence had not designed — so it would seem — that the colonies 
should always remain the subjects of a monarch four thousand miles 
distant ; and the hour of separation was rapidly approaching. 



CHAPTER LXXVI. 

More Taxation. 




George 111—1166. 



L On the 29th of June, 1767, the king signed another act, which 
involved the principle of taxation without representation, and as 
applied, in its worst features. It required a duty, to be paid by the 
colonists, on all paper, glass, painters' colors and tea, which were 
imported into the country. 

2. The people of America did not hesitate to pronounce this act 
as unjust as the sugar and stamp act had been. It was not that they 
were too poor to pay a small tax on such articles as these, but if the 
crown could tax them without their consent in one way, it could in 
another ; and where was the matter to end 1 

3. The British, it is true, reasoned otherwise. Their finances, 
they said, were exhausted by a war for the support of the colonies, 
and which had cost them nearly four hundred millions of dollars. It 
was, therefore, not only right that the Americans should contribute 
to pay its expenses, but extremely ungrateful for them to refuse. 
They had taxed themselves severely on cider, ale, beer, porter, tea, 



LXXVI.— 1. What was done in 1767 ? 2. What of the people of America ? 3, 4. What 



140 MORE TAXATION. 

sugar, coffee, molasses, &c., and why could not the colonies pay 
something also 1 

4. And as to taxation without representation, the British said 
that the colonies had taxed themselves, most heavily, and without 
being represented in parliament. They were not represented when 
Massachusetts paid two millions of dollars for the support of one 
French war, and also furnished twenty thousand to thirty thousand 
troops ; why did they not complain then ? But this reasoning did 
not satisfy the colonists. 

5. But the tax on paper, glass, tea, &c, was not alone. A law 
was passed which obliged the several American legislatures to pro- 
vide quarters for the British troops, and furnish them with fuel, 
lodging, candles and other necessaries, at the expense of the colonies. 
This act was little less odious than the former. 

6. New York, it is true, so far yielded as to make partial pro- 
vision for the troops about to be quartered there. The assembly, at 
the request of the governor, voted to furnish barracks, fire-wood, 
candles and beds ; but not salt, vinegar, cider and beer, as the law 
demanded. They, however, finally furnished the whole. 

7. Still more than all this, — an act passed the parliament, 
establishing a custom-house and board of commissioners in America. 
The duties were to commence November 20 ; and early in that 
month three of the commissioners arrived at Boston. The colonists, 
believing this board was created to enforce payment of the new 
duties, were more inflamed than ever. 

8. Besides, the duties collected were to be applied in paying the 
salaries of governors, judges and other officers ; and it was easy to 
see that if they were paid in this way, rather than by the general 
assembly, they would not be so likely to regard the interest of the 
people whom they served ; and would be more apt to be the mere 
tools of the king and parliament. 

9. The consequences were, resolves, petitions, and remonstrances 
from all parts of the country. In 1768, the legislature of Massa- 
chusetts voted a humble petition to the king on the subject. This 
was followed by a circular letter to the representatives and burgesses 
of the other colonies, requesting them to unite in some suitable 
measures for obtaining a redress of their grievances. 

10. This circular and the petition to the king, by Massachusetts, 
gave great offence to the British administration, and they demanded 
of the colonies that they should retrace the steps they had taken, 
and crush in the bud the rising propensity among them to act in 
concert. To this end, they, in their turn, sent a circular to the 
colonies. But all to no purpose. 

11. The merchants and traders of Boston now entered into a 
compact, by which they agreed not to import, for one year, any kind 
of goods or merchandise from Great Britain, except a few articles 



was said by the British ? 5. What law was passed? 6. What of New York ? The 
assembly ? 7. What act was passed ? What effect was produced on the colonies ? 
8. What of the dut ies collected? 9. What was done in 1763? 10. W r hat did ths 
British parliament demand? 11. What did the merchants and traders of Boston now 



BRITISH TROOPS IN BOSTON. 



141 



which they specified ; nor to purchase British articles of the same 
kind from other colonies or nations which had procured them from 
Britain. 

12. But there was trouble springing up of another kind. The 
laws of trade had been hitherto greatly eluded, but the board of com- 
missioners now determined they should be executed. A sloop, laden 
with wine, from Madeira, came into port. During the night, all the 
wine, except a few pipes, was unladen and put into stores. The 
custom-house officers seized the vessel and put her under a guard. 

13. This last act roused the indignation of the Bostonians more 
than ever. A mob collected and proceeded to the houses of the 
collector and controller of customs, broke the windows, dragged the 
collector's boat through the streets, and finally burnt it on the com- 
mon ; and some of the custom-house officers narrowly escaped with 
their lives. 



CHAPTER LXXVII. 



British troops in Boston. 




1 . The existing excitement was much heightened by the arrival in 
the harbor, a few days afterward, of two regiments of British troops, 
sent to assist the governor and the other civil magistrates of Boston 
in preserving peace, and to aid the custom-house officers in perform- 



do ? 12. What other trouble was there? What of the sloop? 13. What was done 
by the Bostonians ? 

LXXVII.— 1. What cf the British troops ? 2. What of the selectmen? The gov- 



142 



BRITISH TROOPS IN BOSTON, 



ing their duty. What added still more to the public indignation was 
the fact that the troops marched through the city, to the common, 
with muskets charged and with fixed bayonets. 

2. The selectmen of the town at first refused to give the soldiers 
any quarters, though they finally consented to admit one regiment 
of them into Faneuil Hall. The next day, as if in direct defiance 
of the public feeling, the governor opened the state-house to them, 
and they not only occupied it, but stationed a guard with two field- 
pieces in front of it. 

3. This was new to the Bostonians. It was quite as much as 
they could bear to have a royal governor and foreign collectors of 
customs among them ; but to have the king's soldiers and cannon 
about the state-house, and fill the streets, even on Sunday, with the 
noise of drums and fifes, was more than their independent spirits 
could calmly endure. 

4. It was not, however, till the beginning of the year 1769, that 
an universal indignation was roused throughout the colonies. The 
feeling of opposition had hitherto been somewhat local, but the 
spirit of resistance had now extended to every part of the country. 

5. The British parliament, in February, 1769, had requested the 
king to give orders to the governor of Massachusetts, to take notice 
of such persons, in his province, as might be guilty of treason, and 
have them sent to England to be tried. These orders were, doubt- 
less, to have been extended afterward to the governors of the other 
colonies. 

6. No measure could have been adopted, by the parent country, 
more likely to alienate the feelings of her American subjects than 
this. To be liable to be torn from their own country to be tried by 
a jury of strangers, was as repugnant to their feelings as it was to 
the spirit of the British constitution. 

7. The house of burgesses of Virginia, and the general assembly 
of North Carolina, having met a few days after the arrival of this 
odious intelligence, passed a series of resolutions, which greatly 
offended their governors, — who, like the governor of Massachusetts, 
were royal favorites, — and they forthwith broke up their deliberations. 
But it was too late to gag the people, and especially the representatives 
of the people, in general assembly. 

3. Affairs proceeded no better in Massachusetts. When their legis- 
lature met, in May, they refused to transact business as long as the 
state-house was surrounded by an armed force. As the governor 
was unwilling to remove the troops, they adjourned to Cambridge, 
where, after passing some resolutions, which were offensive to the 
governor, they were dismissed by him, and sent home, as their 
southern brethren had been. 



ernor 1 3. What was the effect of this new movement upon the Bostonians % 4. What 
was the feeling in 1769 ? 5. What of the British parliament ? 6. How were the Ameri- 
cans affected by the British measures ? 7. What of Virginia and North Carolina ! 

8. Massachusetts 1 



THE BOSTON MASSACRE. 143 

CHAPTER LXXVIII. 

The Boston Massacre. 

1. During the session of the British parliament, in the spring of 
1770, an act was passed for repealing all the duties which caused so 
much complaint, except that on tea. This was continued, to show- 
that they had not yielded the right to impose taxes, if they chose to 
do so. As might have been expected, however, the colonists were 
still dissatisfied. 

2. The British troops remained in Boston, and seemed determined 
to remain there, notwithstanding the known disgust of the citizens 
at the idea of having a foreign force stationed among them. There 
was, it is true, for some time, no open quarrel, but the citizens and 
soldiers were continually insulting each other. 

3. Things could not remain thus, always. On the 2d of March, 
1770, as a soldier was going by the shop of a rope-maker, he 
was attacked and severely beaten. He ran off, but soon returned 
with a number of his comrades, and attacked and beat some of the 
rope-makers. 

4. The people were now more angry than ever. Between seven 
and eight o'clock in the evening of March 5, a mob collected, 
armed with clubs, and proceeded towards King street, now State 
street, crying, ' 4 Let us drive out these rascals — they have no busi- 
ness here — drive them out ! Drive out the rascals!" Meanwhile, 
there was a cry that the town had been set on fire. 

5. The bells rang, and the crowd became greater still, and more 
noisy. They rushed furiously to the custom-house, and seeing an 
English sentinel there, shouted, 4 • Kill him! kill him!" — at the 
same time attacking him with pieces of ice and whatever they could 
find. The sentinel called for the rest of the guard, and a few of 
them came forward. 

6. The guard marched out with their guns loaded. They met a 
great crowd of people, led on by an immense giant of a negro, 
named Attucks. They brandished their clubs and pelted the soldiers 
with snow-balls, abusing them with harsh words, shouting in their 
faces and even challenging them to fire. They even rushed upon 
the very points of their bayonets. 

7. The soldiers stood awhile like statues, the bells ringing and 
the mob pressing upon them. At last, Attucks, with twelve of his 
men began to strike upon their muskets with clubs, and to cry out 
to the mob, " Don't be afraid — they dare not fire — the miserable 
cowards — kill the rascals — crush them under foot !" 

8. Attucks now lifted his arm against the captain of the guard, 
and seized hold of a bayonet. " They dare not fire !" shouted the 
mob again. At this instant the firing began. Attucks dropped 



LXXVUL— 1. What act was passed in 1770? 2. What of the British troops? 
3. What took place in March, 1770? 4. What of a mob on March 5 7 5,6, 7, 8. De- 
scribe the light between the people and the soldiers. 9. What wa3 the state of the 



144 



BURNING OF THE GASPEE. 



dead, immediately. The soldiers fired twice more, and two more were 
killed and others wounded. The mob dispersed, but soon returned 
to carry oft' the bodies. 

9. The w T hole town was now in an uproar. Thousands of men, 
women and children rushed through the streets. The sound of 
drums, and cries of " To arms! To arms!" were heard from all 
quarters. The soldiers who had fired on the people were arrested, 
and the governor at last persuaded the mob to disperse and go 
quietly to their homes. 

10. The next morning, the troops in the city were ordered off 
to Castle William, one of the city fortifications. On the Sth of 
March, the three slain citizens w T ere buried. The shops were all 
closed during the ceremony, and the bells in Boston and the adjoin- 
ing towns were all the while tolling. An immense procession fol- 
lowed to the church-yard. 

11. The soldiers were, soon afterward, tried. Two of them were 
condemned and imprisoned, and six of them were acquitted. John 
Adams and Josiah Quincy, eminent lawyers, pleaded their cause. 
The mob would have torn them in pieces if they could have had 
their own way, for mobs are seldom just or reasonable. 



CHAPTER LXXIX. 

Burning of the Gaspee. 

1. For a year or two, things went on better than before, though 
not by any means quietly. The merchants began again to buy 
English goods, except tea, which they would have nothing to do 
with. Associations were even formed in many parts of the country, 
pledging themselves not to use it. 

2. The revenue officers continued to be despised, and, as much as 
possible, treated with contempt. In the year 1771, one of them, in 
Boston, had undertaken to seize a vessel for some violation of the 
law, when he was taken by the mob, stripped naked, carted through 
the city, and tarred and feathered. 

3. There was, the same year, an insurrection in North Carolina. 
A body of the inhabitants, to the number of fifteen hundred, under 
the name of regulators, rose against law, order and government, and 
against all lawyers and officers of government. Governor Try on 
marched against them, killed three hundred, and took some^prisoners. 
A number of them w T ere tried for high treason and executed. 

4. But one of the most startling events of this period took place 
at Rhode Island, in the year 1772. The Gaspee, a British armed 
schooner, had been lying, for some time, at Providence, to sustain 



town? What of the governor? 10. What was done the next day? Describe the 
funeral. 11. Whit of the soldiers ? Who pleaded for them ? 
LXXIX.— 1. What of the merchants? 2. What of the revenue officers ? 4. 5. Relate 



THE TEA THROWN OVERBOARD. 



145 



the laws respecting trade. The Rhode Island people, many of 
them, hated her, and only waited for a favorable opportunity for 
giving vent to their indignation. 

5. Such an opportunity soon occurred. The Gaspee was accus- 
tomed to require the Providence vessels to take down their colors 
when they came into port, and to fire on them and chase them into 
port, if they refused. One day, as a packet was coming in with 
passengers, she refused to lower her colors ; upon which the Gaspee 
gave chase to her, and in the chase ran aground. 

6. This was just what the packet wanted, and she had manoeuvred 
for this purpose. On arriving at the city, a plan was laid to destroy 
the schooner. A volunteer company of soldiers was soon enlisted, 
under Captain Wipple, and several boats, with armed men, prepared 
for the service. 

7. About tw T o o'clock, the next morning, the party found means 
to get on board the Gaspee. After sending the lieutenant, 
with his more valuable effects, together with the crew, on shore, 
they burnt the schooner with all her stores. The lieutenant, in a 
conflict, while they were boarding the Gaspee, was wounded, but no 
one was otherwise injured. 

8. Great pains were taken by the officers of the British govern- 
ment to discover and punish these offenders against the royal 
authority. Among other measures, a reward of five hundred 
pounds sterling, was offered. Commissioners were also appointed 
to hear and try the cause. No discovery, however, was made. 

9. At a town meeting in Boston, this year, a committee was 
appointed to lay before the several towns in the provinces, as well 
as before the world, the views of the people respecting their own rights 
in relation to the parent country. Virginia came into the measure in 
the year 1773, and recommended the plan to the other colonies. 
Committees of correspondence were appointed, which kept up an 
interchange of opinions between the colonies, and laid the basis of 
their final union. 



CHAPTER LXXX. 

The tea thrown overboard. 

1. A bill was passed by the British parliament, in 1773, allowing 
the East Jndia Company to export their teas to America without the 
duties paid in England. As this would make tea actually cheaper 
in America than in Great Britain, it was thought that the colonies 
would willingly pay the small duty thus demanded of them, it being 
only three pence a pound. 



what took place between the Gaspee and the packet. 6. "What plan was laid ? 
7. What success had the assailants ?- 8. What was done by the British government ? 
9. What took place in Boston 1 Virginia? What of committees 1 
LXXX.— 1. What was done in 1773 ? 2. Give an account of the reception of tea in 
13 



146 



THE TEA THROWN OVERBOARD. 



2. Large ships were accordingly loaded with tea, and sent out to 
America. When they arrived, however, not a man could be found 
to receive the tea, or have anything to do with it. A few chests, 
which some individual had brought to Philadelphia, were let down 
very quietly into the sea by a band of persons who went slily on 
board for that purpose. 





j \ 




m 



Throning over the tea. 

3. The East India Company, confident of finding a market for 
their tea, reduced, as it now was, in its price, freighted several ships 
with it to the colonies, and appointed agents for its disposal. Some 
cargoes were sent to New York, some to Philadelphia, some to 
Charleston, S. C, and three to Boston. 

4. The inhabitants of New York and Philadelphia sent the tea, 
which came to them, back to London. The people of Charleston 
unloaded theirs and stored it in damp cellars, where it was soon 
spoiled. The Bostonians tried to send theirs back to London, 
but could not succeed. They would not, however, suffer it to be 
landed. 

5. As a last resort, a town-meeting was summoned, and it was 
agreed to call on the governor and make a formal request to him 
that the ships might be sent off. But the governor paid no attention 
to the request. This produced a great uproar, and a man in the 
gallery, dressed like an Indian, shouted the cry of War ; upon which 
the meeting was dissolved instantly. 

6. The multitude then rushed towards the wharf where the tea 
vessels lay. Here were seventeen sea captains, carpenters, &c, 
dressed and painted like Indians. It was now night, and in the dark- 
ness they w r ent on board the three vessels, and in less than two hours 
three hundred and forty chests were staved and emptied into the 



America 3 3. What of the East India Company ?- 4. What was done with the tea by 
the different towns 1 o. What of a town meeting ? 6. What was done by the people ? 



THE FIRST CONGRESS. 



147 



sea. When this was done, the crowd dispersed quietly to their 
homes. 

7. An account of these disturbances reached England early in 
1774, but it only incensed the government so much the more against 
the colonies, and made them so much the more resolute in the deter- 
mination to punish them for their insolence. Boston was the first to 
feel their vengeance ; and, in order to destroy the trade of that town, 
they forbade the landing of any goods in it ; thus virtually placing it 
in a state of blockade. 

8. This last act of parliament was called the port bill. It took 
effect June 1st. Its passage was a most unpropitious event. Not 
only in Boston, but throughout the country, there was a general 
burst of indignation. Town meetings were held and fasts appointed ; 
and a " league and covenant," as it was called, not to trade any 
more with England, was signed by immense numbers of the 
citizens. 

9. General Gage, who had, in the spring of the year, been 
appointed governor of Massachusetts, issued his proclamation against 
the league, declaring it to be treasonable ; but the Bostonians only 
said, in reply, that his proclamation was treason, and that all who 
refused to sign the league were enemies to their country. 



CHAPTER LXXXI. 

The first Congress. 

1. When the legislature of Massachusetts met at Salem, in June 
of this year, a meeting of committees, or delegates, from the several 
colonies was proposed, and delegates, on the part of Massachusetts, 
were selected. The other colonies fell in with the measure, and it was 
gradually adopted, and delegates appointed, from New Hampshire to 
Georgia. 

2. This meeting of delegates, or first general congress of the 
colonies, was opened September 4, 1774, at Philadelphia. Com- 
mittees, or delegates, were present from eleven of the colonies. 
Those from North Carolina did not arrive till the 14th. They 
chose Peyton Randolph president, and Charles Thompson secretary. 
They also determined that, in their proceedings, each colony should 
be entitled to one vote only. 

3. The proceedings of this congress were distinguished for great 
boldness, decision and determination. A declaration of rights was 
soon agreed on. It was also resolved that no goods should be carried 
to Great Britain, nor any received from that country. They further 



7. What was done by the British government ? 8. What of the port bill ? League and 
covenant 7 9. Governor Gage ? 

LXXXI. — 1. What was done at Salem ? What measure was adopted 1 2. What 
was done in September, 1774 ?- What was done by committees ? 3. What can you say 



148 



THE DAWN OF LIBERTY. 



agreed to send a petition to the king, an address to the British 
people, and a memorial to the inhabitants of Canada. 

4. The congress was in session eight weeks. Before it was 
dissolved, another congress was proposed to be held at the same 
place on the 10th of the following May, " unless a redress of their 
grievances should be previously obtained ; " to which meeting, or 
congress, all the colonies were advised to appoint delegates as soon 
as possible. 

5. Concerning the proceedings of the first congress of the united 
colonies, which have been alluded to as somewhat remarkable, we 
have the testimony of Mr. Pitt himself, the British minister, who 
had read their memorial, address and petition, and who would 
not be apt to speak too highly of their character. It is as fol- 
lows : 

6. "I must declare and avow that in all my reading and study — 
and it has been my favorite study — I have read Thucydides and 
have studied and admired the master states of the world — that for 
solidity of reasoning, force of sagacity, and wisdom of conclusion, 
under such complication of circumstances, no nation or body of men 
can stand in preference to the general congress at Philadelphia." 



CHAPTER LXXXII. 

The dawn of liberty. 

1. While the king's troops remained in Boston, it was curious to 
watch the influence of their presence on the young. The boys of 
the city soon caught the spirit of opposition which burned in the 
bosoms of their fathers, as will appear in the following anecdote. 

2. The boys of Boston were, in the winter, in the habit of build- 
ing, for amusement, little hills of snow, and sliding them into the 
pond on the common. The English soldiers, merely to provoke 
them, beat down these snow hills. The boys rebuilt them. On 
returning to them, after school, however, they found them beaten 
down again. 

3. Several of the boys now waited upon the British captain and 
informed him of the conduct of his soldiers. But the captain only 
made light of it; which the soldiers perceiving, only became more 
troublesome to the boys than they were before. 

4. At last they called a meeting of the largest boys, and sent 
them to General Gage, the commander-in-chief. He asked why so 
many children had called upon him. "We come, sir," said the 
tallest boy, " to demand satisfaction." " What," said the general, 



of the proceedings of congress? 4. How long was congress in session? What was 
proposed ? 5. 6. What was Pitt's opinion of the first congress held at Philadelphia ? 

LXXXII. — 1. Were the boys of Boston influenced by the feelings of their fathers? 
2 ; 3, 4, 5, 6. Relate the anecdote of the boys and the English soldiers. 



150 



PREPARATION FOR WAR. 



" have your fathers been teaching you rebellion, and sent you to 
exhibit it here ? ! ' 

5. " Nobody sent us, sir," answered the boy, while his cheek 
reddened and his eye flashed. " We have never injured or insulted 
your troops ; but they have trodden down our snow-hills, and broken 
the ice on our skating ground. We complained, and they called us 
young rebels, and told us to help ourselves if we could. We 
told the captain of this, and he laughed at us. Yesterday our 
works were destroyed the third time, and we will bear it no 
longer." 

6. General Gage looked at them a moment, in silent admiration, 
and then said to an officer at his side, " The very children here 
draw in a love of liberty with the air they breathe. You may go, 
my brave boys ; and be assured if my troops trouble you again they 
shall be punished." 



CHAPTER LXXXIII. 

Preparation for tear. 

1. The symptoms of rebellion became so apparent in the pro- 
gress of this year, 1774, that Governor Gage began to fortify Boston 
neck, as the narrow portion of land which unites Boston with Rox- 
bury and the country, was then called. This being done, he sent 
out troops and seized upon the powder magazine at Charlestown. 

2. These measures produced much excitement in Boston ; to add 
to which, some evil-minded person raised a report that the British 
vessels in the harbor had begun to fire upon the town. Such 
an uproar existed, in and about Boston, that, in a few hours, 
from twenty thousand to thirty thousand men were on their march 
to the city. Finding their mistake, however, they went home 
again. 

3. But the public excitement was not confined to the immediate 
neighborhood of Boston. In Portsmouth, New Hampshire, the 
colonists seized upon the fort, though garrisoned with British troops, 
and carried off every gun and every pound of powder. The people 
of Newport, Rhode Island, also took possession of forty pieces of 
cannon in the same way. 

4. As Governor Gage had been unfriendly to the measures of the 
colonial assembly, it was determined that the legislature should meet 
in Concord. The meeting was resolved into a provincial congress, 
and John Hancock was chosen its president. Here measures were 
taken for arming the whole province ; twelve thousand men were 
to be raised and to hold themselves ready to march at a moment's 
warning. 



LXXXIII.— 1. What did Governor Gage now do? 2. What excitement was raised 
in Boston ? 3. What can you say of the people in different places ? 4. What was now 



BATTLE OF LEXINGTON. 



151 



5. A request was also forwarded by this assembly to Connecticut, 
New Hampshire and Rhode Island, to urge their co-operation in the 
measures of the Massachusetts congress, and to increase the army 
of " minute men" to twenty thousand. A committee was also 
appointed to correspond with the inhabitants of Canada. 

6. Another ihing was done by the congress at Concord. A 
circular letter was addressed to the ministers of the gospel in the 
province, xequesting their assistance in avoiding that "dreadful 
slavery," as they called it, with which the country was threatened. 
What effect this letter had, does not appear ; but it is well known 
that both the ministers and lawyers of the states were, almost to a 
man, among the friends of liberty. 

7. A provincial congress, which was held in Maryland, sustained, 
by its resolutions and measures, both the doings of the general 
congress at Philadelphia and those of the provincial congress at 
Concord. The same spirit was manifested by the resolutions and 
acts of some of the other provinces, especially South Carolina. 

8. It was at this juncture that Dr. Franklin was removed from 
the office of postmaster general of the British colonies of North 
America. The honest, but decided course he had taken, both while 
residing in England and while at home in Philadelphia, had offended 
the British government, and they were determined that he should 
feel the effects of their displeasure. 



CHAPTER LXXXIV. 

Battle of Lexington. 

1. Little attention was paid by the British government to what 
was going on in Boston and elsewhere. They thought the colonists 
wrong-headed and rebellious, and that they must be forced into 
obedience. Mr. Pitt, indeed, was wiser ; but his opinion was dis- 
regarded. They passed an act* in February, 1775, declaring the 
Massachusetts people to be rebels ; and another to raise more troops 
and seamen. 

2. Meanwhile, the colonies were preparing for war. Among 
other munitions, they had a great amount of military stores in 
Boston, and wished to remove them to the country. To deceive 
the British guards, they carried out cannon and ball in carts, covered 
with manure ; powder in market-baskets; and cartridges in candle- 
boxes. 

3. Nor was Governor Gage wholly idle; he made preparation, 



resolved ? 5. What request was made by the assembly ? 6. What letter was circu- 
lated? What is well known ? 7. What of the provincial congress? 8. What of Dr. 
Franklin ? 

LXXXTV.— 1. What of the British government ? What was done in February, 1775 ? 
2. What were the colonies now preparing to do? What military stores had they ? 



152 



EATTLE OF LEXINGTON. 



too. One day he sent his soldiers for some cannon he had heard of 
at Salem. As they were returning, the people had assembled and 
taken up a drawbridge and would not let the soldiers pass ; and had 
it not been for the interposition of Mr., Bernard, a clergyman, a 
battle would probably have ensued. 




Battle of Lexington. 



4. Late in the evening of April 18, Governor Gage sent out eight 
hundred grenadiers and light infantry to destroy some military stores 
at Lexington and Concord. But, in spite of the lateness of the hour 
and the secrecy of his movements, he was discovered, and a part of 
the militia were on the green, near the meeting-house in Lexington, 
by two o'clock in the morning, ready to defend the stores, if 
necessary. 

5. At five o'clock, on the morning of the 19th, the British troops, 
with Major Pitcairn at their head, came marching into Lexington. 
" Disperse, you rebels," said Major P., with an oath, to the militia. 
<; Throw down your arms and disperse." The order was not 
obeyed. He then rode towards them, discharged his pistol, bran- 
dished his sword and ordered his men to fire. They fired, and three 
or four persons fell dead. 

6. The militia, upon this, began to disperse; but the firing did 
not cease. The British shouted and fired, while the Americans were 
retreating ; and the latter stopped occasionally to return the fire. 
Several of the Americans were slain in their retreat, and several 
others wounded. The whole number of the Americans who were 
killed was eight. 

7. The British now proceeded to Concord. There they destroyed 
two large cannon, threw about five hundred pounds of ball into 



3. What of Governor Gage 7 "What passed between the soldiers and the people ? 

4. What did Governor Gage do in April ? What of the militia ? 5, 6. Describe the 
meeting between Pitcairn and the militia. How many Americans were killed? 



BATTLE OF LEXINGTON. 



wells, and staved sixty barrels of flour. The Concord militia had, 
at first, assembled with hostile intentions ; but rinding the British too 
strong for them, they had retired. They were soon reinforced, how- 
ever, by Major Buttrick, and ordered on to the attack. The British 
fired on them as they advanced, and killed two men. 

8. A severe battle ensued, in which the British were forced to 
retreat with some loss. They now began to make the best of their 
way back to Boston, for the people were pouring in from all parts of 
the country towards Lexington and Concord. There were farmers 
and mechanics, fathers and sons, side by side. 

9. They came, it is true, with their own weapons — many of them 
such as they had been accustomed to shoot squirrels with, and rather 
rusty ; but they were trained to the use of them. These they used 
as well as they could, from behind barns, houses, sheds, stone walls 
and trees ; and their shot did execution. 

10. When the British reached Lexington, they met a reinforce- 
ment of nine hundred men from Boston. With this fresh aid, they 
were able to check the Americans for a short time, but not long. 
The road everywhere was beset by the patriots, and the British 
were falling, here and there, as they proceeded back to Charlestown, 
which they reached about sunset. 

11. The results of this enterprise, though no pitched battle had 
been fought, were very distressing to both parties, but especially to 
the British. They had sixty-five killed, one hundred and eighty 
wounded, and twenty-eight made prisoners. During the whole day, 
the Americans had fifty killed, thirty-four wounded, and some four or 
five taken prisoners. 

12. The battle of Lexington was the signal of war. The forts, 
magazines and arsenals throughout the country were instantly 
secured by the colonists, that they might be ready for use, should 
they become necessary. Twelve years of peace had not made them 
forget all the lessons they had learned in the art of war. Regular 
forces were soon raised, and money furnished for their support. 

13. An army of twenty thousand men was collected in the neigh- 
borhood of Boston in a very short time. One considerable body of 
them came from Connecticut, under Colonel Putnam, an experienced 
and valuable officer. These forces encamped around Boston in 
a semicircle, as if to shut up the town on every side but the 
water. 



7. What did the British now do ? What happened at Concord ? 8. Describe the battle. 
9. What arms had the colonists? 10. What of the British ? 11. What was the loss 
to both parties ? 12. What was now done by the colonists ? 13. What army waa 
collected ? Who came from Connecticut ? 



154 



CAPTURE OF TICONDEROGA AND CROWN POINT. 



CHAPTER LXXXV. 

Capture of Ticonderoga and Crown Point. 

1. No sooner was it seen that a war with Great Britain was 
inevitable, than the people of Connecticut set on foot a plan for the 
capture of Crown Point and Ticonderoga, on the northern frontier. 
The necessity of such a measure was so obvious that there was 
little difficulty in raising both men and money ; and this, too, with 
almost absolute secrecy. 

2. Colonel Ethan Allen, a brave man, who had emigrated from 
Connecticut to the Green Mountains, a few years before, and was, 
of course, well known there, was appointed as the conductor of the 
enterprise. He was also expected to increase his forces by enlist- 
ments among the mountaineers. As soon as forty men were raised 
in Connecticut, they were sent off to Colonel Allen. 

3. They met him at Castleton, where he had already collected 
two hundred and thirty men. Here they were unexpectedly joined 
by Benedict Arnold, who, sometime afterward, made such a strange 
figure in American History. He had collected a company of volun- 
teers in New Haven, and taken them on to Boston, where he had 
been commissioned to raise four hundred men in Vermont, or else- 
where, and proceed against Ticonderoga. 

4. Without waiting to raise more troops, they proceeded with 
their little band of two hundred and seventy, to Ticonderoga ; Allen 
being first in command and Arnold second. They reached Lake 
Champlain, opposite Ticonderoga, May 9. They found some diffi- 
culty in obtaining boats. At length they procured enough of these to 
carry eighty-three men, who landed near the garrison, just at dawn 
of day, undiscovered. 

5. After a short contention who should go in first, the two 
colonels agreed to enter at the same time, abreast of each other. A 
sentinel snapped his gun at them as they entered, and then retreated 
to alarm his sleeping comrades. The American troops having fol- 
lowed their officers, they formed themselves into a hollow square and 
gave three huzzas. 

6. The garrison being now roused, a slight skirmish took place. 
The British commander was required to surrender the fort. " By 
what authority ?" he asked. M I demand it," said Allen, "in the 
name of the Great Jehovah and the Continental Congress." The 
garrison was immediately given up, and with it forty-nine prisoners 
and many valuable stores and cannon. 

7. The fort at Crown Point was taken without difficulty ; it 



LXXXV.— 1. What was done by the people of Connecticut ? 2. What of Colonel 
Ethan Allen ? 3. How many men were there at Castleton ? What of Arnold 1 4. How 
many forces marched against Ticonderoga 1 What lake did they cross 1 How many 
men went to the garrison ? 5. How did the colonels enter ? What did the troops do ? 
6. Describe the surrender of the garrison ? 7. What of Crown Point 1 What were 
seized by the Americans '/ 



VERMONT AND ETHAN ALLEN. 



155 



being garrisoned by only thirteen men. A sloop of war and several 
pieces of cannon were also seized at the same time, together with 
a schooner fitted out for service on this lake. All this was accom- 
plished, too, without the loss of a single man. 



CHAPTER LXXXVI. 

Vermont and Ethan Allen. 

1. Colonel Allen, though a brave man, was not always exem- 
plary in his language. Like many more brave men, not only of the 
American army, but of almost all armies, he had great defects of 
character. His statement to the British officer savored strongly both 
of profanity and untruth. 

2. He had emigrated to Vermont, or the Green Mountains, as it 
was then called, while quite young. This part of New England 
did not begin to be settled till 1731, and, even for a long time after, 
was considered as a part of New Hampshire. A contest arose at 
length about it between New Hampshire and New York, which w r as 
adjusted^ by the king, in a way which greatly displeased the settlers. 

3. The consequence was that a quarrel arose between Vermont 
and New York, or, more properly, between Vermont and the 
crown, in which the Green Mountain boys, headed by Colonel Allen, 
resisted, the officers of justice,, as well as the New York militia w r ho 
were called out to sustain them. 

4. At the period of the capture of Ticonderoga, and even some- 
what later, Vermont had not so much as a territorial form of govern- 
ment. In 1777, however, a convention of delegates met at West- 
minster, and declared themselves an independent state, by the name 
of New Connecticut, though it was afterwards changed to Vermont. 
They remained independent till some time after the end of the revo- 
lutionary war. 

5. Allen was employed for a time, after the capture of Ticonder- 
oga, in Canada, in trying to persuade the people of that province to 
join the colonies. Failing in this, he formed a plan, in the fall of 
1775, in concert with Colonel Brown, to take Montreal, but was 
himself taken prisoner, put in irons, and sent to England. 

6. On the passage, both he and his companions experienced the 
most cruel treatment. They were all, to the number of thirty-four, 
handcuffed and crowded into a small place in the vessel, not more 
than twenty-two feet long and twenty wide. After an imprisonment 
of six months, in England and Halifax, he was sent to a prison-ship 
in New York. He remained a prisoner at New York about a year 
and a half. 



L XXX VI.— 1. "What can you say of Colonel Allen? 2. What of Vermont? What 
contest arose ? 3. What quarrel arose ? What of the Green Mountain boys ? 4. What 
caii you say of Vermont ? What was it first called J 5. How was Allen employed for 
a time ? What plan did he form ? 6. How were he and his companions treated 1 



156 



BATTLE OF BUNKER'S HILL. 



7. Allen was a man of humane and tender feelings. While being 
carried from Halifax to New York, a plan was laid to kill the cap- 
tain, but when it was proposed to Allen, he refused to join in it. 
In another instance, the British, knowing him to be a brave man, 
attempted to bribe him to unite Vermont, an independent colony, 
with Canada. But money could not buy him. 

8. And yet it must be confessed that he was an open unbeliever in 
Christianity. He not only wrote the first formal attack on the 
Christian religion which was ever written in America, but he 
adopted the notion that the soul of man, after death, would live 
again in beasts, birds, fishes, &c. ; with many other notions still 
more singular. 

9. It is said that though his wife was a pious woman, and taught 
her children the truths of Christianity, one daughter inclined to the 
same strange opinions with her father. When about to die, she sent 
word to her father that she wished to converse with him. The 
father accordingly came to her bedside. 

10. "I am about to die," said she ; " shall I believe in the prin- 
ciples you have taught me, or shall I believe in what my mother 
has taught me?" The father became agitated, his chin quivered, 
his whole frame shook, and, after waiting a few moments, he 
replied, " Believe what your mother has taught you." Allen died, 
suddenly, in 1789. 



CHAPTER LXXXVIL 

t Battle of Bunker's Hill. 

1. We have seen that soon after the battle of Lexington and 
Concord, Boston was, as it were, invested with American troops. 
Their number, at one time, is said to have been about thirty thou- 
sand. Their principal head-quarters were at Cambridge and Rox- 
bury. Colonel Putnam commanded at the former place and General 
Thomas at the latter. 

2. Sometime in May, Howe, Clinton and Burgoyne, three British 
generals, arrived in Boston, with a reinforcement of British troops. 
General Gage now offered a pardon to all the rebels, as he still 
called them, but John Hancock and Samuel Adams, if they 
would lay down their arms and be peaceable subjects. But, as 
no attention was paid to the offer, he prepared, more than ever, for 
war. 

3. There now began to be skirmishing between the two armies 



What became of Allen ? 7. What can you say in proof of Allen's kindness and integ- 
rity % 8. What was his religious belief ? 9, 10. Relate what passed between Allen and 
his daughter. When did he die 1 

LXX&VII. — 1. What of the American troops after the battle ?- 2. What was done in 
May? What of General Gage? 3. What did the Americans conclude to do 1 What 



BATTLE OF BUNKER'S HILL. 



157 




PLAN OF THE 

BATTLE OF BUNKER'S HILL. 



SCt" The teacher will put such questions here as he deems iiecessary. 
14 



158 BATTLE OF BUNKER'S HILL. 

almost every day. The Americans concluded at length to fortify 
Dorchester neck, now South Boston, and occupy Bunker's Hill, in 
Charlestown. In order to effect the latter purpose, Colonel Pres- 
cott was sent, on the 16th of June, to Charlestown, with one thou- 
sand men. He left Cambridge with his troops about 9 o'clock in 
the evening. 




Battle of Bunker's Hill. Death of Warren. 



4. His movements were so silent that the British did not discover 
him. He, however, mistook Breed's Hill for Bunker's Hill, and, 
with his troops, ascended and began to fortify it. At daybreak, on 
the morning of the 17th, they had thrown up an embankment, or 
redoubt, about eight rods square and four feet high, on a spot which 
overlooked and, as it were, commanded nearly the whole of Boston. 

5. As soon as day dawned, the British saw what was going on, 
and began to fire on them, both from their batteries in the town and 
from their vessels. They also established and put in operation a 
formidable battery on Copp's Hill, on the northern part of the town, 
which threw in among them whole showers of bomb-shells. 

G. But all their ships and batteries combined could not batter 
down the works of the Americans. They even worked all the fore- 
noon in the midst of the shot and bomb-shells, and, by noon, had com- 
pleted a breastwork from the redoubt to the bottom of the hill toward 
Mystic river ; — and, strange to relate, had lost, all this while, but a 
single man ! 

7. Finding he could not dislodge the Americans in this way, 
Governor Gage, about noon, sent over some of his best troops, under 
Generals Howe and Pigot, to drive them from the hill. Having 
landed, they waited for a reinforcement, to mature their plan ; 



of Colonel Prescott ? 4. What did he do 1 How large was the redoubt ? 5. What was 
done by the British ? 6. What did the Americans do in the meantime ? 7. What 



BATTLE OF BUNKER'S HILL. 



159 



for they were not wholly without fears that the Americans might be 
a little too strong for them. At length, they had collected together 
about three thousand men. 

8. The Americans, in the meantime, were also reinforced by a 
body of troops, and by Generals Warren, Pomeroy, and Putnam. 
The latter, who had just been made a brigadier-general, was com- 
mander-in-chief for the day. The Americans now amounted to 
about fifteen hundred, though most of them were only armed with 
muskets without bayonets. 

9. At three o'clock, in the afternoon, the British began to ascend 
the hill. The Charlestown militia opposed them at first, but soon 
retreated. The British now set fire to Charlestown, containing 
from four hundred to five hundred wooden buildings. As the wind 
was high, the fire raged terribly ; and the sight, though dreadful, 
was sublime. 

10. The British went slowly up the hill. It was a perilous hour. 
Thousands of people on the tops of the steeples and houses in Bos- 
ton, as well as on the hills round about, waited, in breathless silence, 
to know the result. A battle there must be, as every one foresaw ; 
probably a bloody one ; and the fate of the country depended, per- 
haps, on its issue. 

1 1 . But the British were now near the redoubt, and the Americans 
only withheld their fire in compliance with the orders of General 
Putnam. " Do not fire a gun," said he, u till you can see the 
white of their eyes." But even the strict letter of this command did 
not require long delay. Such a tremendous volley was poured upon 
the invaders, in an instant, as thinned their ranks and compelled 
them to retreat. 

12. They soon rallied, however, and came on as before, but were 
repulsed a second time with great loss, and fled, down the hill. The 
green field was covered with dead bodies. General Howe had not 
an officer left him on the field. General Clinton now came over 
from Copp's Hill, with new troops, and the battle was renewed with 
more spirit than ever. 

13. At this critical moment, the powder of the Americans failed 
them, and they began to retreat, fighting with their muskets, as if 
they had been clubs, as they went along. They retired westward 
as far as Prospect Hill, where they began to throw up new works. 
The British were not disposed to pursue them — nor had the Ameri- 
cans the power to drive them from Bunker's Hill. 

14. In this hard-fought battle, the British had two hundred and 
twenty-six killed, and eight hundred and twenty- eight wounded. 
Of the Americans one hundred and thirty-nine were killed, and three 
hundred and fourteen wounded and missing. Among the slain of 
the Americans was General Joseph Warren ; among the British the 



steps were now taken by Governor Gage ? 8. What was the number and condition of 
the American forces ? 9. What was the first act of the British ? 10. Describe their 
ascent up the hill. 11. What was their reception? 12. What general now headed 
the attack 1 13. What unfortunate occurrence compelled the Americans to retreat 1 
14. What was the loss of the British ? Of the Americans ? 15. What of General 
Warren? 



160 



GENERAL PUTNAM. 



profane Major Pitcairn, who had made himself so notorious at Lex- 
ington. 

15. The death of General Warren was greatly lamented by the 
Americans. He was a physician, and greatly beloved both in his 
profession and private life. He had received the commission of 
Major General just three days before the battle, and was only thirty- 
five years of age. He rushed into this battle as a mere volunteer. 
He was killed almost instantly by a ball in the head, on or near the 
spot where now stands Bunker Hill monument. 



CHAPTER LXXXVIII. 

General Putnam. 




1. This is a proper place to say something of the commander-in- 
chief of the army of Bunker's Hill, — Colonel Putnam, afterward 
Major General Putnam. Till the French and Indian war broke out, 
in 1754, he was a farmer, in Connecticut, and nothing had occurred 
in his life worthy of much notice, except his adventure with a wolf, 
which is so familiar to every school-boy that it need not be related 
here. 

2. Throughout the whole of the French and Indian war, which 
lasted about nine years, General Putnam was employed as an 
officer ; first as a captain, afterward as a major, and still later, as a 



LXXXVIII. — 1 . "What can you tell me of Colonel Putnam ? What war broke out in 
17;34 ? 2. How long did this war last 7 How was General Putnam employed 7 3. What 



GENERAL PUTNAM. 



161 



colonel. No officer was more bold or skilful ; few were more suc- 
cessful or more beloved. 

3. In August, 1757, while stationed in the northern part of New 
York, he was engaged in a severe contest with the French and 
Indians, in which he was taken prisoner and tied to a tree. The 
battle went on, and, as it turned out, Putnam stood for some time in 
the hottest fire of both parties. Many balls lodged in the tree near 
him, and some pierced his clothes. 

4. But he was reserved for further trials. Even before he was 
loosed from this very tree, when the colonial troops had, in one 
instance, retreated a little way, a young Indian amused himself by 
throwing his tomahawk at the tree, apparently to see how near he 
could throw it without hitting Putnam. In several instances, it came 
within a hair's breadth of him. 

5. He was at length untied, but not till he had been cruelly 
treated by a French officer, who struck him heavily on the cheek. 
He was next deprived of his vest, stockings and shoes, and his 
hands tied together ; and then loaded with the packs of the wounded 
soldiers. 

6. The cords were tied so tightly round his wrists, as to cause 
much swelling and great pain, and the blood flowed from his torn 
and naked feet, till his sufferings became so great that he begged 
the savages either to loosen the cord or kill him. A French officer 
removed a part of the burden, and an Indian gave him a pair of 
moccasins. 

7. During the day, an Indian had also wounded him deeply in the 
cheek with a tomahawk. But the arrival of night brought greater 
trials than before. It was the plan of the savages to burn him. He 
was bound to a tree, entirely naked, and the flames were kindled, 
and the Indians had already begun their horrid dancing and singing 
around him. 

8. A sudden shower partly extinguished the flames, but they soon 
raged again. Already was he beginning to writhe in torture, and 
his case becoming hopeless, when a young French officer, rushing 
through the throng, dashed away the fire-brands, and though he was 
almost past feeling, liberated him from his sufferings. 

9. Suffice it to say that he was sent as a prisoner, first to Ticon- 
deroga, (then a British post,) and afterward to Montreal, where he 
was exchanged, upon which he immediately re-entered the army. 
He served under General Amherst in the expedition to the West 
Indies, in 1762 ; was out in an expedition against the Western 
Indians, in 1764, and after serving nearly ten years in the army, he 
returned to his plough. 

10. We hear no more of him, except that he was bitterly opposed 
to the stamp act, till the news of the battle of Lexington reached 
him. He was ploughing in his field ; but he left the plough standing 
in the furrow, and, without staying to change his clothes, rode to 



happened in 1757 ? 4, 5, 6. Describe the trials to which he was exposed. 7. What plan 
had the Indians concerning him in the night 1 8. How was he liberated ? 9. What 
was then done with him ? Where did he serve ? 10. When do we again hear of him ? 
When did he die ? 

14* 



162 



WASHINGTON IN THE ARMY. 



the scene of war. Subsequently to this he was, as will be seen, 
concerned in many of the most important battles of the revolution. 
He died May, 1790, aged seventy-two years. 



CHAPTER LXXXIX. 



Washington at the head of the army. 




1. The second continental congress met, according to the pro- 
visions of the first, at Philadelphia, May 20, 1775. At this meeting 
twelve of the colonies were fairly represented. Georgia, it seems, 
did not send in her delegates till some time in July. Mr. Randolph 
was again chosen their president. 

2. At the opening of the congress, John Hancock presented the 
most ample and conclusive evidence that, in the battle of Lexington, 
the king's troops were the first aggressors. The delegates were 
united in the opinion that it was necessary to put the colonies in a 
state of defence, and, though they should continue to hope for the 
best, to make all possible preparation for the worst which could 
happen. 

3. For the purposes of defence they voted to raise and equip an 
army of twenty thousand men, and to issue bills of credit to the 
amount of three million of dollars to pay the expenses — the twelve 
colonies being pledged for their redemption. They next proceeded 

$, 

LXXXIX. — 1. Where did the second congress meet? How many colonies were 
represented ? Who was the president ? 2. What was done by John Hancock ? What 
was deemed necessary ? 3. What did they first proceed to do ? To what station was 



1 



ATTACK ON QUEBEC. 163 

to elect George Washington, one of the delegates from Virginia 
who was already favorably known, commander-in-chief of the 
army. 

4. The following anecdote will serve to show, in a striking man- 
ner, the modesty of Washington. The elder president, Adams, then 
a member of congress from Massachusetts, was the person who 
first proposed to make the appointment. Though he does not 
appear to have called Washington by name, at first, yet his allusions 
were so strong that no one could mistake his meaning, upon which 
Washington sprang from his seat and retired to an adjoining 
room. 

5. One more fact, in this place, concerning him. Before his 
appointment, five hundred dollars a month had been voted to the 
chief commander of the army. After Washington's appointment, 
he most respectfully assured congress that he did not wish to receive 
any profit from the office. " I will keep an account," said he, 4 4 of 
my expenses ; — these, I doubt not, they will discharge ; and that is 
all I desire." 

6. Four major-generals and eight brigadier-generals, to serve under 
Washington, were also appointed. The names of \he first were 
Artemas Ward, Charles Lee, Philip Schuyler and Israel Putnam. 
Those of the second were Seth Pomeroy, Richard Montgomery, 
David Wooster, William Heath, Joseph Spencer, John Thomas, 
John Sullivan and Nathaniel Greene. 

7. At this critical period in the history of the colonies, congress 
appointed a general or national fast — the first of the kind ever kept 
in this country. The season, as it appears, was religiously observed. 
It was the 20th of July. 

8. The appointment of Washington, as commander-in-chief of the 
army, was made on the 15th of June. He received his com- 
mission four days afterward. In company with Generals Lee and 
Schuyler, he left Philadelphia for the north on the 21st of June, 
and after a little delay in New York — where he left General 
Schuyler — he arrived at Cambridge, near Boston, on the 2d of 
July. 



CHAPTER XC. 

Attack on Quebec. 

1. When Washington reached Cambridge, the British forces in 
Boston amounted to eleven thousand five hundred. The American 



Washington raised % 4. Tell the anecdote of Adams and Washington. 5. What more 
can you say of him ? 6. Tell the names of the generals and brigadier-generals chosen 
to 3erve under Washington. 7. What fast did congress appoint ? 8. What can you 
say of Washington at this time ?• 
XC— 1. What was the amount of the British forces ? Of the American ? 2. What 



164 



ATTACK OX QUEBEC. 



forces were nominally about seventeen thousand ; though, exclusively 
of the sick and absent, really but fourteen thousand five hundred. 
As they were arranged, however, in a semi-circle of about twelve 
miles in length, they were thought insufficient for besieging closely 
the city. 

•2. Washington, as soon as he had taken a survey of the whole 
ground, called a council of war. This council, without a dissenting 
voice, gave it as their opinion that the posts around Boston, though 
numerous, must be occupied and sustained ; and that, for this pur- 
pose, a force of at least twenty-two thousand men was necessary. 
They also recommended to the colonies of New England to make up 
the deficiency. 

3. One great difficulty which stared them in the face was the 
want of ammunition. Washington had found, to his surprise, that 
there was not powder enough in the whole American army to furnish 
nine cartridges to each man. This was a most trying fact, and per- 
plexed even the commander himself. 

4. While he was employed in organizing the army near Boston, 
so as to render it available, Generals Schuyler and Montgomery had 
taken Ftkt Chamblee, in the north, and besieged St. John's. The 
latter was also at length taken, with six hundred prisoners and five 
hundred stands of arms. It was during the siege of St. John's that 
Colonel Allen was taken prisoner. 

5. After the capture of St. John's, General Montgomery went 
against Montreal, which surrendered without resistance. He next 




Death of Montgomery. 



marched against Quebec ; but, in the mean time, Washington had 
despatched General Benedict Arnold with eleven hundred men, by 



was proposed by the council of war ? 3. What great difficulty had the colonists to con- 
tend with? 4. What was doing in other places? 5. What did General Montgomery 



STORIES OF ARNOLD'S EXPEDITION. 165 

way of the Kennebec river, seven hundred of whose troops had 
arrived late in the autumn, scaled the heights of Abraham, and placed 
themselves before the city. 

6. Arnold had, however, been so slow in his operations, after his 
arrival in the river near the city, that the enemy was better pre- 
pared for a defence than had been supposed. Besides, he had no 
artillery and only six charges of powder to each man. In these cir- 
cumstances he was obliged to fall back twenty miles up the river, 
with his troops, and wait the arrival of General Montgomery. 

7. He was joined by the latter and three hundred men, December 
1st, and they proceeded forthwith to the siege of Quebec. After 
continuing the siege till December 31st, they made a desperate 
attempt to scale the walls, in which General Montgomery and 
several of his most valuable officers were slain and General Arnold 
wounded. 

8. Being thus defeated in his purposes, Arnold ordered the army 
to retire about three miles, where they spent the winter. He had 
lost about one hundred men who were killed, and three hundred 
who were taken prisoners. In the spring, finding his force too small 
to accomplish any important purpose, he left the country^ and the 
posts which had been taken in this quarter gradually returned into 
the hands of the British. 

9. The death of General Montgomery was deeply lamented, both 
in Europe and America. He was born in Ireland, and was a most 
excellent officer and valuable citizen. His two aids de camp and he 
fell at the same instant. Montgomery was only thirty-eight years 
of age. Congress ordered a monument to be erected in New York 
to his memory. 

10. There were troubles, about this time, in Virginia. Lord 
Dunmore, the governor, like most of the colonial governors, was no 
friend of the colonies. Fearing the colonial troops would seize the 
powder of the public magazines, he ordered it to be carried on board 
a vessel. He also proceeded to arm and equip several vessels for the 
crown ; and, when the people would not furnish them with pro- 
visions, he went and burnt Norfolk, a town of about six thousand 
inhabitants. 



CHAPTER XCI. 

Stories of Arnold's expedition to Quebec. 

1 . The project of taking an army across the district of Maine to 
Quebec, almost seventy years ago, was one which few would have 
undertaken but Benedict Arnold. We shall learn something more 



do ? 6. In what state was General Arnold 1 7. "What happened at the siege of Que- 
bec ? 8. What did Arnold order ? What did he do in the spring ? 9. Give some 
account of Montgomery. 10. What of the troubles in Virginia ? 
XCI.— 1. What can you say of Arnold's project ? 2. What is true respecting "Wash- 



STOPwIES OF ARNOLD'S EXPEDITION. 

of him hereafter. For the present it is only necessary to say that he 
was more rash than judicious, and that his strange expedition to 
Quebec proved him to be so. 




Arnolds expedition to Canada. 



2. It is true that Washington liked the plan well enough and 
encouraged it ; but this does not show that it was not both rash and 
hazardous. Washington did not know what a rough and dangerous 
route it was, and depended for his information on others, who 
probably misrepresented the facts. 

3. General Arnold set out in September. He had with him, as 
was stated in the preceding chapter, eleven hundred men. He had 
also a few volunteers besides, among whom was Aaron Burr, after- 
wards vice-president of the United States, then only twenty years 
of age. They went by water to the mouth of the Kennebec river in 
the usual manner. 

4. There they procured two hundred batteaux. These were 
long, light, flat-boats, for shallow water. The current of the river 
was rapid, the bottom rocky, and the navigation often interrupted 
by falls. Sometimes they had to transport the baggage by land 
awhile, at others they were obliged to carry their boats on their 
shoulders, or drag them up the rapids with ropes. 

5. They had steep precipices to climb, vast shady forests to pass 
under, and quagmires to wade through. They had also deep valleys 
to traverse, where the pine-trees were tossing over their heads in the 
stormy wind, and where the river was rushing and foaming over the 
rocks, with a noise like that of the ocean. 

6. They were sometimes a whole day in travelling four or five 
miles, with their baggage laced on their backs, and axes in their 
hands to hew a road through the wilderness. Some of them died at 



ington ? 3. What troops had Arnold ?- 4. How did the troops proceed upon the water f 



THE BRITISH DRIVEN FROM BOSTON. 167 

last from mere fatigue ; many others became sick and perished, and 
all suffered greatly for want of food. 

7. Many a young soldier, as he lay down at night on his pillow 
of green boughs, hungry and fatigued, and perhaps cold, too, for 
the frosty nights had come, thought of the parental home and 
fireside, where, perhaps, a mother and sisters were weeping for 
him. But these thoughts were driven away by the next morning's 
march. 

8. By the time they reached the source of Dead River, a branch 
of the Kennebec, their provisions were almost exhausted ; and what 
remained were damaged, as well as their ammunition, by water 
which had got into the batteaux during their passage. The soldiers, 
it is said, began to kill and eat the lean dogs they had with them ; 
and even this food was esteemed a luxury. 

9. The sick had now become so numerous that one of the colonels 
was ordered back with them to Boston. He not only obeyed the 
orders, but went further, and took back his whole regiment of three 
hundred or four hundred men. He was tried afterward for deserting 
General Arnold ; but the court-martial acquitted him on the ground 
that the men must have starved had they remained. 

10. But Arnold marched on. For thirty-two days not a human 
dwelling was seen. They arrived, at last, on the mountains, 
between the Kennebec and Chaudiere, and found their way down 
the latter to Point Levy, opposite Quebec, where they arrived 
November 9. The people were as much amazed, at their arrival, 
as if so many ghosts had come among them — which, indeed, many 
of them more resembled than living beings. 



CHAPTER XCII. 

The British driven from Boston. 

1. The British, all this while, had possession of Boston, Roxbury 
neck, and Bunker's Hill, and the command of the harbor and ship- 
ping. They, therefore, had free access to such supplies as came 
to them over the water. But it happened, in one instance, in the 
winter of 1775-6, that the supply of fuel and food fell short, and 
the army were put on very scanty allowance. 

2. In this extremity, they sent eleven armed vessels to Georgia, 
to bring rice ; but only two of them could get any, on account of 
the hostile state of the public feeling toward them. For fuel, they 
used the timber of dwelling-houses and other buildings, which they 
pulled down for that purpose, and even of some of the churches. 

3. In the spring of 1776, efforts were made in England to raise 
troops for the American war, but they were not very successful. 



5, 6, 7. What difficulties had they by land ? 8. What of their provisions 7 9. What 
was done by one of the colonels 1 10. Describe their march to Quebec. 
XCII.— 1. How were the British situated at this time? 2. What did they do? 



168 



THE BRITISH DRIVEN FROM BOSTON. 



The war was not popular among the common people there, and only a 
few thousand soldiers were enlisted. At length a bargain was made 
by the government for seventeen thousand German troops, called 
Hessians because they came from the small state of Hesse. These 
were all sent over to America. 

4. General Howe had succeeded General Gage in the command 
at Boston, some time in the year 1775. About the end of December, 
Washington had discovered that a plan was on foot for making an 
attack on some part of the coast — perhaps New York. To prevent 
this, as well as to gain possession of Boston, he began to meditate 
an attack on the town. 

5. It had been his purpose to make the attack in February, when 
both Charles river and the harbor were firmly frozen over ; but, in a 
council of war, the plan was opposed, and he yielded his opinion, 
though he did it reluctantly. It was now determined to get pos- 
session of the Dorchester (South Boston) Heights, which com- 
manded the harbor. 

6. On the 2d of March, the movement was begun. To conceal 
his real design from the enemy, Washington first made an attack on 
the town from Cambridge and Lechmere ? s point with bomb-shells. 
This was continued for two or three days, especially at evening. 
The object was to divert the attention of the British from Dorchester 
Heights. 

7. During the night of March 4, 1776, immediately after the 
firing began from Cambridge and elsewhere, General Thomas, with 
eight hundred men and a working party of twelve hundred, with 
the necessary tools, passed over from Roxbury, as silently as pos- 
sible, to the heights, and went to work. The ground was very hard, 
but by daylight they were able so far to complete an entrenchment, 
that it served to shield them, in a good degree, from the shot of the 
enemy. 

8. When the British saw these works in the morning, they were 
greatly astonished. They perceived, in a moment, what an advan- 
tage they gave to the Americans, and that they must either dislodge 
them or give up the town. They sent out two thousand troops 
against them in boats, but a storm prevented them from landing so 
as to act in concert. 

9. At a council of war, held next morning, it was determined to 
quit the town. But, as they did not depart at once, the Americans 
continued to strengthen and extend their works, till, on the 17th of 
March, they had made such progress that the British dared not 
remain longer ; and by ten ox-lock in the forenoon, they were all 
under sail. 

10. Great was the joy of the Boston people when they saw the 
last of the British troops embark, and a division of Washington^ 
army, under General Putnam, marching triumphantly over the neck 



3. What was done in 1776 ? What bargain was at length made ? 4. What of General 
Howe ? Washington ? 5. What was his purpose ? How was the plan changed ? 
6. What was done on the 2d of March ? Why was this done ? 7. What was done on 
March 4th? 8. What did the British then do? 9. How did the Americans gain an 
advantage over the British? 10. Describe the feelings of the Americans. 11. What 



BATTLE AT SULLIVAN'S ISLAND. 



169 



into the town. Washington himself, with the rest of his army, 
entered next day amid general acclamations. 

11. Boston must have presented a dismal spectacle at this time. 
For sixteen months it had been subjected to all the distresses of a 
close siege, and to all the multiplied abuses of a foreign soldiery. 
Churches had been used for quarters for the soldiers, and their furni- 
ture and benches destroyed, and shops and houses, in many instances, 
pillaged of goods and clothing. 

12. The suffering of the citizens, for want of food and fuel, had 
become extreme. Wood could not be had for less than ten dollars 
a cord ; fish was twenty-two cents a pound ; ham forty-five cents ; 
ducks a dollar a-piece ; turkeys three dollars ; sheep eight dollars, 
and vegetables could scarcely be had. Apples were seven or eight 
dollars a barrel. Some, in the scarcity of food, were glad to eat 
horse-flesh. 

13. Yet there were some who did not share in the general joy at 
seeing the British depart. They believed America was wrong in 
resisting the parent country, and could not conscientiously afford 
their aid. They were called tories or refugees. More than a 
thousand such — some say fifteen hundred — left the town with the 
British fleet for Halifax ; and many never returned. 

14. The Boston people, after the battle of Lexington, had been 
permitted to leave the town with their effects, provided they lodged 
their arms in Faneuil Hall ; and nearly two thousand fire-arms and 
six hundred and thirty-four pistols, &c, had been deposited there. 
They now began to return. These and the army of Washington, 
consisting of twenty-one thousand eight hundred regular troops 
and six thousand eight hundred militia, gave quite a new appearance 
to the face of things. 



CHAPTER XCIII. 

Battle at Sullivan's Island. 

1. Driven from Boston, the British now turned their thoughts 
toward New York and Charleston. The attack on Charleston was 
to be attempted first. For this purpose the British Admiral, Sir 
Peter Parker and General Clinton, having met at Cape Fear, 
sailed to the south, and, on the 4th of June, anchored about six miles 
from the city. 

2. The fleet consisted of two fifty-gun ships, four frigates, each of 
twenty-eight guns, and several smaller vessels. The land forces of 



was the state of Boston at this time ? 12. What were the prices of fuel and provisions ? 
13. Who were those who did not rejoice at the departure of the British ? 14. What 
had been done after the battle of Lexington ? Of what did the army consist ? 

XCIII. — I. What of the British ? What preparations were made to attack Charles- 
ton ? 2. Of what did the forces of the British consist ? How was Sullivan's Island 
15 



170 



DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. 



General Clinton were twenty-eight hundred. Their anchorage was 
only three miles from Sullivan's Island, which the Americans had 
fortified, and which was defended by three hundred and seventy-five 
regular soldiers and a few militia. 

3. Before proceeding against Charleston itself, it was thought 
advisable to destroy the works on Sullivan's Island. An attack was 
therefore made on the 28th of June, a little before noon. The fort 
on the island was built of palmetto wood, so spongy that the shot 
buried themselves in it without shivering it to pieces. It was 
defended, moreover, by sixty pieces of cannon. 

4. For ten long hours, the contest was terrible. Ship after ship 
poured in upon the fort its tremendous broadsides. The Americans 
also fought with great energy and effect. The whole harbor seemed 
to be in a flame. Two of the vessels were soon disabled, and 
a third almost destroyed, while great numbers of their men were 
slain. 

5. In one instance the fire of the fort completely ceased. Their 
powder was exhausted. The British now thought themselves sure 
of victory. But a new supply of powder came, and the battle went 
on hotter than ever for a considerable time longer. 

6. In another instance, the flag-staff of the fort being shot away, 
a sergeant, by the name of Jasper, leaped down upon the beach, 
took up the flag, and, in spite of the incessant firing of the shipping, 
mounted and placed it again upon the rampart. This sergeant was 
afterwards presented with a sword and a commission ; but the latter 
he refused to accept. 

7. The firing ceased between nine and ten in the evening, and 
the ships hauled off. They were exceedingly shattered, and two 
hundred of their men were killed or wounded. The Americans had 
but ten killed and twenty-two wounded ; though the damage done 
to the island was immense — every hut and even every tree being 
destroyed. 

8. This defence of Sullivan's Island was considered as one of 
the most brilliant events of the revolutionary war. Great credit 
was given to the commanding officer, Colonel Moultrie, in honor of 
whom the fort was afterward called Fort Moultrie. 



CHAPTER XCIV. 

Declaration of Independence. 

1. The third American congress convened in May of this year, 
1776, and the session was one of great and permanent interest. 
The independence of the colonies had, indeed, already been talked 



defended ? 3, 4. Describe the attack. 5. What happened at one lime ? 6. Tell the 
anecdote of the flag-staff. 7. When did the battle cease 1 What was the loss on both 
sides? 8. What was thought of the defence of Sullivan's Island ? What was it after- 
Wit rds called ?- And why ? - 
XCIV.— 1. Why was the third congress one of particular interest ?- 2. What was tne 



DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. 



171 



of among the people ; but here it became an early topic of discussion 
by their delegates. 

2. The first resolution of this body, on the subject, was introduced 
June 7, by Richard Henry Lee, one of the delegates from Virginia. 
It was, "that these united colonies are, and of right ought to be, 
free and independent states ; that they are absolved from all 
allegiance to the British crown ; and that all political connection 
between them and the state of Great Britain is and ought to be totally 
dissolved." 

3. His speech, on introducing that resolution, was one of the most 
eloquent ever heard in the councils of America, and drew forth able 
remarks from others. On the 11th of June, it was still farther dis- 
cussed, and again on the 1st of July . On the 2d of July a com- 
mittee was elected to draft a declaration according to the spirit of 
Mr. Lee's resolution. 

4. This committee, consisting of Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia, 
John Adams, of Massachusetts, Benjamin Franklin, of Pennsylvania, 
Roger Sherman, of Connecticut, and Robert R. Livingston, of New 
York, reported a Declaration of Independence, which, on the 4th of 
July, was adopted and ordered to be handsomely engrossed on parch- 
ment, to be signed. 

5. By this instrument the thirteen American colonies declared 
themselves Free and Independent, under the name of the Thirteen 
United States of America. It was signed, on the 2d of August, by 
all the members of the congress then present, and by some who had 
not been present on the 4th of July. Their number was fifty- 
six. 

6. To sign such an instrument as this, in such circumstances, 
required no little firmness. It would be regarded by Great Britain 
as treason, and might bring a person to the most violent or igno- 
minious death. Yet the hand-writing of the signers, as may be seen 
by the copies of the declaration which are preserved, is firm, except 
in the case of Stephen Hopkins, an aged man, who had the palsy. 

7. None of these signers of the Declaration of Independence are 
now living, though most of them lasted to a good old age. Four 
lived beyond the age of ninety ; fourteen exceeded eighty ; and 
twenty-three exceeded seventy. Their average age was about 
sixty-five. The average age of the delegates from New England 
was seventy-five. 

8. This fact of their great age has been sometimes adduced as 
a proof of the Divine approbation and blessing on the cause they 
espoused. To a truly philosophic mind, however, it only proves 
that life is prolonged and health promoted by living for such 
purposes as develop all our powers, instead of spending ourselves 
in the depths of ignorance, listlessness or selfishness. 

9. It, however, intimated one thing more. Since the mental 



first resolution passed by this body ? 3. What of Mr. Lee's speech 7 4. Who were the 
members of the committee ? 5. What was declared by the instrument drawn up by the 
committee ? By whom was it issued 1 6. What was required in the signing of this 
instrument? What is said of the hand- writing of the signers ? 7. What can you say 
of these men ? 8. What may be deduced from the fact of the advanced age of the sign- 



172 DEFENCE OF NEW YORK. 

activity and energy which are awakened in a great political conflict 
are favorable to health and longevity, is it not highly probable that 
the great moral revolution, on the eve of which we live, by rousing 
the whole being — the moral and religious, no less than the intellectual 
powers — will be still more so ? 




Celebration of the Declaration of Independence. 



10. The Declaration of Independence was received, everywhere 
throughout the Union, with tokens of approbation. Proce'ssions were 
formed, bells rang, cannon fired, and patriotic addresses made, 
accompanied by all the usual demonstrations of public joy. Such 
was the spirit, at least, of the majority ; though there were not 
wanting those who viewed the whole matter in a very different 

light: 



CHAPTER XCV. 

Defence of New York. 

1. The British began to collect, about this time, on Staten Island, 
near New York, in order to make preparation to attack the city. 
General Clinton, after the battle at Sullivan's Island, had gone there 
with his troops, and General Howe had come there from Halifax, 
early in July. Some of the refugee colonists, of New York, had 
also joined them — two hundred in a single instance. 



ers of the Declaration ? 9. What reflections can you make on this subject ? 10. How 
was the Declaration received throughout the Union ? 
XCV.— 1. What did the British now be sin to do ? Who ioined them ? 2. What had 



DEFENCE OF NEW YORK. 



173 




The teacher will put such questions here as he deems necessary. 

15* 



174 



DEFENCE OF NEW YORK. 



2. As it had early occurred to General Washington that the 
British would aim at New York, he had left Boston, where his 
presence was no longer absolutely necessary, and repaired to that 
city, accompanied by General Lee ; to which place the troops soon 
followed him. When collected together, in the city and its vicinity, 
they were found to amount to seventeen thousand two hundred and 
twenty-four men. 




General Clbtton. 



3. About fifteen thousand of the American troops, under Generals 
Sullivan and Putnam, were stationed at Brooklyn, on Long Island. 
A part of the British army crossed over from Staten Island to Long 
Island, to make a descent upon the Americans. They landed on 
Long Island, August 22. 

4. On the 27th of August they began an attack, and a battle 
ensued, which lasted the whole day, and ceased only with the dark- 
ness of the night. The British had the advantage ; though it was 
procured at the expense of from three hundred to five hundred 
men. 

5. But the American* loss was still greater. More than a thou- 
sand of their number were taken prisoners ; and among the rest 
General Sullivan and Lord Sterling. From one to two hundred 
were slain. About five thousand of the American troops were 
actively engaged, who were obliged to sustain the shock of fifteen 
thousand of the enemy. 

6. One cause of the misfortunes of the Americans this day was, 
no doubt, the inexperience of the troops. Another was the want of 
suitable officers. One of the generals was sick, and General Put- 



Washington done ?- What troops had he at New York ? 3. What troops were sent to 
Brooklyn ? What did the British now do 7 4. Describe the battle. 5. What was the 
loss of the Americans ? 6. What was the cause of the misfortunes of the Americans? 



BATTLE OF WHITE PLAINS. -RETREAT OF WASHINGTON. 175 



nam, though as brave a man as there was in the army, had but 
recently arrived and was unacquainted with the ground. 

7. The British army encamped within half a mile of the American 
lines, and on the following day began to make preparation to renew 
the attack, confidently expecting that they should speedily be able to 
cut off the whole army. In this, however, they were disappointed ; 
for, when they were ready for the attack, not an American was to be 
found on the island. 

8. Under the personal care and inspection of Washington, who 
had crossed from New York and joined the army the day before the 
battle, the American troops recrossed to the city, on the morning of 
the 30th, just in time to save themselves. They had moved chiefly 
in the night and under cover of a fog. Indeed, the British were so 
near the last troops who embarked, that they distinctly heard their 
movements. 

9. Upon the retreat of the American army from Long Island, 
Washington gave vent to his feelings in a manner which was not at 
all usual with him. He had been on horseback, continually, two or 
three days and nights, and had not closed his eyes in sleep for the 
whole time, and was, therefore, but poorly prepared to endure the 
mortification of a defeat. 

10. As it was expected that the British would forthwith attack 
New York, a council of war was called, in which it was at length 
determined to evacuate the city. After removing the military stores 
and baggage to Kingsbridge, fifteen miles from the city, about nine 
thousand of the troops followed, and the remainder soon afterwards. 
The British took possession of New York, September 15. • 



CHAPTER XCVI. 
Battle of White Flains. — Retreat of Washington. 

1. After leaving three thousand troops to garrison Fort Lee, on 
the Hudson, Washington had retreated from Kingsbridge, and 
entrenched himself at White Plains, thirty miles from New York. 
The British, after gaining some advantages in a skirmish at Harlem 
Heights, near the city, slowly pursued the retreating army, and 
overtook them at their encampment at White Plains. 

2. Here, October 28, a considerable action took place, and several 
hundreds fell on both sides. It would not be easy , however, to say 
which party was victorious. Washington did not leave his position, 
and the British did not immediately advance. Finding, however, 
that the enemy had received a reinforcement, soon after the battle, 
Washington retreated five miles to North Castle. 



7. What was done by the British army ? 8. How had the Americans left New York ? 
9. What can you say of Washington? 10. What did the council determine upon ? 

XCVI— 1 . Where did Washington encamp ? What was done by the British ? 
2. What of this engagement ? To what place did Washington retreat 3 3. Where did 



176 BATTLE OF WHITE PLAINS. 




PLAN OF THE 

BATTLE OF WHITE PLAINS. 



£E3 ,e " The teacher will put such questions here as he deems necessary. 



BATTLE OF WHITE PLAINS. — DEFEAT OF WASHINGTON. 177 

3. Here he left seven thousand five hundred men under General 
Lee, and then crossed the Hudson with the rest of his troops and 
stationed himself in the neighborhood of Fort Lee, on the New 
Jersey shore. Forts Lee and Washington were on the banks of the 
Hudson, ten miles above New York, and commanded the navigation 
of the river. 

4. On the 15th of November, the British went against Fort 
Washington. A summons was sent to Colonel Magaw, the com- 
mander, to surrender, on pain of being put to the sword. As he 
refused to comply, an attack was made the next morning with such 
fury that when a second summons was sent, the colonel was glad to 
capitulate. All his men, amounting now to about two thousand 
six hundred, were made prisoners. 

5. The British army sustained a heavy loss in the conflict — from 
eight hundred to one thousand men. But, being determined to fol- 
low up the victory, they soon proceeded, under Lord Cornw T allis, to 
attack Fort Lee, on the other side of the river. This was com- 
manded by General Greene. As the British forces were evidently 
too strong for him, he evacuated it before he lost the opportunity. 

6. General Greene was a humane man, as is evident from his 
unwillingness on this and other occasions to expose, to no good pur- 
pose, the lives of his men. He was the son of a Quaker preacher 
in Rhode Island, and was fond of learning, though he had but few 
opportunities for study. 

7. He had first signalized himself in the battle of Lexington, 
before vrhich he had been engaged either in studying or school 
teaching. Law was the profession at which he aimed, and in which 
his natural inclination and great perseverance would have made him 
successful, had he not been called away in early life to share the 
fortunes of war. 

8. The whole American army now retreated through New Jersey 
towards Philadelphia, — the British closely following them. The 
pursuit was so very close that the hindmost forces of the Americans 
were sometimes in sight of the bridges they had passed over 
and pulled down after them, when the British w T ere building them up 
again. 

9. This was a calamitous hour to the Americans. When the 
retreat commenced, the American forces scarcely exceeded four 
thousand ; and when they crossed the Delaware, at Trenton, the 
number of effective men was reduced to three thousand. Even 
this force, poorly fed and sustained, was daily and hourly dimin- 
ishing. 

10. Washington, however, in the midst of all this discourage- 
ment, did not allow himself to be depressed. While all else wore 
the appearance of gloom — even the countenances of the soldiers — 



he then station himself?- 4. Describe the engagement. 5. What was next done by the 
British ? W r ho commanded Fort Lee ? 6. What is the character of General Greene 7 
7. Where did he first signalize himself? W r hat was his profession? 8. What of the 
American army ? Describe the pursuit. 9. What was the situation of the Americans ? 
10. How did Washington appear in these trying circumstances? 11. What did the 
British forces now do ? 



178 



BATTLE AT TRENTON. 



Washington was serene and cheerful. Trusting to the justice 
of the cause he had espoused, and to Heaven, he persevered, in 
the midst of difficulties which would at least have shaken the 
constancy of many who have deserved the name of very brave 
men. 

11. On the very day of Washington's retreat over the Delaware, 
the British forces took possession of Rhode Island, and blocked 
up a squadron of American vessels there and a number of privateers 
at Providence. The island was held by the king's forces two or 
three years. 



CHAPTER XCVII. 

Battle at Trenton. 

1. Philadelphia being every day in danger of becoming the seat 
of war, congress, in December, 1776, adjourned to Baltimore ; 
not, however, till they had drawn up and adopted certain articles 
of Confederation, in spirit not unlike the Federal Constitution adopted 
many years afterward. These they sent to the respective assemblies 
of each state for approbation. They also gave nearly absolute 
power to General Washington to conduct the military affairs of the 
country. 

2. After crossing the Delaware river into Pennsylvania, Washing- 
ton very fortunately received a reinforcement of about fifteen hun- 
dred men, besides a considerable body of militia ; so that he had 
now with him an army of seven thousand.' But, as the term of 
enlistment with a large proportion of his older troops would expire 
at the end of the year, Washington was anxious to effect something 
immediately. 

3. The British army was yet at Trenton. Washington's plan 
was to recross the Delaware and attack them in their quarters. It 
was late in the season, being December 25 ; and, to use a well- 
known phrase, " as cold as Christmas." Yet, neither Washington 
nor his troops were to be deterred by this. 

4. Just at night, he crossed with his army, in three divisions, 
at as many different places. It was not only cold, but dark and 
stormy. The river was crowded with broken ice, rushing together 
and sweeping down its rapid current. But, in defiance of cold, 
darkness and ice, the troops and the artillery were all got safely 
over, and, at eight in the morning, they were before Trenton. 

5. Thev first attacked a body of Hessians, who, after a most 
determined resistance, at length surrendered. From nine hundred 
to one thousand of them were made prisoners, with some cannon. 



XCVII.— 1. What did congress now do ? What articles did they draw up 1 2. What 
reinforcement did Washington receive ? What was he anxious to do ? 3. What was 
Washington's plan ? 4. Describe the passage of the Delaware. 5. What body was 



BATTLE NEAR PRINCETON. 



179 



Five hundred cavalry alone made their escape. Cornwallis, whose 
main force was a few miles off, so little expected an attack that he 
mistook the firing for thunder. 

6. As Washington did not think it prudent to hazard anything 
more at present, he immediately returned to the Pennsylvania side 
of the Delaware with his prisoners. But, having refreshed his 
troops and secured his prisoners, he crossed once more to Trenton, 
and took up his head quarters there. 

7. Their success at Trenton had infused new courage into the 
American troops, and Washington was determined to make the most 
of it. It was soon found that the British were concentrating their 
forces at Princeton and preparing for battle. On the 2d of January, 
1777, they came on to Trenton. On their approach, Washington 
retired with his forces and posted himself on the opposite bank 
of a rivulet, from which he kept up a firing upon the enemy till 
night. 

8. At dark, the firing ceased on both sides. Cornwallis encamped 
with his troops near the village, expecting to receive a reinforcement 
early the next morning, when he should be well prepared to renew 
the attack. The fires kindled by the two armies were in full view 
of each other. 

9. The situation of the Americans was exceedingly critical. The 
forces of Cornwallis, if they were concentrated at Trenton, as there 
was reason to expect, were greatly superior to those of Wash- 
ington. If a battle should be hazarded in the morning it was with 
almost a certainty of being defeated. But the Delaware could not 
now be crossed with safety, on account of the broken ice. 

10. But there was another difficulty in the way of recrossing the 
river. It would leave New Jersey wholly to the enemy, depress 
the public mind, check the enlistment of recruits, of which the 
army stood in great need, and leave open the door to an attack on 
Philadelphia. 



CHAPTER XCVIII. 

Battle near Princeton. 

1. The final determination was to march by a circuitous route, as 
quickly as possible, to Princeton, and, if possible, proceed to Bruns- 
wick, where Lord Cornwallis had stores. In order, however, to 
secure the baggage, Washington had it removed, as secretly as 
possible, to Burlington. 

2. The army commenced its march at midnight. With a view 



first attacked ? What did Cornwallis imagine ? 6. What did Washington now do ? 

7. What was soon found? What was done in 1777? What did Washington do? 

8. What was the state of both armies at dark ? 9. What was the situation of the 
Americans ? 10. What good reasons were there for not crossing the Delaware ? 

XCVIII.— 1. What wa3 finally determined upon? What had Washington done? 



180 



BATTLE NEAR PRINCETON. 



to deceive the British, the fires were left unextinguished, and the 
guards even remained to keep them burning brightly and also to 
watch the bridge and fords of the rivulet till daylight, when they 
were to follow the army. The project succeeded to a charm, and a 
little after sunrise, next morning, Washington's army was seen 
approaching Princeton. 

3. Here he met with some British regiments, on the march, and 
one of the hottest battles ensued which was fought during the 
whole war. At first, the British, with fixed bayonets, compelled 
the Americans to retreat, with considerable loss, and, among the 
rest, that of General Mercer of Virginia. 

4. Washington, with the main body of the army, now came on, 
and renewed the attack with great spirit. Contrary to his usual 
policy and the policy of war generally, he exposed himself, for a 
time, to the hottest fire of the enemy. At length, victory was 
declared in favor of the Americans. 

5. But it was dearly bought. In addition to the brave General 
Mercer, two colonels, from Pennsylvania, and several other valuable 
officers, were among the slain. The total loss of the Americans was 
not stated. It was only said that while the British lost one hundred 
killed and three hundred prisoners, the American loss was somewhat 
less. 

6. Lord Cornwallis discovered, at daylight, that the Americans 
had escaped, upon which he followed on to Princeton. But he 
arrived a little too late to engage in the conflict ; Washington 
having retired, in his usual prudent manner, to Morris town. Here 
the army took up their quarters for the winter. 

7. It was time for them to do so, for it was not only January, 
but the troops needed repose, as well as almost everything else. 
During their late marches many of them had been without shoes, 
and their naked feet, in passing over the frozen ground, were so 
gashed as to mark every step with blood. Moreover, there was 
scarcely a tent in the whole army. 

8. Though the main body of the army was at Morristown, a small 
body of troops, under General Putnam, wintered at Princeton. 
These, with the volunteers and militia, completely overran New 
Jersey. One party surprised Elizabethtown, and took one hundred 
prisoners. Another took sixty refugees, on British pay. Another, 
still, besides some prisoners, took forty wagons, one hundred horses, 
&c. General Putnam, alone, with his small army, captured, during 
the winter, about one thousand prisoners ! 

9. There had been, for some time, a great want of arms and 
ammunition in the American army; but, about this time, a twenty- 
four gun vessel arrived from France, with eleven thousand stands 



2. What was done to deceive the British ? What of the army ? 3. What now ensued ? 
Result to the Americans ? 4. What of Washington ? 5. What officers did the 
Americans lose ? What of the British loss ? 6. What did Lord Cornwallis then do % 
Where did the American army encamp for the winter ?- 7. What had been the state of 
tiie troops ? 8. What of the troops under Putnam ? What success had they during the 
winter? 9. What ammunition did the Americans now receive? 10. What of the 
small pox ? 



ATTACK ON DANBURY, IN CONNECTICUT 



181 



of arms and one thousand barrels of powder. At the same time, 
also, ten thousand stands of arms arrived in another quarter. 

10. It is also worthy of remark that the small-pox having appeared 
among the regular troops at Morristown, during the winter, Wash- 
ington had his soldiers, nearly all, inoculated. The disease was 
light, except in a. very few instances ; not a day passing in which 
they could not, had they been called upon, have encountered the 
enemy. 



CHAPTER XCIX. 

Attack on Danbury, in Connecticut. 

1. In the spring of 1777, the British commander in New York 
amused himself by sending out detachments of troops to ravage the 
country. One of these was sent against some military stores at 
Peekskill, on the east side of the Hudson, about fifty miles above 
New York. On its approach, the Americans fired the store-houses 
and retired. 

2. On the 26th of April, General Tryon, with a detachment 
of two thousand men, made an expedition to Connecticut for a 
similar purpose. He landed near Fairfield, and marched through 
the country, with the greatest possible speed, and almost without 
opposition, to Danbury. 

3. The few militia who were at Danbury fled to a neighboring 
height, and waited for a reinforcement. The British, in the mean- 
time, destroyed eighteen houses, eight hundred barrels of pork and 
beef, eight hundred barrels of flour, and two thousand bushels of 
grain. Seventeen hundred tents were also either destroyed or 
carried away. Nothing was spared but the houses of the tories. 

4. On their return through Ridgefield, they found the road 
blocked up by General Arnold with five hundred men. They also 
soon found themselves attacked in the rear by Generals Wooster and 
Silliman, with a force of three hundred. A skirmish ensued, in 
which General Wooster was slain and his troops driven back. They 
then proceeded and were met by General Arnold. 

5. A sharp conflict ensued. A whole platoon fired at Arnold, 
when he was not over thirty yards distant, but they only killed 
his horse. A soldier advanced towards him with his bayonet, but 
Arnold shot him dead with his pistol, and escaped. But two thou- 
sand regular troops were too strong for eight hundred raw militia, 
and the latter were dispersed. 

6. Arnold returned to the attack next day, at eleven o'clock, and 



XCIX.— 1. What can you say of the conduct of the British in 1777 ? What of Peeks- 
kill ? 2. General Tryon 7 3. What destruction did the British make at Danbury ? 
4. How were the militia harassed ? 5. What was now done ? Result of ths conflict % 

16 



182 



BATTLE OF BRANDYWINfi. 



opposed the British till five in the afternoon, when they reached their 
ships. Here they even charged upon them, but were repulsed. 
The British, upon this, embarked for New York ; not, however, 
without the loss of nearly two hundred of their men. 

1. Arnold behaved, on this occasion, with great bravery ; as, 
indeed, up to this hour, he always had done. On account of his 
good conduct, congress presented him with a fine, nobly dressed 
war horse. To the memory of General Wooster, they ordered a 
monument to be erected. 



CHAPTER C. 

Battle of the Brandy wine. 

1. During the spring of this year, Washington remained en- 
trenched among the hills of New Jersey — the army daily and 
hourly gaining strength by new recruits. His forces, at length, 
amounted to fifteen thousand men, and the British were becoming 
afraid of him. In the latter part of the spring, his camp was at 
Middlebrook. 

2. News was received about this time that General Burgoyne, 
with a large force, was approaching Ticonderoga ; and there was 
room for at least a suspicion that he aimed at New England, and 
it was thought that the British were likely to pass up the Hudson to 
meet and join him, instead of making the long threatened attack on 
Philadelphia. 

3. This question was settled by the arrival, in the Chesapeake,* in 
the month of July, of the British fleet from New York, with sixteen 
thousand men, under General Howe. By the 3d of September they 
were rapidly approaching Philadelphia. Washington, who had 
kept his eye on all their movements, was on the road to meet 
them. The two armies met at a place called Chadd's Ford, on 
the river Brandywine, about thirty miles from Philadelphia. 

4. Here, on the 11th of September, a severe battle took place 
which lasted nearly all day. The Americans were, at length, 
defeated with very great loss. They then made the best of their 
w r ay to Chester, where they arrived that night, and the next day 
they proceeded to Philadelphia. 

5. Among the wounded of the American army, were General 
Woodford and the Marquis de La Fayette. The latter had only just 



6. What of Arnold ? The British? 7. What was Arnold's conduct on this occasion ? 
What was done by congress ? 

C. — 1. What of the American forces at this time? 2. What news was received of 
General Burgoyne? What was thought likely to be done by the British? 3. What 
general was at their head? Where did Washington meet him? 4. What was the 
result of the battle ? 5. What officers were wounded ? What of Marquis La Fayette? 

* They went up the Chesapeake because they had heard that the Delaware waa 
obstructed. 



CAPTURE OF GENERAL PRESCOTT. 



183 



arrived from France ; his commission in the army was dated July 
31st. He fought for the Americans (except when absent on their 
account in France) till the end of the war ; and always without 
pay. The Polish Count Pulaski also fought for us, for the first 
time, in this battle. 

6. Washington was very much mortified by this defeat. But 
neither the public mind nor congress itself would have been satisfied 
without, at least, an attempt to prevent the British from entering 
Philadelphia. Indeed, congress advised him to hazard a second 
battle, and he was, on the 16th of September, about to do so ; but 
an unexpected shower wet the powder in the cartridge-boxes of the 
troops, and he was obliged to give it up. 

7. The British also gained some other advantages about this 
time ; among which may be mentioned the surprise and defeat of 
General Wayne. He had been sent with fifteen hundred men to 
harass the British, and cut off straggling parties. The enemy, 
having found out his position, came suddenly upon him, and killed 
and wounded about three hundred of his men. 

8. It was at length concluded to quit the city and neighborhood of 
Philadelphia, and repair to a strong position on the Schuylkill, 
twenty miles northward. The British, on the 26th of September, 
entered Philadelphia and posted the main body of their forces at 
Germantown, seven miles to the north. 



CHAPTER CI. 

Capture of General Prescott. 

1. On the 10th of July, of this year, 1777, while the British, 
under General Prescott, had complete possession of the island of 
Rhode Island, and lay encamped on the western side of it, one Bar- 
ton, a militia colonel, of Warwick, having learned, from a deserter, 
their exact position, planned and executed an attack upon them as 
singular as it was successful. 

2. He first collected together his regiment, and then asked 
which of them would hazard their lives in an expedition he was 
about to undertake. Such, he said, as were willing, might signify 
it by stepping two paces forward. As he was known to be worthy 
of their confidence, every man of them stepped forward. 

3. Having made a selection of forty of the boldest and stoutest 
of them, and procured five whale-boats, they started off' at nine 
o'clock in the evening. He directed them to sit perfectly still, like 
statues, and merely attend to and obey his orders. His own boat 



Count Pulaski ? 6. What mortified Washington ? What of congress ? 7. What of 
General Wayne ? 8. What was at length concluded upon ? Where did the British post 
themselves 1 

CI.— 1. Where were the British encamped in July, 1777? What did Barton under- 
take ? 2. How did he make known his plan to his regiment ? 3. How did they start 



1-4 



CAPTURE OF GENERAL PRESCOTT. 



went forward, and to distinguish it, had a long pole extended from 
the fore part, with a handkerchief tied to it. 

4. As they rowed by Prudence Island, they heard the English 
guard cry, " All 's well. " A noise was heard on the main land, 
like the trampling of h orses, but, as it was very dark, nothing could 
be seen, and not a whisper was uttered. At length they landed, 
and set off for General Prescott ? s lodgings, about a mile from the 
shore. 

5. In going along, they were obliged to pass a house occupied 
by a company of cavalry. " Who comes there ?" said the sentinel. 
They said nothing and moved on. " Who comes there?" said the 
sentinel again. "Friends," said Barton. " Advance, then, and 
£rive the countersign," said the sentinel. " We have none," said 
Barton ; " but have you seen any deserters to night ?" 

6. In an instant, the sentinel found himself seized, his musket 
wrested from him, and himself pinioned. " Say not a single word," 
said Barton, "on penalty of instant death." Terribly frightened, 
and unable to make any resistance, he yielded to the command, and 
they took him along with them. 

7. They soon reached a house, burst the door and rushed in. A 
British soldier, in his shirt, ran to awake and rouse the cavalry ; but 
the men would not believe a word he said, and only laughed at him. 
He confessed that the creature he had seen, who it happened was 
Colonel Barton, was dressed in white, which only increased the laugh, 
and so it ended. 

8. " Is General Prescott here?" said Barton, in a resolute tone, 
to the master of the house. "No, sir," said the poor fellow, 
frightened almost to death. Having secured him as a prisoner, they 
proceeded to search, but could not find Prescott. At this instant, 
Barton, from the head of the stairs, called to his men to fire the 
house at the four corners, as he would have General Prescott, either 
dead or alive. 

9. Fire-brands were already in motion, when somebody in the 
next room asked, "What is the matter?" Barton burst open the 
door, and found an elderly gentleman sitting up in bed. " Are you 
General Prescott?" said he. " Yes, sir," was the reply. "You 
are my prisoner then," said Barton, clapping him on the shoulder. 
He begged the favor of putting on his clothes, but they only wrap- 
ped a cloak about him, and a stout negro man carried him to the 
boats. 

10. Major Barrington had leaped from the window while they 
were seizing General Prescott, but he too was taken and hurried 
away to the boats. They had scarcely rowed through the British 
rieet, when a discharge of cannon convinced them that they were 
discovered, and fifty boats were on the pursuit. 

11. But the pursuers were a little too late. Colonel Barton, 



on their expedition ? How was his own boat signalized ? 4. What did they hear 
among the British ? 5. Describe the meeting with the sentinel. 6. What did Barton 
do with the sentinel ? 7. What did the British soldier do 7 8. What means were taken 
to secure Prescott ? 9. Describe the meeting between Barton and Prescott. 10. What 
other officer was taken ? 11. What did General Prescott say to Barton ?- His reply ? 



THE WAR IN THE NORTH. 



185 



with his prisoners, soon landed at Warwick Point. "You have 
made a bold push, colonel," said General Prescott, as he stepped 
ashore. " Thank you," said Barton, with a bow, " we have done 
as well as we could." 



CHAPTER CII. 

The War in the North. 

1. The movements of Burgoyne, at the north, have been alluded 
to. He had arrived at Quebec in May of this year, 1777, and while 
the British troops in the middle states had been advancing to Phila- 
delphia, he had begun his march, by way of the river Sorel and 
Lakes Champlain and George, to Albany, where he hoped to meet 
Colonel St. Leger, w T ho was to come from Lake Ontario, by way 
of the Mohawk. 

2. General Burgoyne was an ambitious, enterprising, and able 
officer. Fifteen years before he had been engaged in the wars of 
Great Britain with the Portuguese and Spaniards, and, during the 
siege of Boston, he had been, for a short time, employed there. He 
set out from Canada with more than seven thousand men, besides 
a considerable body of artillery, and a thousand Canadian volun- 
teers. 

3. On the 20th of May, he proceeded up Lake Champlain, and 
landed near Crown Point, where he met some Indians, to whom he 
made a war speech and gave the hand of friendship. Accompanied 
by a considerable body of the Indians, he advanced to Crown Point, 
and soon afterward, to Ticonderoga. 

4. This place was defended by three thousand men, under 
General St. Clair. At a council of war, it was concluded to leave 
the fort at once ; but the British came up with the rear of their 
army, at Hubbardton, as they were leaving it, and a battle ensued, in 
which two hundred Americans were killed, six hundred wounded, 
and two hundred taken prisoners. 

5. The invading army reached Fort Edward, on the Hudson, 
July 30, having destroyed much American property on the road. 
Here they made a halt, while the troops, especially the Indian allies, 
ravaged the country. It was while these soldiers were quartered 
here that the famous murder of Miss McRea, a beautiful and accom- 
plished American lady, took place. 

6. She was to have been married, soon, to a young Englishman, 
and he had sent two Indians, whom he considered trusty, to guide 
her across the woods to the place where he was stationed. On 



CH. — 1. What of General Burgoyne ? 2. How had he formerly been engaged 7 3. By 
whom was he joined at Crown Point ? 4. How was Ticonderoga defended ? What was 
the lo3s of the Americans ? 5. What of the armies 1 Who was murdered at Fort 
Edward ? 6. What was the cause of her murder ? 7. Who had commanded the fort l 
16* 



186 



BATTLE OF BENNINGTON. 




PLAN OF THE 

BATTLE OF BENNINGTON. 



53™ Tlie teacher will put such questions here as he deems necessary. 



BATTLE OF BENNINGTON. 



187 



their way, the Indians fell into a quarrel which should have the 
offered reward for transporting her, when, to end the dispute, one 
of them killed her with his tomahawk. 

7. General Schuyler, who had commanded Fort Edward pre- 
vious to the arrival of Burgoyne, had with him a force of about 
four thousand four hundred men. On the approach of the enemy, 
he had annoyed them greatly by felling trees in the roads and 
destroying bridges, but finding them too strong for him, he had 
abandoned the fort, and retreated across the Hudson to Saratoga. 

8. Colonel St. Leger, with an army of regulars, New York 
tories and Indians, had, by this time, approached Fort Schuyler, at 
the head of the Mohawk river, where Rome now stands, and laid 
siege to it. A body of militia, on their way to act in its defence, was 
ambushed by the Indians, and four hundred of them killed, mortally 
wounded, or taken, 

9. After much skirmishing and some hotly-contested battles, in 
the neighborhood of the fort, in which victory was alternately on the 
side of the British and the Americans, General Arnold, who had 
been sent to the relief of the fort, and who was not wanting in 
ingenuity, devised a stratagem for drawing off the Indians from 
St. Leger 's army, which so weakened it that he was compelled to 
raise the siege. 



CHAPTER CIII. 

Battle of Bennington. 

1. While Burgoyne, with his army, was at Fort Edward, he 
learned that the Americans had a considerable amount of military 
stores and provisions at Bennington. With a view to secure them, 
he sent out Colonel Baum, a brave German officer, with five hundred 
German troops and one hundred Indians. 

2. According to a manuscript order of General Burgoyne's, the 
number of these Germans was three times as great as has just been 
stated. Bat, whether there were fifteen hundred or only five hun- 
dred, they were not only very clumsy, but very inefficient troops. 
Their hats and swords, alone, weighed nearly as much as the whole 
equipment of a common soldier ; and they could scarcely march 
under their weight. 

3. When Colonel Baum, with his troops, was within seven miles 
of Bennington, he learned that the Americans were strongly 
entrenched, and were hourly expecting a reinforcement. He, 
therefore, halted, sent back information to Burgoyne, and waited 



What did General Schuyler now do % 8. What of Colonel St. Leger ? 9. What was 
done by General Arnold 7 

Cin.— 1. Whom did Burgoyne send to Bennington? 2. What can you say of the 
German soldiers % 3. What occasioned Colonel Baum's delay 1 4. Describe the attack 



188 



BATTLE OF BENNINGTON. 



for further orders. Burgoyne immediately sent five hundred more 
German troops to his assistance. 

4. But, before the arrival of these last, General Stark, with a 
body of New Hampshire and Massachusetts militia had determined 
to attack Colonel Baum in his position. The battle began about 
three o'clock, in the afternoon, August 16, when the Germans were 
defeated and dispersed, and Colonel Baum mortally wounded. 

5. The pursuit of the Americans was checked, for the moment, 
by the arrival of the reinforcement which Burgoyne had sent ; but 
the latter soon expended their ammunition, and were obliged to 
retreat with their companions, with a loss of six hundred in killed 
and prisoners, besides one thousand stands of arms and nine hundred 
swords. 

6. It is said that in order to animate his soldiers, who were unused 
to war, General Stark, before the opening of the battle, appealed 
thus to their sympathies: " My fellow-soldiers," said he, "we 
conquer to-day, or to-night Mary Stark is a widow." The appeal 
had effect ; the soldiers fought as if in full view of their homes and 
firesides. 

7. General Stark had been in the old French and Indian war, 
and was once taken prisoner by the Indians. He was also at 
Bunker Hill and Trenton. He was a brave man and good citizen ; 
was the last surviving general of the American revolution. He 
died at Manchester, in Sew Hampshire, in 1822, aged ninety-four 
years. 

8. After St. Leger abandoned the siege of Fort Schuyler, he 
returned to Montreal. Both he and Burgoyne had done their utmost 
to effect a junction of their troops at Albany, but had been hindered 
more by the Americans than they expected. The condition of 
Burgoyne, moreover, was now becoming, every day, less and less 
agreeable as well as safe. 

9. On the 21st of August, General Gates arrived at the American 
camp ; congress, on the 4th, having given to him the command of the 
northern army. General Arnold also joined them about the same 
time. Burgoyne, however, continued to advance ; it being easier 
for him to get forward than backward. 

10. The two armies met, on the 19th of September, near Still- 
water, only twenty-two miles from Albany. A severe battle was 
fought for four hours, which was only checked by night and dark- 
ness. Both armies, however, had suffered so much that they 
did not choose to renew the battle next morning. They were in 
sight of each other till October 7, when a second battle was fought, 
in which Burgoyne was defeated. 



of General Stark? 5. What of the reinforcement ? 6. How was Stark in the habit of 
appealing to his soldiers 1 7. Give some account of him ? 8. What of St. Leger and 
Burgoyne 1 9. What of Generals Gates and Arnold 1 What of Burgoyne ? 10. Describe 
the battle at Stillwater 3 What of a second battle ? 



BATTLES OF STILLWATER AND SARATOGA. 



189 




PLAN OF THE 

BATTLES OF STILLWATER AND SARATOGA. 



The teacher will put such questions here as he deems necessary. 



190 CAPTURE OF BURGOYNE. 

CHAPTER CIV. 



Capture of Burgoyne. 




Surrender of Burgoyne. 



1. After the second battle at Stillwater, Burgoyne, with his 
troops, retreated to Saratoga. His army was exceedingly crippled, 
having lost, in both engagements, from twelve hundred to fifteen 
hundred men, and at least one valuable officer, General Frazer. 
The Americans too had suffered, but not so severely ; among others, 
General Arnold had been wounded. 

2. The object of Burgoyne, in retreating to Saratoga, was, most 
clearly, to make his escape. To prevent this, General Gates posted 
fourteen hundred men on the heights opposite the ford and at 
Saratoga, fifteen hundred at a ford higher up, and two thousand in 
the rear to prevent his retreat to Fort Edward. 

3. His first attempt was to escape to Fort George, by way of Fort 
Edward. Finding his path obstructed more than he had expected, 
he set off in the night, but still found his way intercepted. About 
the same time, moreover, news was received that Fort Edward 
had fallen into the hands of the Americans. 

4. Every door of escape now seemed closed, and hope fled. 
Incessant toil and sickness,with much hard fighting, had worn down 
his army to three thousand five hundred effective men, and even 
these were almost destitute of provisions ; while the American army 
was daily increasing in numbers and courage. It is said that Bur- 
goyne had two thousand five hundred on the sick list. 



CIV.— 1. What was the loss sustained by the British and American forces? 2. How 
was Burgoyne's plan disconcerted by General Gates ? 3. What attempts did he make 
at escape ? 4. State of his army ? 5. Describe the surrender of Burgoyne ? 6. What 



THE WAR ON THE OCEAN. 



191 



5. In these circumstances, he called a council of war, at which it 
was decided to surrender the army to General Gates. The pre- 
liminaries were soon settled, and the whole army, amounting to 
five thousand seven hundred and fifty-two men, with five thousand 
stands of arms, was given up to the Americans, on the 18th of 
October. 

6. The capture of an entire army was, of course, a matter of 
much exultation with the American people, as it more than com- 
pensated for the reverses at and near Philadelphia. The thanks of 
congress were voted to General Gates, and a gold medal was struck 
and presented to him by the president, in the name of the United 
States. 

7. The surrender of Burgoyne was followed by the reduction of 
several British posts in the north. Mount Defiance and Mount 
Hope had even surrendered to General Lincoln, as early as Sep- 
tember 13. But Mount Independence and Ticonderoga gave up soon 
afterward. An armed sloop was also taken and two hundred and 
ninety prisoners. 

8. Although Sir Henry Clinton, with his troops, had not been 
able to proceed up the Hudson, to meet Burgoyne, yet he had done 
that which might have encouraged the latter, had it been in 
time. He had taken several forts on and near the river above New 
York, among which were Forts Clinton and Montgomery. 



CHAPTER CV. 

The war on the ocean. 

1. Before the war of the revolution, the colonies had no navy 
worthy of being mentioned. A few vessels fitted out to cruise for 
pirates or to transport troops were all which could fairly be entitled 
to the name. But as soon as the war was fairly begun, a navy 
began to be thought of. 

2. In October, 1775, congress ordered one vessel of ten guns 
and another of fourteen to be equipped as national cruisers, and to be 
sent to the eastward on a cruise of three months, to intercept sup- 
plies designed for the royal troops. On the 30th of the same month, 
two more vessels, one of thirty-six and the other of twenty guns, 
were ordered. 

3. In October, 1776, the Americans had five frigates of thirty- 
two guns, five vessels of twenty-eight guns, and three of twenty- 
four, in a course of building, and several were ready for sea. One 
twenty-four, one twenty, two sixteens, three fourteens, one twelve, 
two tens, and two or three smaller vessels were actually in the 



was the effect on the Americans ? What of General Gates ? 7. What followed these 
events I 3. What had been done by Clinton 1 
CV.— 1. What of the American navy before the revolution?- 2. What did congress 



192 



THE WAR ON THE OCEAN. 



service. Congress, at this time, ordered three seventy-fours, fire 
frigates and two smaller vessels to be built. 

4. The Alfred, a twenty-four gun ship, was, as we have seen, 
the largest in service. Of this vessel, Dudley Saltonstall was cap- 
tain, and John Paul Jones first lieutenant. The first ensign ever 
shown by a regular American man-of-war, was hoisted on board the 
Alfred, by Lieutenant Jones, in December, 1775. 




Flag of the United States. — The stars and stripes. 



5. What this ensign was, is not now known with certainty. 
The present national colors were not adopted by congress till the year 
1777. It is said, however, to have been a device representing a pine 
tree, with a rattlesnake, about to strike, coiled at its root, with the 
motto, " Don't tread on me.''' 

6. The first regular cruisers ever got to sea under the new 
government, were the Hornet, of ten guns, and the Wasp, of eight. 
The first battle fought was off the Bermudas, April 6, 1776, between 
the Alfred and Cabot, on the American side, and the British ship 
Glasgow, of twenty guns. The Americans fought well, but the 
enemy escaped them. 

7. On the 17th of the same month, the Lexington, of sixteen 
guns, commanded by Captain Barry, fell in with the Edward, an 
armed tender of the ship Liverpool, and, after a close and spirited 
action, of near an hour, captured her. The Lexington had four men 
killed and wounded, while the Edward was nearly cut to pieces. 
These battles gave the people great hope. 



order ? 3. What increase was there in 1776 ? 4. What of the Alfred ? Her com- 
manders 1 What of the first flag? 5. What was the device ? When was the present 
national flag adopted ? 6. What of the Hornet and Wasp ? What was the first naval 
battle ? The result ? 7. What of the next engagement ? 



EXPLOITS OF PAUL JOxNES. 



193 



CHAPTER CVI. 
Exploits of Paul Jones. 




1. John Paul Jones, or, as he was commonly called, Paul Jones, 
was transferred, in May, 1776, from the Alfred to the command of 
the Providence ; a vessel mounting twelve guns and having on board 
seventy men. In this, he made sixteen prizes in little more than 
three weeks. He was also twice chased by British men-of-war, but 
escaped by stratagem and superior sailing. 

2. In 1777, while the British were taking possession of Phila- 
delphia, and Gates was spreading a net for Burgoyne, Paul Jones 
was in France, endeavoring, through the influence of the American 
commissioners, Franklin, Deane, and Lee, to get the command 
of a larger and better vessel than any the Americans had in the 
service. 

3. Unwilling, however, to be long idle, he sailed on a cruise, in 
April, 1778, in the Ranger, of eighteen guns. With this single 
little vessel he kept the whole coast of Scotland, and part of that of 
England, for some time, in a state of alarm. He even made a 
descent, in one instance, upon Whitehaven, and surprised and took 
two forts with thirty pieces of cannon, and set fire to the shipping. 

4. In the vicinity of Whitehaven, an act was committed which 
Jones very much regretted, and did all he could afterward to atone 
for. The house of the Earl of Selkirk, in whose service Jones' 



CVI.— 1. "What ship did Paul Jones now command?- What did he accomplish? 
2. What di*he do in 1777 ? 3. What did he do in the Ranger ? 4. Describe the attack 
17 



194 



BATTLE OF GERMANTOWN. 



father had heen gardener, was robbed of its ffmily plate. It was 
returned to Lady Selkirk, with a letter of apology and regret. 

5. In May, not long after the descent on Whitehaven, he was 
engaged with the British sloop of war Drake, a vessel equal in size 
and strength and the number of its men to the Ranger, which, after 
a smart action of about an hour, was captured. Soon after this 
event, he sailed for Brest, in France, carrying in with him, it is said, 
two hundred prisoners. 

6. But the most remarkable exploit of Jones remains to be men- 
tioned. In the spring of 1779, with the aid of Dr. Franklin, who 
was then in France, he got the command of a little squadron of five 
vessels, of which the Bon Homme Richard, his own \essel of forty - 
two guns, was the largest. 

7. With this little fleet, he set sail, June 19, and, after a cruise of 
a few weeks, returned. Two more small vessels were now added 
to his squadron, and he sailed again on the 14th of August. On the 
23d of September, after a most desperate battle, he captured the 
British ship of war Serapis, of forty-four guns and a full complement 
of men ; but not without the loss of nearly a hundred men in killed 
and wounded. 

8. This was considered as one of the most remarkable feats of the 
revolutionary war. It raised the reputation of Jones, as a naval 
commander, to the highest pitch, both in Europe and America. 
The king of France presented him with a gold sword. Congress 
also praised his zeal, prudence and intrepidity, and voted him a gold 
medal. 

9. But, though a bold commander, and as skilful and successful 
as bold, Jones never knew how to command himself, nor to submit 
to the command of others. He was irritable, impatient and impetu- 
ous, and harsh in his mode of government. So true is it that they 
only know how to govern well, who have first learned to obey. 

10. Jones continued in the war till near its close, and was after- 
wards in the service of the empress of Russia. But he did not suc- 
ceed well, and he finally became indigent, neglected and diseased 
— the consequence of his own want of moral and religious principles 
and good physical habits. He died at Paris in 1792. 



CHAPTER CVII. 

Battle of Germantoion. 

1. Let us now return to the events of the war at and near Phila- 
delphia. The British contented themselves with the quiet possession 



upon Whitehaven. 5. What of the engagement with the Drake ? How many prisoners 
had Jones made ? 6. With how manyvessels did he sail June 19 ? 7. What did he 
capture? 8. What was thought of this exploit How was Jones rewarded? 9. What 
can you say of him as a man ■ 10. What became of him ? When did he die ?• 
CVII.— 1. What were the British now doing ? How were their troops occupied ? 



BATTLE OF GERMAN TO WN . 



195 



of the city and the adjacent places till some time in October, when 
a part of their troops were detached to assist General Howe and the 
fleet in reducing some forts on the Delaware below the city — the 
remainder continuing in Germantown. 

2. Washington, who well knew that the eyes of the country were 
upon him, seized this very opportunity for attacking them. His 
forces could not have amounted to more than ten thousand men, 
and many of them were poorly armed and equipped, one thou- 
sand of them actually barefooted, and not a few actually sick. Yet, 
under all these disadvantageous circumstances, it was thought 
necessary to hazard a battle. 

3. At seven o'clock in the evening of October 3, the troops set 
out for Germantown. The distance was fourteen miles. They 
marched as rapidly as possible, in order, if possible, to take the 
enemy by surprise. The plan was well contrived and well executed, 
and the surprise of the British was complete. The attack was made 
between daybreak and sunrise on the morning of the 4th. 

4. At first the British were repulsed at several points, and from 
one hundred to one hundred and twenty prisoners taken. But, after 
the battle had lasted about three hours, the ammunition of the 
Americans in part failed. Nor was this the w^orst. A thick fog 
came on, and it was so dark that they could hardly distinguish friend 
from foe, and, while the British were retreating in disorder, the 
Americans also, by some means, took to flight, and were in the end 
completely routed. 

5. Several amusing anecdotes are related of this bloody battle. 
One division of the army was commanded, it seems, by General 
Greene, whose aid de camp, Major Burnet, wore his hair in a cue. 
In the heat of the battle, this cue was shorn off by a musket ball, 
which General Greene perceiving, said, " Don't be in haste, major ; 
just dismount and get that long cue." The major dismounted and 
recovered the hair. 

6. Not many minutes afterward, another shot came whizzing so 
close to General Greene, as to take from his head a large powdered 
curl, 'the British, at this moment, were hotly pursuing them. 
''Don't be in a hurry, general," said Major Burnet; "dismount 
and get your curl." The general, however, did not venture to fol- 
low his advice. 

7. After the battle, Washington resumed his former position, but 
in a few days, removed to Whitemarsh, a few miles nearer Phila- 
delphia. The British, on their part, left Germantown and retired to 
the city. Both armies appeared to have gained confidence by this 
engagement, notwithstanding the well known fact, that both were 
most severely injured. 

8. A battle was fought, about this time, seven miles below Phila- 
delphia. The British had sent two thousand men, under Colonel 



2. What did Washington think it necessary to do? 3. Describe the attack upon the 
British at Germantown. 4. What was the result of the battle 1 5, 6. Relate the anec- 
dote of General Greene and Burnet. 7. What was now done by both parties ? What 
was the effect of the last engagement ? 8. Describe the attack of the British upon the 
fort. 



196 



TREATY WITH FRANCE. 



Donop, to attack a small fort which the Americans had erected on 
Mud Island, nearly opposite to Red Bank. They were obliged to 
retire from the attack, with the loss of their brave commander and 
four hundred men. 



1. During the session ol congress for the year 1777, the con- 
federation of the colonies, which had been attempted the^year 
before, was again under discussion, but it had not yet been ratified 
by the states. By one of the articles the name given to the con- 
federacy was " The United States of America." 

2. One prominent article of the confederation fixed a line of dis- 
tinction between the powers of the several states and congress, in 
order to prevent collisions. To this end, the articles were very 
specific, and they appear to have been, in many respects, adapted to 
the existing condition of the country. 

3. This year, also, congress adopted a national flag. The reso- 
lution was in these words : " Resolved, that the flag of the thirteen 
United States be thirteen stripes, alternate red and w T hite ; that the 
union be thirteen stars, in a blue field, representing a new con- 
stellation." 

4. For nearly a year before the surrender of Burgoyne, three 



CVITL — 1. What was done by congress in 1777 ? 2. What was a prominent article 
of the confederation ? 3. Describe the national flag. 4. What of Dr. Franklin and the 



CHAPTER CVIII. 



Treaty with France. 




Silas Dean. 



EVACUATION OF PHILADELPHIA. 



197 



commissioners from congress, Dr. Franklin, Silas Dean and Arthur 
Lee, had been urging- France to acknowledge the independence of 
the United Colonies. When intelligence was received in Paris of 
that important event, the solicitations of the commissioners were 
renewed, and finally with success. 

5. A treaty of alliance and commerce, between the two nations, 
was signed February 6, 1778. By the treaty, neither of the two 
powers was to make war or peace without the formal consent of the 
other. This alliance with France, with the previous and subsequent 
assistance of La Fayette, proved, in the end, of the highest impor- 
tance to the United States. 

6. A treaty of peace was also made during the year 1777, between 
the states of South Carolina and Georgia and the Cherokee Indians. 
This was another highly important measure to both parties. By 
this treaty, the Cherokees ceded to South Carolina more than three 
millions of acres of their lands. 

7. At the close of this eventful year, Washington and his army- 
retired, for winter quarters, to Valley Forge, twenty miles from 
Philadelphia. On the 18th of December, they began to build huts. 
These were sixteen by fourteen feet, and were made to accommodate 
twelve men each. They were so numerous that when the encamp- 
ment was completed it had the appearance of a town, with streets 
and avenues. 

8. Troops from each particular state had their quarters together, 
in this temporary village of log huts, and here they suffered together. 
For though their situation was more comfortable than it might have 
been, yet thousands had no blankets, and were obliged to spend the 
most severe nights in trying to get warm, rather than in sleeping. 
They also suffered greatly, at times, for want of food. 



CHAPTER CIX. 
Evacuation of Philadelphia and Battle of Monmouth. 

1. The British kept possession of Philadelphia this winter and 
the following spring ; and, although Washington's camp was within 
three or four hours' march of the city, no attempt was made to 
molest him. Foraging parties went up, it is true, and committed 
depredations, but they sometimes suffered severely for their temerity. 

2. The British troops in the United States were now about 
thirty-three thousand, of whom nineteen thousand five hundred were 
at Philadelphia, ten thousand five hundred in New York, and three 
thousand in Rhode Island. The American army did not exceed 
fifteen thousand ; of whom more than eleven thousand were at 



commissioners ? 5. What treaty of alliance was signed in 1778 ? 6. What other treaty 
was made in 1777 ? 7. Where did Washington's army winter? Describe the encamp- 
ment. 8. Describe the sufferings of the troops. 
CIX— 1. What of the British? 2. Their troops? What of the American army? 
17* 



198 



BATTLE OF MONMOUTH. 



Valley Forge. Congress had, indeed, resolved on raising forty 
thousand new troops ; but the resolution had not yet been carried 
into effect. 

3. About the first of May, Washington called a council of war, 
on the subject of attacking the British in Philadelphia. Such a 
measure was at length decided to be inexpedient. The wisdom of 
this decision was soon evident ; for it was found that they had not 
only greatly underrated the numbers of the British, but that they 
were about to leave the city of their own accord. 

4. On the 18th of June, 1778, the British evacuated Philadelphia, 
and marched through New Jersey towards New York. On the 
28th, when they had advanced as far as Monmouth court-house, 
sixty-four miles from Philadelphia, they found themselves attacked 
by the army, under the command of Generals Charles Lee, Greene, 
La Fayette, Scott, Wayne, and Washington himself. 

5. In the beginning of the attack, the American army was thrown 
into confusion by the sudden, unexpected and unnecessary retreat 
of General Lee, from a post which had been assigned him. But, by 
the exertions of Washington and his able coadjutors, order was 
again restored and the battle vigorously sustained till dark, when it 
was resolved by the Americans to suspend their operations till next 
morning. 

6. They lay on their amis all night, in the field of battle. 
Even Washington slept in his cloak, under a tree, in the midst of 
his soldiers, determined to renew the battle at the returning dawn 
of day. In the meantime, however, the British disappeared, and 
with so much silence that their departure had not been suspected. 

7. In this battle of Monmouth, both parties, as they had often 
done before, claimed the victory ; yet both were very great suffer- 
ers. The American had about seventy killed and one hundred and 
sixty wounded. The British lost, in killed, wounded, and prison- 
ers, three hundred and fifty-eight. During this day and on their 
previous march, one thousand more had also deserted them. 

8. Among the slain, of the British, was Colonel Monckton, a most 
valuable officer, and one greatly beloved. It is said by the British his- 
torians, that, in the midst of the confusion and danger of the battle, 
the troops dug a grave for him with their bayonets, and ''placed 
over him, with their hands, the earth they had first moistened with 
their tears." 

9. The day of the battle was excessively hot — one of the hottest 
ever known in the month of June. Fifty-nine of the British soldiers 
and several Americans perished, without a wound, from the com- 
bined effects of extreme heat and fatigue, and drinking too much cold 
water. 

10. One anecdote deserves to be remembered here. In the 
beginning of the battle of Monmouth, as one Molly Pitcher was car- 



Upon what had congress resolved ? 3. Upon what did the council of war decide ? 
4. When did the British leave Philadelphia '/ Where and by whom were they attacked 
on the 28th of June 1 5. How were the Americans confused 7 6. Describe the army at 
night. What of the British ? 7. What was the loss at the battle of Monmouth ? 
8. Describe tlw death and burial of Colonel Monckton. 0. From what <*use did many 



CHARACTER OF GENERAL LEE. 



199 



rying water from a spring to her husband, who was employed in 
loading and firing a cannon, the husband was suddenly killed before 
her eyes. An officer came along and ordered the vacant cannon to 
be put out of the way. To his great astonishment, however, Molly 
took her husband's post, and performed faithfully its duties ; and 
congress, as a reward, gave her half-pay for life. 

11. This is not the only instance of female patriotism which 
occurred during the war of the revolution. Not long after the battle 
of Lexington, the females of Bristol county, Pennsylvania, resolved 
to raise and equip a whole regiment of soldiers at their own expense, 
and even to arm such as were unable to arm themselves. One of 
their number presented the colors their own hands had wrought, and 
made an eloquent address. 



CHAPTER CX. 
Character of General Charles Lee. 




General Charles Lee before the court martial. 



1. General Lee was very much blamed by Washington for his 
conduct in the battle of Monmouth, not only at the time, but after- 
ward. Indeed, he was tried by a court martial, who found him 
guilty of disobeying orders, misbehaving before the enemy, and 
treating Washington, his commander-in-chief, with disrespect. His 
sentence was suspension from the army for one year. 

2. General Charles Lee was born in North Wales, and became 



die 1 10. Tell the story of Molly Pitcher. 11. What was flone Dy the women of Bristol 
county ? 

CX—1. What happened respecting General Lee ? 2, 3. Give some account of him. 



200 



THE WAR IN RHODE ISLAND. 



an officer, as it is said, at the age of eleven years. He served early 
in America, and was with General Abercrombie , at his unsuccessful 
assault on Ticonderoga, where he was wounded. At a period 
still later than this, he served under General Burgoyne, in Por- 
tugal. 

3. When the quarrel began to arise between Great Britain and 
America, Lee was on the side of the colonies, and wrote in 
their favor. After this, he spent several years wandering over 
Europe, until about the year 1774, when, having killed an Italian 
officer in a duel, he was obliged to fly. Coming to New York, 
Congress made him at once a major general. 

4. In December, 1776, while marching through New Jersey to 
join Washington, as he lay carelessly at a considerable distance 
from the main body of the army, he was seized by the British, put 
on horseback and carried to New York. He was kept a prisoner by 
the British, and sometimes very ill-treated, till the surrender of 
Burgoyne, when he was exchanged. 

5. His suspension from the army, for a year, for his misconduct 
at Monmouth, finished his career as a military man. He might 
indeed have again engaged in the war at the end of the time, had he 
been a true patriot, but such he seems not to have been. He wrote 
a pamphlet, in which, besides defending his own conduct, he took it 
upon himself to abuse Washington. 

6. There is little doubt that Lee, who was proud, selfish and 
ambitious, envied Washington, and secretly sought to diminish his 
influence, in order to elevate himself. Yet he was, for the most 
part, a good military officer, as well as a fine scholar, and few men 
in the army had more capacity than he. 

7. His abuse of Washington led to a duel with Colonel Laurens, 
in which he received a wound. After this he retired to his estate in 
Virginia, where he lived alone, in a miserable hovel, without win- 
dows or plastering, amusing himself with his books and his dogs. 
He died at a public house, in Philadelphia, in the year 1782. 



CHAPTER CXI. 

The war in Rhode Island. 

1. On the first of July, 1778, the very day on which the British 
troops, in their retreat from Philadelphia, reached New York, Count 
D'Estaing, from France, with twelve ships of the line, six frigates 
and four thousand men, arrived off the coast of the United States, in 
the hope of attacking the British fleet in the Delaware river, or the 
Chesapeake Bay. 



4. What happened to him in 1776 7 5. How did he behave on his suspension from the 
army ? 6. What is supposed to have actuated him in abusing Washington ? 7. What 
of a duel ? How did he end his days ? 
CXI.— What of Count D'Estaing? 2. Where did he sail, and for what purpose? 



THE WAR IN RHODE ISLAND. 



201 



2. But he was a little too late to engage them at the south, for 
they had just gone to New York. By the advice of Washington, 
he sailed to the north, to assist in a plan which had been formed for 
expelling the British from Rhode Island. He arrived, with his fleet, 
at Newport, July 25. 

3. In the meantime, the American army, to the number of ten 
thousand men, under Generals Sullivan and Greene, had been col- 
lected together at or near Providence. Here General Sullivan and 
Count D'Estaing laid a plan, together, to take Newport; but, just 
before they were ready for the onset, a British fleet appeared in 
sight, and D'Estaing sailed out to make an attack. 

4. A violent storm came on, which scattered both fleets, and so 
crippled the French as to prevent an engagement. Meanwhile, 
General Sullivan, in expectation of the arrival of the French 
fleet, and unable to wait longer, crossed, on the 9th of August, 
to Rhode Island, with nine thousand men, and, on the 14th, besieged 
Newport. 

5. The French fleet at length made its appearance, but, instead 
of coming to the aid of General Sullivan, sailed to Boston, to refit. 
This was a sad disappointment to the Americans, and General 
Sullivan found it expedient, on the 28th of August, to raise the 
siege and retire to his first position, at the north end of the 
island. 

6. The British troops, about six thousand strong, taking advan- 
tage of his retreat, went out against bim the next day, and a long 
and severe battle ensued. The British, after having lost about two 
hundred and sixty men, retreated. The American loss was con- 
siderable, but not so great as that of the British. 

. 7. The next day, a brisk cannonading was kept up on both 
sides, but there was no sharp conflict. At this juncture, General 
Sullivan received a letter from Washington, informing him that a 
large body of troops had just set out from New York, probably for 
the relief of Newport ; upon which it was determined to retreat from 
the island. 

8. The retreat was conducted with great skill, and was accom- 
plished during the night of the 30th of August. It was, most 
undoubtedly, a lucky escape ; for Sir Henry Clinton, with four 
thousand men, arrived next day, and a little longer stay on the 
island would probably have been fatal. General Sullivan's troops 
were chiefly raw recruits and militia, not yet inured to the business 
of war. 

9. The British troops from New York, not being wanted at 
Rhode Island, proceeded along the coast of Massachusetts to New 
Bedford and Martha's Vineyard. Their avowed object was to seize 
the American privateers, which were known to be in the habit of 



3. Where was the American army ? 4. What effect had the storm ? What did General 
Sullivan do? 5. How did the French fleet disappoint the Americans? 6. What did 
the British troops then do? 7. What did General Sullivan hear from Washington? 
What was determined ? 8. What of the retreat ? Why wa3 their escape a fortunate 
one ? 9. How did the British troops now occupy themselves ? What happened at New 
Haven? 



202 



TRUMBULL, THE PAINTER. 



resorting to New Bedford ; but they did not scruple to burn stores, 
houses, mills, barns, &c. At Fair Haven they received a repulse 
and were glad to retreat. 



1. One excellent young officer, who was very active in the 
American army, under General Sullivan, during this period of the 
war in Rhode Island, deserves something more than a mere 
passing notice. The person referred to was Major John Trumbull, 
of Connecticut ; afterward Colonel Trumbull, the celebrated painter. 

2. Colonel Trumbull was first introduced to the army as an adju- 
tant of militia, under General Spencer, of Connecticut, a relation of 
Governor Trumbull, his father. It was soon after the battle 
of Lexington. The regiment to which he belonged, being attached 
to General Thomas' division of the army, was stationed at Rox- 
bury. 

3. Here they were sometimes annoyed by the fire of the enemy, 
especially on the day of the battle of Bunker's Hill. Hearing the 
firing that day, General Spencer's regiment was drawn up in full 
view of the British troops, posted on the " Neck ;" upon which the 
latter opened a fire on them. Most of the balls passed over their 
heads ; one of them, however, came so near a soldier, standing by 
Trumbull, that, without being touched by it, he fell. 



CXIL— 1. What of John Trumbull 1 2. How was he first introduced ? Where was 
he stationed? 3. Describe the situation of the troops on the neck. 4. What of the 



CHAPTER CXII. 



Trumbull, the painter : 




TRUMBULL, THE PAINTER. 



203 



4. Trumbull thought the soldier was only frightened, and bade 
him get up ; but he said he was not able, and that he should die. 
The soldiers took him to the surgeon, but there was no wound, nor 
the slightest bruise. But he died. The heart and large vessels 
near it were full of thick dark blood. He was evidently killed by 
the force — the wind as it is called — of the ball. 

5. Soon after this, Washington was desirous of obtaining a cor- 
rect plan of the enemy's works about the "Neck." As Colonel 
Trumbull was known to be apt at drawing, a brother of his, in the 
army, advised him to take this opportunity of introducing himself 
to the favorable notice of the American commander ; and he profited 
by the suggestion. 

6. By creeping along, under cover of the fences and high grass, 
he could approach so near, as to sketch their works with a good 
deal of accuracy. A British deserter came into camp about this 
time, and gave Washington the desired information ; but Trum- 
bull's drawings were also consulted, and found to agree with the 
soldier's story. Colonel Trumbull was, soon after this, made Wash- 
ington's second aid de camp. 

7. On going to New York with Washington, soon after the 
British left Boston, he accepted the office of adjutant, with the rank 
pf colonel, to General Gates, at the north, and was with him till 
after the surrender of Burgoyne. His services in the army were 
greatly enhanced by his skill in drawing, and were appreciated by 
the officers and the public. 

8. After this he was a short time with Washington again, not 
long after his success at Trenton ; but was soon sent out, with 
General Arnold to Rhode Island. He was there till March, 1777, 
when he left the army, and returned to his father's, at Lebanon, 
Connecticut. Sometime in the course of the year, he went to Bos- 
ton, to perfect himself in the art of painting. 

9. When the Americans began to plan an attack on Newport, 
Colonel Trumbull left Boston and again entered the army as a volun- 
teer aid to General Sullivan. After the army had crossed over to 
the north end of Rhode Island, and was skirmishing with the enemy, 
he was employed more than once in the most dangerous services ; 
which, however, he performed with the greatest boldness and faith- 
fulness. 

10. One day, when the skirmishing had begun early in the morn- 
ing, and Trumbull, in the discharge of his duty, was carrying an 
order to one of the officers, the wind blew off his hat. As he 
did not think it safe to dismount for the sake of a hat, he tied 
a white handkerchief round his head, and wore it all day. 

11. "Being mounted," says he, "on a superb bay horse, in a 
summer dress, of nankeen, with this head-dress, never was aid de 
camp exposed more to danger than I was, during that entire day, 



soldier * 5. What did Washington wish to obtain 1 6. What did Trumbull do for 
Washington 7 7. What office did he hold under General Gates ? 8. Where did he next 
go ? When did he leave the army ? 9. When does he again appear upon the field ? 
10. Tell the story of Trumbull when his hat blew off. II. Give his account of his 
perils and his escape. 12. Where did he then go ? 



204 



MASSACRE AT WYOMING. 



from daylight to dusk." Yet he escaped without the slightest 
injury. "I thank thee," he adds, " 0, thou, Most High, for thou 
hast covered my head in the day of battle !" 

12. This interesting young man left the army again, immediately 
after General Sullivan's retreat, and returned to Connecticut. One 
more anecdote concerning him will be given in connection with the 
account of the capture and execution of Major Andre. 



CHAPTER CXIIL 

Massacre at Wyoming. 

1. The savages on the frontier, during the year 1778, were 
exceedingly troublesome. There was a beautiful settlement on the 
eastern branch of the Susquehannah river, comprising four town- 
ships, each five miles square, and so thickly peopled that, accord- 
ing to some statements, it had already furnished one thousand men 
to the continental army. 

2. This district of Wyoming was settled by Connecticut people, 
who carried with them their industrious habits, and were very pros-' 
perous and happy. They lived in the shade of their own forest 
trees in summer ; and in winter, by their own bright and warm 
firesides. Their barns were filled with grain and corn, and their 
green pastures, by the river banks, were spotted with sheep. 

3. Excited, as it is supposed, by the tories, the Indians fixed an evil 
eye on these settlers; but, to prevent suspicion, first sent messages 
of peace and friendship. Suspicion, however, was now raised, and 
the settlers applied to Washington for an armed force, to protect 
them ; but it was too late. Early in July, four hundred Indians, 
with more than twice that number of tories and half-blood English- 
men, came upon the settlement and destroyed it. 

4. They were headed by Brandt, a cruel half-breed Indian, and 
John Butler, a tory. The officers only were dressed in British uni- 
form ; the rest were all painted and dressed like the Indians. The 
colonists, in their apprehension of what might happen, had built 
a few small forts, and gathered their families and some of their 
effects into them. 

5. The savages and savage-looking whites now appeared before 
one of the forts, which was commanded by a cousin of Butler, and 
demanded its surrender. They persuaded its commander to come 
out to a spot agreed upon, in the woods, for the purpose, as they said, 
of making peace. He accordingly marched to the spot with four 
hundred men ; but not an Indian or a tory was to be found there. 

6. They pressed on through the dark paths of the forest, but still 



CXITl.— 1. What of the savages? 2. Describe the district of Wyoming. 3. What 
took place between the settlers and the Indians ? 4. Who headed the savages ? What 
had the colonists done ? 5. What did the savages then do ? 6. Describe the slaughter. 



THE WAR IN GEORGIA. 



205 



no one was to be found. At last they saw themselves suddenly- 
surrounded by the enemy. The savages were in every bush, and 
sprang out upon them in terrible yells. All but sixty of these four 
hundred men were murdered in the most cruel manner. 

7. The enemy now went back to Kingston, the village, and, to 
strike the people with as much horror as they could, hurled over the 
gates to them the reeking scalps of their brothers, husbands and 
fathers. The distressed people now inquired of Butler, the leader 
of the tories, what terms he would give them. He answered only 
— " the hatchet." 

8. They fought as long as possible, but the enemy soon enclosed 
the fort with dry wood, and set it on fire. The unhappy people 
within — men, women, and children — all perished in the fearful 
blaze. The whole country was then ravaged, and all the inhabitants 
who could be found, were scalped ; the houses, crops, and orchards 
were burned ; and even the tongues of the domestic animals were 
cut out, and the poor creatures left to perish. 

9. This was one of those bloody deeds which the Indians are so 
apt to perpetrate, especially when led on by designing white men. 
But the same company of Wyoming murderers committed other acts 
of violence. They were, however, at length invaded and humbled, 
and made willing to remain at peace on almost any terms. 

♦ 10. After the treaty, the petty chiefs of the New York and Penn- 
sylvania Indians occasionally came to the camp to see Washington, 
whom they called their Great Father. Washington, in showing them 
his army, rode before them on his own fine gray war-horse, while 
they followed on miserable horses, without saddles and almost with- 
out bridles, and wore nothing but dirty blankets. 



CHAPTER CXIV. 

The war in Georgia. 

1. There was little hard fighting, this year, between the regular 
troops of the two great contending armies, except what has been 
mentioned. The only additional movements, worthy of notice, were 
the invasion of Georgia from two very different points — Florida and 
New York. 

2. During the summer, two parties of British regulars and 
American refugees made a sudden and rapid incursion from Florida 
into Georgia. One of the parties advancing to a fort in Sunbury, 
summoned it to surrender ; but, on receiving from the commander 
the laconic answer, " Come and take it," they abandoned the enter- 
prise. 



7. What was then done in the village J 8. What became of the inhabitants ? 9. What 
of these bloody murderers ? 10. What was Washington called by the chiefs ? 
CXIV.— 1. What of the invasion of Georgia? 2. Describe the incursion into Georgia. 
18 



206 



THE WAR IN GEORGIA. 



3. The other party went towards Savannah, but, after meeting 
with many attacks from the militia as they passed along, and hear- 
ing of the failure of the other party, they returned. In their return, 
they burned the church and nearly every house in the village of 
Medway, and carried off the slaves, cattle and other property. 

4. This was followed by an expedition from Georgia and South 
Carolina, of two thousand men, chiefly militia, into Florida. They 
proceeded to a fort on the river St. Mary's, which they destroyed, 
and then, after some skirmishing, advanced towards St. Augustine. 
But a mortal sickness having attacked the troops and swept away 
one fourth of them, the survivers returned. 

5. The second invasion of Georgia was undertaken much later 
in the season than the former. On the 27th of November, Colonel 
Campbell, with two thousand British troops, left New York, and, 
in three weeks, landed at the mouth of the Savannah river. 
Near Savannah, were six hundred regular American troops and a 
few militia. 

6. The British, being about to make an attack, were shown, by a 
negro, a private path leading to the rear of the American forces, of 
which they availed themselves. The latter, rinding the enemy both 
in their front and rear, attempted to fly, but were mostly taken or 
slain, and the fort and town of Savannah fell into British hands. 

7. The victory at Savannah was followed up as closely as possible 
by the British troops, and the fort at Sunbury soon surrendered to 
them and the Florida forces. The combined troops of New York 
and St. Augustine now held, and for some time continued to hold, 
possession of the state. 

8. Such of the Americans as had been taken prisoners, during 
the war between Britain and the United States, and had not yet 
been exchanged, were kept in prison-ships, in New York and else- 
where, and in jails in England. Those in prison-ships often suffered 
extremely, and many died of their sufferings and by disease. Great 
and just complaint, in regard to their treatment, was made both at 
home and abroad. 

9. Just at the close of the year 1778, a meeting was held in 
London for the relief of the American prisoners confined in British 
jails, of which there were about one thousand. Subscriptions were 
opened, both in London and the country. By January 10, 1779, the 
subscriptions amounted to three thousand eight hundred and fifteen 
pounds, seventeen shillings and sixpence, or nearly nineteen thou- 
sand dollars. These proceedings, on the part of the people of the 
hostile country, are sufficient evidences of the inhumanity suffered 
by the American prisoners. 



3. What of another party ? 4. What of the expedition into Florida ? 5. Describe the 
second invasion of Georgia. 6. Who betrayed Savannah into the hands of the British ? 
7. Who held the keys of the state 'I 8. What of the American prisoners ? 9. What 
was done in London 3 



THE BRITISH AT CHARLESTON. 



207 



CHAPTER CXV. 

The British at Charleston. 




General Lincoln, 



1. Near the close of 1778, General Lincoln had been appointed 
to take the command of the army at the south. He was an excellent 
officer ; and having been next in command to General Gates, in the 
movements against Burgoyne in the north, was there active, faithful 
and successful in all his operations. 

2. Very early in the year 1779, he proceeded to the post assigned 
him. As Georgia was now overrun by the British troops, he took 
his stand on the northern side of the Savannah river. Soon after- 
his arrival, a detachment of fifteen hundred North Carolina militia 
and sixty regular troops, under General Ash, having crossed the 
river, were defeated by General Prevost with great loss. 

3. But General Lincoln, nothing daunted, marched his army 
toward Augusta, the head quarters of General Prevost. His whole 
forces now amounted to five thousand. General Prevost, with 
twenty-four hundred men, left Augusta, about the same time, for 
Charleston. As Lincoln supposed this to be a feint to draw him 
from his design, he continued his march. 

4. When the British were about half way from Augusta to 
Charleston they halted two or three days, which gave time for 
putting the latter in a state of defence. All the houses in the 
suburbs were burnt, cannon were placed around the city at proper 



CXV. — 1. What can you say of General Lincoln? 2. Where did he station himself? 
What battle was now fought ? 3. What of General Lincoln's forces ? What of Prevost ? 
4. What can you say of the operations of the British? 5. What of the inhabitants of 



208 



AMERICAN ATTACK ON SAVANNAH. 



intervals, and a force of three thousand three hundred men were 
assembled for its defence. 

5. The enemy reached the city and summoned it to surrender on 
the 12th of May. The inhabitants contrived to spend a day in parley- 
ing, before they gave an answer, that they might gain time. When, 
however, they were told that if they surrendered, it must be as 
prisoners of war, the negotiation terminated, and they prepared for 
an assault. 

6. To their surprise, however, no attack was made, and the 
British, during the following night, withdrew their forces, and, 
crossing Ashly Ferry, encamped near the sea. General Lincoln 
soon arrived and stationed his forces near Charleston, unwilling to 
risk a general battle if he could help it. 

7. However he was not disposed to be idle, and learning the weak 
state of a British fort at Stone Ferry, he advanced against it with 
twelve hundred men. The Americans had the advantage in the fight, 
though they thought it necessary to retreat soon afterward. General 
Prevost, about the same time, left the vicinity of Charleston, and 
his main army retreated to Savannah. 



CHAPTER CXVI. 

American attack on Savannah, 

1. Count D'Estaing, after his fleet had refitted in Boston, 
sailed for the West Indies, where he remained till the next summer. 
He arrived on the coast of Georgia so unexpectedly to the British, 
that, before they were ready to meet him, he had captured one man 
of war of fifty guns and three frigates. 

2. General Lincoln had long expected him, and when it was 
known that he had arrived, he marched with his regular troops and 
a considerable body of Carolina and Georgia militia to Savannah. 
Before he arrived, however, D'Estaing w^as there, and had sum- 
moned the place to surrender. 

3. General Prevost, on receiving the summons, asked for a day 
to consider it, which was granted. In the meantime, however, 
receiving a reinforcement of eight hundred men, his courage was 
so much increased that he determined to defend himself to the 
last. 

4. On the morning of October 4, the American and French forces 
laid siege to the place, and, on the 9th, a direct assault was made, 
which was repulsed. The invaders rallied and a desperate battle 
was kept up for some time, when the French and Americans were 
obliged to retire with a very heavy loss. Of the former, six hundred 



Charleston? 6. What did the British now do ? What of General Lincoln ? 7. What 
engaeement was there at Stone Ferrv ? General Prevost ? 

CXVI.— 1. What of Count D'Estaing? 2. What did General Lincoln then do? 
3. How was General Prevost encouraged ? 4. Describe the assault. What was the 



THE WAR IN CONNECTICUT.— GENERAL PUTNAM. M 209 



and thirty-seven were killed or wounded ; of the latter two hundred 
and forty-one. 

5. Count Pulaski, the Polish nobleman, was wounded in the 
battle, and soon afterw r ard died. He was a brave man. He was 
one of those who carried off king Stanislaus from his capital, and 
who, in consequence of this act, after the king made his escape, were 
proscribed as outlaws. Congress ordered a monument to be erected 
to his memory. 

6. The attack on Savannah was doubtless ill-judged and prema- 
ture. It was hastened on by D'Estaing. Had the siege been con- 
ducted more slowly it might have been successful. After the 
siege w r as raised, nearly all the American troops went to their 
homes, and D'Estaing re-embarked and sailed for Europe. 



CHAPTER CXVII. 

The loar in Connecticut. — General Putnam. 

1. The northern department of the American army had chiefly 
wintered near the Hudson — some on the New Jersey side, and some 
on the other. Two brigades were as high up as West Point. 
Three brigades, moreover, were quartered near Danbury, in Con- 
necticut. 

2. Thus arranged with regard to New York, they could not only 
watch the movements of the enemy, but keep up a communication 
with each other, and be able to act in concert, should it be necessary. 
General McDougall commanded in the Highlands, and General Put- 
nam at Danbury. The British forces in New York were com- 
manded by General Clinton. 

3. In the spring of 1779, a British force was sent to ravage the 
coasts of Virginia. They destroyed everything in their way — 
villages, shipping, and stores. They also seized on large quantities 
of tobacco. Being asked by the Virginians what sort of a war 
this was, their general replied, that " all rebels must be so treated/ ? 

4. Indeed, it seemed to be a leading object with the British, this 
year, to distress and impoverish the Americans as much as they could, 
in order, as they themselves said, " to render the colonies of as little 
use as possible to each other in their new connections." They 
plundered, consumed, and destroyed as much as they could, both at 
the north and at the south. 

5. A month or two after the foregoing ravages were committed 
in Virginia, General Tryon was sent out to make similar ravages on 
the coast of Connecticut. In expectation of an attack, the militia of 



French and American loss ? 5. What can you say of Count Pulaski 3 6. Was the 
attack on Savannah well-timed ? What of the American and French troops ? 

CXVII. — 1. Where were the American army stationed ? 2. Were they arranged con- 
veniently ? Who commanded at the Highlands ? Who at Danbury ?- 3. What was 
done by the British in 1779 ? 4. What seemed to be a leading object with them? 
18* 



210 



ANECDOTE OF LA FAYETTE 



Fairfield were mustered and in arms. Tryon came to the spot, 
ordered them to surrender, and gave them an hour to consider 
his proposal ; but, in the mean time, laid most of the town in 
ashes. 

6. At New Haven, all possible damage was done. The harbor 
was covered with feathers poured out from beds. Desks, trunks, 
chests and closets were broken open ; the women were robbed of 
their buckles, rings, bonnets and aprons. East Haven was after- 
wards burnt, and Norwalk shared a similar fate. 

7. Near Stamford, the British, with some fifteen hundred men, 
came suddenly upon General Putnam, who had no other means of 
defence than one hundred and fifty militia and two pieces of cannon. 
But with these alone, this brave officer was almost a match for them 
for some time. At last, however, he ordered his men to retreat to 
a neighboring swamp. 

8. For himself, being hard pressed, he rode at full gallop down a 
steep rock. Nearly one hundred steps had been hewn in it, like a 
flight of stairs, for the people to ascend in going to church. The 
cavalry, who were pursuing him, stopped at the brink and discharged 
their pistols, but dared not follow him. He escaped with a bullet 
hole through his hat. 

9. This year, also, in July, a fleet of thirty-seven small vessels and 
fifteen hundred militia, under Generals Wadsworth and Lowell, was 
fitted out from Boston to drive the British from the Penobscot river, 
in Maine, where they had collected and built a fort. It was at a 
place called Bagaduce, now Castine. The expedition did not suc- 
ceed, 



CHAPTER CXVIII. 

Anecdote of La Fayette. 

1. An anecdote of La Fayette, which belongs to this year, 
deserves to be preserved in connection with the history of the United 
States. He had intended to make a visit to France towards the 
close of the year 1778, but had been detained several months 
by sickness. Again he was detained a while longer at Boston, 
to wait for the frigate Alliance to be got ready, in which he was to 
sail. 

2. The government of Massachusetts offered to complete the num- 
ber of men which was necessary to man the Alliance, by impress- 
ment — a measure that had been sometimes resorted to during the 
war ; but La Fayette was too benevolent to permit this. At last, 
the crew was made up by other and more merciful means. 



5. What of General Tryon ? 6. What ravages were committed at New Haven ? East 
Haven and Norwalk? 7. What was done near Stamford? 8. Describe Putnam's 
escape. 9. What fleet was fitted out in Boston, and for what purpose ? 
CXVTII.— 1. What did La Fayette intend in 1773 ? 2. What did the government offer 



ANECDOTE OF LA FAYETTE. 211 

3. The Somerset, a sixty-four gun ship, had been wrecked on the 
coast, of New England, and part of her men had found their way to 
Boston. Some of these men offered to go in the Alliance. There 
were volunteers, also, from among the prisoners. Added to these 
were a few French seamen, 




La Fayette. 



4. With this motley crew, English, French and American, and 
strangers in great part to each other and to the ship, La Fayette, in 
simple but unwise confidence, trusted himself, and the vessel sailed 
the 11th of January. They had a tempestuous passage, but nothing 
happened worth relating till they were within two days' sail of the 
English coast. 

5. Here a conspiracy was formed by the English part of the crew, 
amounting to seventy or eighty men, to kill the officers, seize the 
vessel, and take it into an English port. The British government 
had in fact passed a law, some time before this, to encourage acts 
of mutiny, by the offer of a reward to all such crews as would run 
away with American ships. 

6. The intentions of the conspirators appear to have been as 
bloody as they could be. The work of death was to have been 
begun precisely at four o'clock of the afternoon of February 2. 
The signal to begin the work was the cry of "Sail-ho!" which 
it was well known would bring the officers and passengers upon 
the quarter deck, where they could be seized in a body. 

7. The captain was to have been put into a boat, without food, 
water, oars or sails, heavily ironed, and turned loose upon the 
ocean. The gunner, carpenter and boatswain were to have been 



to do ? Did La Fayette accept their offer ? 3. How were the men collected to man the 
Alliance 1 4. Describe the departure of La Fayette. 5. What of a conspiracy ? What 
had the British government done 7 6. Describe the plan of the conspirators. 7, 8. What 



212 



THE CONTINENTAL MONEY. 



killed on the spot. The marine officer and surgeon were to have 
been hanged and quartered, and their bodies cast into the sea. 

8. The sailing master was to have been cut into morsels and 
thrown overboard. The lieutenants were to have had their choice, 
either to navigate the vessel to the nearest British port, or to walk 
overboard. The passengers were to have been confined and carried 
into England as prisoners of war. 

9. Among the crew was an excellent young man, whom the 
mutineers took, from his accent, to be an Irishman, but who had 
become, in fact, an American. They had proposed their plan to 
him, and he had learned their whole secret. About an hour before 
the massacre was to have taken place, he revealed the plot to 
La Fayette and the captain, who immediately took measures to 
prevent it. 

10. The officers and passengers were informed what was going 
on, as well as such other men as could be trusted. A few minutes 
before four o'clock, the officers, passengers, and American seamen 
rushed on deck, with drawn swords and other weapons, and thirty or 
forty of the mutineers were seized and put in irons. The crime was 
confessed, the mutineers were secured, and the ship soon arrived at 
Brest, in France. It was proposed to punish them ; but the noble- 
minded La Fayette insisted on exchanging them as mere prisoners 
of war. 



CHAPTER CXIX. 

The Continental Money, 

1. The year 1779 was less distinguished for splendid or brilliant 
achievements by either of the two great contending nations, than any 
year had been since the commencement of the war ; and this, too, 
notwithstanding the alliance of the United States with France. One 
cause of this, among many others, was the troubles which now began 
to be experienced this year about paper money. 

2. The history of money, in connection with these states, is quite 
curious. Going back to 1643, we find the general court of Massa- 
chusetts ordering that wampumpeog, or the Indian wampum, should 
pass current in the payment of debts, to the amount of forty shillings, 
except taxes ; the white wampumpeog at eight for a penny, the 
black at four. 

3. The first mint for coining money in New England was erected 
in 1652. The money coined was shillings, sixpences and three 



was to have been done with the officers of the ship ? What was to have been the fate 
of the passengers ? 9. How was the infamous plot defeated? 10. What means were 
taken to disarm the mutineers ? Where did the ship land ? What was done with the 
prisoners ? 

CXIX.— 1. Why was the year 1779 leas distinguished than many others had been? 
2. What was used as money in 1613 1 3. When was the first mint erected ? What wa* 



THE CONTINENTAL 3IONEV. 



213 



pences. The law ordered that they should have Massachusetts and 
a tree on one side, and New England and the value of the coin on 
the other. This currency continued not only to be used but to be 
coined, for thirty years, or more. 




Continental money. 



4. Bills of credit, or paper money, appear to have been issued 
by Carolina, in the year 1706. Soon after the emission, the value 
of the money fell one third ; one hundred and fifty pounds, in Caro- 
lina currency, being worth only one hundred pounds in English 
coin. Happily, the emission was only eight thousand pounds. How- 
ever, in 1712, the South Carolina legislature issued forty-eight 
thousand pounds, in these bills of credit, to defray the expenses of 
their Indian wars. 

5. About the year 1691, during the progress of King William's 
war, Massachusetts issued bills of credit to pay the troops. Con- 
necticut, New York and New Jersey followed in train, in 1709, and 
issued their paper money, and for the same reason, viz., to pay the 
expenses of their Indian wars. The legislature of Georgia issued 
paper bills of credit to the amount of seven thousand four hundred 
and ten pounds sterling, in 1760. There were also some other 
instances in the colonies of the same sort. 

6. The first emission of bills of credit by congress was in June, 
1775. The amount was two million of dollars. Eighteen months 
afterward, twenty million of dollars more were issued ; and still later, 
a larger quantity ; in all, three hundred and seventy-five millions. 
The states also issued many millions. In 1780, at least two hun- 
dred millions of continental money were in circulation. 



the money coined ? 4. When was paoer money first issued ?- What effect had this 
upon the value of money ? What was done in 1712? 5. In 1691 ? In 1709 ? In 1760 ? 
6. What was done by Congress in June, 1775 ? What amount was issued ? How much 
money was in circulation' in 1780 ? 7. What was the confederation pledged to do ? 



214 



CAPTURE OF STONY POINT AND PAULUS HOOK. 



7. The confederation was indeed pledged to redeem these billa, 
and each colony its proportion of them, by the year 1779. Never- 
theless, they began to lose their value in 1777, and by the year 
1778, the period to which, in the progress of our history, we have 
now arrived, five or six dollars of it would only pass for one. 

8. But this was only the beginning of its depreciation. In 1779, 
twenty-seven or twenty-eight dollars of it were only worth one of 
hard money, and in 1780 it was fifty or sixty for one. By the 
middle of this year, the bills almost ceased to circulate ; and when 
they did circulate, it was at less than a hundredth part of their nomi- 
nal value, sometimes less than the five hundredth. * 

9. Yet congress had ordered that they should be a lawful tender 
for the payment of debts, at their full nominal value, and the soldiers 
were to be paid in them. Why should not a war be poorly sus- 
tained with such a miserable public currency 1 

10. How could men be raised to fight, even for their homes and 
firesides, when the money, in which they were to be paid, would not 
support their families ! Six months' pay of a soldier, in 1779, would 
not provide bread for his family for a month ; nor the pay of a 
colonel M purchase oats for his horse." 

11. There were many causes which operated to produce this 
unheard-of depreciation of a currency which the nation was bound 
to redeem. 1. Too much of it was issued. 2. The quantity was 
greatly increased by counterfeits and forgeries. 3. It was for the 
pecuniary advantage of public agents — since they received a com- 
mission proportioned to the amount of their purchases for the army — 
to pay high prices. 4. There was a doubt of the ability of the 
states to pay these notes, as well as a distrust of the faith of the 
states, in respect to their redemption. 

12. But whatever the causes may have been, and however 
promising its first effects, no measure of Congress produced more 
mischief, in the end, by weakening and destroying public confidence, 
than this same continental money. It may be difficult, however, 
to say by what other means the war could have been sustained. 



CHAPTER CXX. 

Capture of Stony Point and Paulus Hook. 

1 . There were two brilliant and somew'hat decisive actions in 
the vicinity of New York, during the year 1779. One of these was 
the capture of Stony Point, a strong military post on the west 
bank of the Hudson, guarded by about six hundred British troops. 



What happened in 1777? In 1773 ? 8. Describe the depreciation of these bills. 
9. What had congress ordered 1 10. Give some idea of the insufficiency of this money 
for support. 11. What were the causes of this depreciation of currency ? 12. What of 
the measure of congress concerning continental money ? 
CXX.— 1. Where is Stony Point ? What did Washington do ? 2. What of General 



CAPTURE OF STONY POINT AND PAULUS HOOK. 



215 



Anxious to regain this post, Washington deputed General Wayne, 
with twelve hundred men, chiefly New Englanders, to make the 
attempt. 

2. General Wayne set out on the 15th of July, and, at evening, 
halted a mile or two from the fort to make his arrangements. One 
hundred and fifty volunteers, guarded by twenty picked men, were 
to march in front of the rest. They were ordered to proceed in per- 
fect silence, with unloaded guns and fixed bayonets. 

3. The attempt was perilous. One disorderly fellow persisted in 
a determination to load his gun, for which he was killed by his cap- 
tain on the spot. The fort was defended by a deep swamp, covered 
with water. The troops marched through it waist deep. The 
British opened upon them a tremendous fire of musketry and artillery ; 
still, the Americans were not allowed to fire a gun. 

4. But their success was complete. The fort was carried at the 
point of the bayonet, and its surviving defenders all taken. The 
Americans lost about a hundred men, in the onset, of whom seven- 
teen were of the twenty picked guards who went in front of the rest. 
The British had sixty-eight killed — the rest surrendering at dis- 
cretion. 

5. General Wayne was among the wounded of the Americans. 
As they were entering the fort, a musket ball cut a gash in his fore- 
head. He fell, but rose upon one knee, and said, " Forward, my 
brave fellows, forward." Then, in a low voice, he said to one of 
his aids, " Assist me; if I die, I will die in the fort!" But the 
wound proved less severe than was at first expected. 

6. General Wayne was a truly brave man. He was at this time 
about thirty-five years of age ; but, though young, he was old in 
war — having been continually employed in the most active services 
of his country, for four years. He had been in Canada, at Ticon- 
deroga, at Brandywine, Germantown, Monmouth, and several other 
points of great hazard and danger. 

7. For this brilliant attack on Stony Point, congress gave thanks 
to Washington who contrived it, and a gold medal to Wayne who 
executed it. But the army gained, with the fort, something besides 
mere honor. A large quantity of military stores, of which they 
stood in great and almost perishing need, fell into their hands. 

8. This successful adventure was followed, in a few days, by 
another. Major Lee, with three hundred men, made a descent upon 
Paulus Hook, a British post, on the New Jersey shore, opposite 
New York, which he completely surprised and carried, with but 
two men killed and three wounded. 



Wayne ? What was to be the march of the troops ? 3. What happened among the 
soldiers ? Describe the attack upon the fort. 4. What was the success of the Ameri- 
cans ? Their loss ? What of the British loss 1 5. Describe General Wayne's conduct 
when wounded. 6. Give some account of him. 7. What rewards did congress give ) 
"What did the army obtain 1 S. What exploit was performed by Major Lee ? 



216 



THE WAR WITH THE INDlAiNS. 



CHAPTER CXXI. 
The ivar ivith the Indians. 

1. The history of events in the United States, for the year 1779, 
would be incomplete without a farther account of the war with the 
Indians. These, except in the vicinity of Wyoming, were yet very 
troublesome. 

2. In April and May of this year, a small body of men from Fort 
Schuyler, marched against the Onondaga Indians, and burnt their 
village, consisting of about fifty houses, with a large quantity of pro- 
visions, without the loss of a single man. They also took thirty-four 
prisoners. 

3. Detached parties of men were also sent out against the Indians 
on the borders of South Carolina and in the neighborhood of Pitts- 
burg, Pennsylvania. On the frontier of South Carolina, eight 
Indian towns were destroyed ; and in the neighborhood of Pitts- 
burg, a number of Indian huts and about five hundred acres of 
corn. 

4. The " Six Nations," as they were called, had promised to be 
neutral in the war ; but, except the Oneidas, they became at length 
quite troublesome — plundering, burning and murdering. They 
were instigated, no doubt, by the British agents. General Sulli- 
van, with a part of the American army, was at length sent out 
against them. He arrived in their country in August. 

5. The Indians, aware of his approach, had fortified themselves 
after the English fashion. They defended themselves most man- 
fully against the attack of General Sullivan for more than two hours. 
They were, however, finally driven from the position, and their 
villages, gardens, corn and fruits were destroyed. 

6. Still it was in the power of detached parties of the Indians to 
do much mischief. In July, about the time of the Wyoming massa- 
cre, Brandt, the half-blood chief, with a body of Indians and tories, 
burnt ten houses and killed forty-four men at Minisink settlement, 
near the Hudson. The bones of those who fell there, after whiten- 
ing in the sun forty-three years, were, in 1823, collected and buried, 
with much ceremony. 



CXXI — 1. What of the Indians in the United States ? 2. What attack was made 
upon the Onondaga Indians 1 3. What other attacks were made upon the Indians 1- 
4. What of the " Six Nations V* Who was sent against them 7 5. How did the Indians 
defend themselves ? 6. What outrages were committed by Brandt I 



SURRENDER OF CHARLESTON. 



217 



CHAPTER CXXII. 

Surrender of Charleston. 

1. The greater part of the American army at the north had 
wintered in Morristown, New Jersey. There were, it is true, 
strong detachments at West Point, and other posts about the Hud- 
son, and a body of cavalry in Connecticut. Little was done on 
either side during the winter, which was one of unusual severity. 
In truth, the sufferings of the army were so great that Washington, 
at times, thought of disbanding them. 

2. The army, for the campaign of 1780, was fixed by congress at 
thirty-five thousand two hundred and eleven ; of which each state 
was to furnish its proportion by the first day of April. But it 
was easier to collect an army on paper than actually to procure 
the enlistments. Only ten thousand four hundred men could be 
mustered in April ; while the British force, at New York, was 
seventeen thousand three hundred. 

3. Nor was the condition of the American army at all encouraging. 
Their wages were five months in arrears ; their food was scanty, 
and sometimes bad ; they had no sugar, tea, wine, spirits, or 
medicine ; and, w r orst of all, no prospect before them of anything 
better. 

4. Bad as the circumstances were, however, the spring was 
spent in preparation for war. In April, La Fayette returned from 
France, with the cheering intelligence that a large land and naval 
force might soon be expected from that country. They did not 
arrive till July ; and, until their arrival, the war at the north was 
confined to a little skirmishing. 

5. But not so at the south. Sir Henry Clinton, with seven thou- 
sand or eight thousand men, had landed at Savannah, early this 
year, and sailed from that place to attack Charleston, which, at the 
time, was defended by the commander-in-chief of the army of the 
south, General Lincoln, and Governor Rutledge. He opened his 
batteries upon the city April 2. 

6. The American forces amounted to about five thousand men ; 
and they had four hundred pieces of artillery. But the forces of the 
enemy were much greater, and the siege was carried on with spirit. 
On the eleventh of May, the Americans concluded to surrender ; — 
not, however, till near one hundred of their number had been slain, 
and one hundred and forty wounded. 

7. On the 14th of April, while the siege of Charleston was going 
on, a body of American cavalry and militia w r as surprised by the 
British at Monk's Corner, thirty-two miles from Charleston, and 



CXXII. — 1. Where was the most part of the American army ? Where were strong 
detachments? What of suffering ? 2. What of the army 1 What men were actually 
raised 1 What was the British force ? 3. What was the condition of the army ? 
4. What news was brought by La Fayette ? What of the war at the north ? 5. What 
was going on at the south ? 6. What were the forces of the two parties ? What did 
the Americana conclude to do 1 7. Where were they surprised by the British ? What 
19 



218 



BATTLE NEAR CAMDEN. 



dispersed. Fort Moultrie, also, on Sullivan's Island, had surren- 
dered the same day to the British naval forces. 

8. Another misfortune befell the American army at the south, on 
the 29th of May. Lord Cornwallis, who commanded a division of 
the British troops, near the Santee river, detached a body of his men 
to a place in North Carolina, called the Waxhaws, and completely 
cut off a corps of four hundred men, under Colonel Buford ; only one 
hundred effecting their escape. 

9. The southern American army being now greatly reduced, 
the British found it easy to post garrisons in various parts of Caro- 
lina, and to regard it as, in effect, conquered. Only four thousand 
men were deemed necessary to complete what they had so well 
begun, and, with the rest of the army, Sir Henry Clinton returned 
to New York. 

10. Meanwhile, the state, though overrun, was very far from 
being conquered. A partisan war was long kept up, sometimes 
with much spirit. Many gallant exploits were performed, and many 
petty victories obtained, by Generals Sumpter, Marion, and others ; 
so that the British could hardly fail to learn that to gain a few 
victories and to conquer a country were very different things. 



CHAPTER CXXIII. 

Battle near Camden. 

1. About this period, General Lincoln was superseded in the 
command of the American army at the south, by General Gates. 
The Baron D'Kalb, a brave German officer, was second in the com- 
mand. Their troops amounted to one thousand regular soldiers and 
three thousand militia. 

2. General Horatio Gates was an Englishman by birth, but had 
been often sent over to America, in the progress of the colonial wars. 
Somewhere between the years 1763 and 1770, he removed to Amer- 
ica and settled in Virginia. In 1775, he was made a brigadier 
general. He continued in the army — chiefly at the north — till the 
year 1780, when he was transferred to the south. 

3. At the time of the capture of Burgoyne, Gates was about fifty 
years of age. This event made him extremely popular, while 
Washington, less fortunate, was at this juncture rather unpopular. 
Efforts were made to remove Washington from the command of the 
army and supply his place by Gates, but they were as unsuccessful 
as they were unreasonable. 

4. General Gates marched with his troops from North Carolina 
towards Charleston. On the road, six hundred or seven hundred 



of Fort Moultrie? 8. What was done by Lord Cornwallis ? 9. What did the British 
find it easy to accomplish ? 10. What skirmishes were made at different times ? 

CXXni.— 1. What of the army at the south? Their commanders ? 2. Give some 
account of General Gates. 3. What state of feeling was shown respecting Gates and 



BATTLE NEAR CAMDEN. 



^19 



Virginia militia joined him. When near Camden, he was met by 
Lord Cornwallis and two thousand regular troops, who gave him 
battle. The Virginia militia and part of the others fled at the begin- 
ning of tlie fight. The regular soldiers behaved well, but were 
finally overpowered by numbers. 

5. The battle was fought August 16, and was exceedingly 
severe. Not only the battle-ground itself, but the fields, roads and 
swamps, for many miles round, were covered, as it were, with the 
slain. Of the Americans, seven hundred and thirty-two were killed 
or captured ; and of the British, about half as many. Among the 
slain was the Baron D'Kalb, to whose memory congress ordered a 
monument to be erected. 

6. Another defeat soon followed. General Sumpter, having 
taken a small fort, with about three hundred prisoners, and a large 
quantity of stores intended for the British army at Camden, was 
retreating with his booty up the Wateree river, when Colonel 
Tarleton, with a part of the British army, surprised hirn, rescued 
the prisoners, and killed, wounded or dispersed his whole force. 

7. But, after this long series of reverses, the tide of the southern 
war began to turn. At a place called King's Mountain, the British 
were defeated with but little loss on the part of the Americans. No 
less than eight hundred of their best troops were taken prisoners, 
with fifteen hundred stands of arms. 

8. The British were also defeated, on the 12th of November, in a 
partial engagement at Broad river ; and, again, eight days after- 
ward, on Tiger river. The losses, however, in either of these two 
last engagements, were but trifling ; nor were the advantages gained 
of very great consequence. 

9. It has been seen in another place that little was done at the 
north during the early part of the year 1780. In June, about five 
thousand British soldiers, under General Kniphausen, plundered and 
burnt several villages in New Jersey, and, in a few instances, com- 
mitted the grossest acts of barbarity. 

10. The arrival of the French at Newport, July 10, 1780, with 
seven sail of the line, five frigates, five smaller vessels and several 
transports, and about six thousand men, under Count Rochambeau, 
a spirited officer, infused new courage into the whole country, and 
perhaps gave a turn to the war. 



Washington ? 4, What of the march of General Gates ? What battle was fought ? 
5. What was the loss on both sides ? What of Baron D'Kalb ? 6. What of General 
Sumpter? Colonel Tarleton ? 7. Where were the British defeated ? 8. Other defeats ? 
9. Describe the pillage committed by the British. 10. What effect had the arrival of 
the French at Newport ? 



220 



SLAVERY IN THE UNITED STATES. 



CHAPTER CXXIV. 

Slavery in the United States. 

1. One victory was achieved this year, in the state of Penn- 
sylvania, of a very different kind from most of the victories which 
were gained about this period. Grateful for their own deliverance 
from slavery to Great Britain, the legislature passed an act for the 
abolition of African slavery. 

2. The history of slavery in these states is at once curious and 
instructive. The royal ordinances of Spain, according to Bancroft, 
authorized negro slavery in America as early as 1501. In 1503, 
there were such numbers of Africans in the island of Hispaniola, 
that Ovando, the Spanish governor, entreated the king that their 
importation might be no longer permitted. 

3. The first slaves brought to the United States were landed from 
a Dutch vessel at Jamestown, about the year 1619. They were 
twenty in number. In 1645, a ship, belonging to John Keyser and 
James Smith, sailed for Guinea, to trade for negroes ; but a cry 
was raised against them that they were malefactors and mur- 
derers. 

4. It is true that the articles of the early New England con- 
federacy class persons among the spoils of war. The remnant of the 
Pequod Indians in Connecticut ; the captive Indians made by Wal- 
dron in New Hampshire ; a remnant of the tribe of Annawon, and 
even the orphan children of King Philip, were all enslaved. In Vir- 
ginia and Carolina, for one hundred years, the Indian tribes were not 
secure against the kidnapper. 

5. But however ready the public mind was to connive at the 
slavery of the Indian tribes, the importation of African slaves to 
Massachusetts was early regarded as an offence against God and 
man, and the slave trade was at length forbidden under the penalty 
of death. In 1645, a negro, who had been enslaved near Portsmouth, 
was demanded, by the general court of Massachusetts, that he might 
be sent back to Africa. 

6. For many years, the Dutch were the principal means of bring- 
ing slaves to Virginia ; but, at length, others became involved 
in the traffic, and they were introduced, in spite of the laws, into all 
the colonies. The assembly of Maryland even passed an act, in 
1671, for 44 encouraging the importation of negroes and slaves." 

7. In 1701, the 44 Guinea Company," for transporting slaves into 
the Spanish settlements of America, was established. But the same 
year, the representatives of Boston were instructed to promote the 
custom of bringing white servants into the colony, in order to 



CXXIV. — 1. What was done by the legislature ? 2. When was slavery authorized in 
America ? 3. When and how were the first slaves brought to the United States ? What 
was done in 1645 ? 4. What Indians were enslaved? 5. How was the importation of 
slaves regarded 1 What was thought of the slave trade ? What took place in 1645 ? 
6. What of the Dutch ? What of the assembly of Maryland ? 7. When was the Guinea 



THE TREASON OF ARNOLD. 221 

put a period to negro slavery. In 1703, in addition to former laws, 
Massachusetts imposed a heavy duty on every negro imported. 

8. Attempts were also made in Virginia, as early as 1699, to 
check the slave trade, by the imposition of heavy duties. It was 
not, however, till 1778, that Virginia abolished the traffic in slaves 
by positive enactment. Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts 
and the other states followed the example soon afterward. 

9. But, though the traffic was prohibited, the slaves increased 
rapidly, not only by a natural progress, but in various other ways. 
In 1723, the slaves in South Carolina, consisting chiefly of negroes, 
amounted to eighteen thousand — the whites being only fourteen 
thousand. In 1784, the whole number in the Union was six hundred 
thousand ; and, though the third congress prohibited the slave trade 
altogether, they have continued to increase till the whole number is 
but little short of three millions. 

10. In 1740, the legislature of South Carolina passed an act, 
14 that whosoever shall teach or cause any slave or slaves to write, 
or shall use or employ any slave as a scribe, in any manner of 
writing whatsoever, shall, for every such offence, forfeit the sum of 
one hundred pounds sterling," in " current money." Laws of a 
similar kind were subsequently passed in other colonies. 

11. In less than nine months, ending July 21, 1773, no less than 
six thousand four hundred and seventy-one African slaves were 
imported into South Carolina, and nearly all of them directly from 
Africa. But there was a current setting the other way shortly 
afterward. When the British evacuated Charleston, in 1782, eight 
hundred slaves were shipped to the West Indies, and it is computed 
that the state lost, during the whole war, in this and other ways, 
about twenty-five thousand. 

12. Since the beginning of the present century, attempts have 
been made, both by legislation and benevolent effort, to open a door 
to the general manumission of slaves in the United States, by 
establishing colonies in distant parts, especially on the western shore 
of Africa. Others, however, have opposed such efforts, and labored 
with much zeal in behalf of immediate and universal emanci- 
pation. 



CHAPTER CXXV. 

The treason of Arnold. 

1. We come now to some of the most painfully interesting 
events in the whole history of the American revolutionary war. 



Company established ? What was done in Boston ? Massachusetts ? 8. What part 
did Virginia now act ? What other states followed her example ? 9. What of the 
increase of slaves ? 10. What was done by South Carolina ? 11. How many slaves 
were imported into South Carolina in nine months 1 How many were afterwards sent 
away ? 12. What efforts have been made for the slaves of late years ? 
CXXV.— 1. Who was Andre ? 2. Give some account of Benedict Arnold. 3. Describe 
19* 



222 



THE TREASON OF ARNOLD. 



These are, the treason of General Arnold, and the capture and 
execution of Major Andre, an excellent British officer, as a spy. 




Arnold. 



2. General Benedict Arnold was a native of Norwich, in Con- 
necticut. His father was a man of doubtful integrity ; though 
he had a good mother. His education was such merely as the 
common schools of the place could give. While yet a lad, he 
was apprenticed to a firm of druggists, in Norwich ; but he ran 
away several times during his apprenticeship, besides being, in other 
ways, a source of perpetual trouble to his friends. 

3. Everything pertaining to this early period of his life, indicated 
a want, in him, of conscientiousness ; — cruelty, ill-temper, and 
recklessness with regard to the good or ill opinion of others. 
Robbing birds 5 nests, maiming and mangling young birds, to draw 
forth cries from the old ones, vexing children, and calling them hard 
names, and even beating them, were among his frequent, if not daily 
pastimes. 

4. He was also fond of daring, not to say dangerous feats. 
For example, he sometimes took grain to a grist-mill in the neigh- 
borhood, and, while waiting for the meal, he would amuse him- 
self and astonish his playmates, by clinging to the arms of the 
large water-wheel and passing with it beneath and above the 
water. 

5. At the close of his apprenticeship, he commenced business as 
a druggist in New Haven. His enterprise and activity ensured 
success for a time ; but his speculations ended in bankruptcy. He 
returned, it is true, to his business ; but he was never esteemed for 
honesty or solid integrity, either before or afterward. 

6. While an apprentice, he had once enlisted in the army; but 
disliking his duties, had deserted. When the news of the battle of 



his youth. 4. What are some of his feats ? 5. How did he commence business ? 



CAPTURE OF MAJOR ANDR& 



223 



Lexington came, Arnold, who had become a captain of what were 
called the governor's guard, took occasion to harangue the people, 
and call for volunteers. Sixty men joined him, and they set out for 
Cambridge. His subsequent movements have been alluded to in 
other chapters. 

7. The fall of 1780 found him in the command of West Point, on 
the Hudson. Here he entered into an arrangement with Sir Henry 
Clinton, the British commander in New York, to give up the men, 
arms, stores, &c, at West Point to the British. Such a result, had 
it not been for a timely discovery of the plot, would doubtless have 
been effected. 

8. W T hat adds greatly to the wickedness of Arnold, in this matter, 
is the fact, that he had the entire confidence of Washington, by 
whom he had always been well treated, and also that he had soli- 
cited the command of West Point, with a special view to the commis- 
sion of this act of treachery. Had he betrayed Washington and his 
country in a moment of angry excitement, the case would have been 
far different. 



1. The agent employed in Arnold's negotiations with Sir Henry 
Clinton, was John Andre, adjutant general of the British army. He 



How was he esteemed? 6. What took place while he was in the army ? What did he 
do on hearing of the battle of Lexington ? 7. What did he offer to do for the British 
at West, Point? 8. What added to the wickedness of Arnold ? 
CXXTI.-— 1. What of Andre? What sloop was stationed in the Hudson? 2. What 



CHAPTER CXXVI. 



Capture of Major Andre. 




Andre. 



224 



CAPTURE OF MAJOR ANDRE7 



was an accomplished young man, about twenty-nine years of age. 
To favor his communications with Arnold, the Vulture, a British 
sloop of war, had been previously stationed in the Hudson, as near 
West Point as it could be without exciting suspicion. 

2. On the night of September 21st, a boat was sent from the 
shore to bring Maj. Andre. When it returned, Arnold met him at 
the beach, outside of the forts of both armies. Their business not 
being finished till it was too near morning for Andre to return to the 
Vulture, he was obliged to conceal himself, for the day, within the 
American lines. 

3. During his absence, the Vulture had changed her position, and 
Andre, unable to get on board, was compelled to set out for New 
York by land. After exchanging his uniform for a plain dress, and 
receiving a passport from Arnold, under the name of John Anderson, 
he set out on horseback, and made the best of his way down the river. 

4. He had the address, with the aid of his passport, to escape the 
suspicions of the guards and outposts of the army. But when he 
came to Tarrytown, a small village about thirty miles north of New 
York, on the east side of the river, he was met by three New York 
militia belonging to a scouting party, who, after examining his papers, 
allowed him to pass on. 

5. One of them, however, suspecting from his appearance that all 
was not right, called him back. Andre asked them where they 
were from. " From down below," they replied. " So am I," 
said he. They then arrested him ; upon which he owned he was a 




Examination of Andre. 



British officer, and endeavored to bribe them to release him, by the 
offer of a purse of gold and his watch. 

6. But they were not to be bribed, though they were poor and 



meeting took place on September 21st? 3. What was Andre compelled to do ? 4. De- 
scribe his journey on horseback. What happened at Tarrytown? 5. What passed 
between Andre and the three men? 6. Where did they take him ? What of Arnold? 



EXECUTION OF HALE AND PALMER. 



225 



needy. They conducted him to Col. Jameson, their commander, 
who, while he secured him, incautiously allowed him to drop a line to 
Arffold, who, on receiving the letter, went at once on hoard the Vul- 
ture, and thus escaped the punishment which would otherwise have 
been inflicted. 

7. Washington, at this moment, was on his way from Connecticut, 
where he had been to confer with Count Rochambeau. He arrived 
at West Point just in time to save it from being delivered up to the 
British, but not in time to take Arnold. 

8. Andre, in the mean time, was tried by a board of fourteen 
military officers, who, after hearing his confession — for he was too 
noble a man to deny any part of the truth — unanimously pronounced 
him to be a spy; and declared that, " agreeably to the laws and 
usages of nations, he should suffer death." 

9. He was unwilling to die on a gibbet or gallows ; but requested 
to be shot. Washington, moved by his appeals, presented his re- 
quest to his officers ; but it was refused. He expired on a gallows, 
October 2, 1780, at Tappan, in New Jersey, twenty-eight miles above 
New York. 

10. The three brave young men who took him, whose names 
were Paulding, Williams, and Van Wert, were rewarded by con- 
gress, in an annual pension of two hundred dollars each for life, and 
a silver medal, on one side of which was a shield, inscribed, " Fidel- 
ity ;" and on the other the motto Vincit amor patrice, or " the love 
of country conquers." 

11. Washington concerted a plan for seizing Arnold, and saving 
Andre, but it did not succeed. Champe, a bold and persevering 
soldier, was to desert to the British army, in New York, watch his 
opportunity, and bring off Arnold to the American camp. After 
seizing Arnold, he was to have been met at the lines of the two armies 
and assisted in securing him. Champe entered upon the project, and 
had nearly succeeded, when Arnold suddenly changed his quarters, 
and the scheme failed. 



CHAPTER CXXVII. 

Execution of Hale and Palmer. 

1 . We have already noticed some of the evils of war, but there 
is at least one more ; it is the dreadful system of retaliation. If one 
opposing party burns a village, or plunders private property, or hangs 
deserters, the other is apt to do so, in order to avenge itself or retaliate. 
Had it not been for this, Andre might perhaps have been spared. 

2. After the Americans had retreated from Long Island, in the 

7. Where was Washington at this time? 8. Describe Andre's trial and doom. 9. 
What was his request? Where was he executed? 10. How were the three men re- 
warded who took Andre ? 11. What plan had Washington formed ? What was Champe 
to do? 

CXXVIL— 1. What is on« of the evils of war? 2. What of Captain Nathan Hale? 



22(5 



ARNOLD INVADES VIRGINIA AND NEW LONDON. 



year 1776, Capt. Nathan Hale passed over to the island in disguise, 
and examined carefully every part of the British army, and found 
out its general plan of movement ; but just as he was ready to return, 
he was tal^en, found guilty, and executed. The presence of a clergy- 
man and even the use of a Bible were denied him, and the letters 
which he wrote to his friends were destroyed. 

3. The Americans never forgot this. While the war was going 
on with Burgoyne, in the north, and General Clinton was trying to 
force a passage up the Hudson, spies and scouts were constantly 
passing between the two armies. One Palmer w r as at last caught 
by the army under General Putnam and executed. He had been an 
American tory, but had deserted to the British, and received a lieu- 
tenant's commission. 

4. The British general in New York, having heard of the arrest 
of Palmer, wrote to General Putnam, entreating that he might be 
spared, and threatening vengeance in case of a refusal. But neither 
his entreaties nor his threats moved Putnam, and Palmer was con- 
demned as a spy, and executed. 

5. The brave Colonel Trumbull has been mentioned. He was 
in London when the news of Andre's death arrived, and though he 
had been entirely disconnected from the army for several years, he 
was now carefully watched, and at length taken and subjected to a 
rigid examination. Their rough method of examina tion not pleasing 
him, he soon brought it to a close by a voluntary confession. 

6. "I will put an end to all this insolent folly," said he, "by 
telling you who and what I am. I am an American — my name is 
Trumbull ; I am son of him whom you call the rebel governor of 
Connecticut ; I have served in the rebel American army ; I have had 
the honor of being aid de camp to him whom you call the rebel Gen- 
eral Washington." 

7. He was respected for his frankness and his spirit, but not re- 
leased. After further examination, he was committed to prison, and 
would probably have been executed, but for the kind interference of 
West, the painter, then in London and on good terms with the 
king, who persuaded the latter to spare his life. He was, however, 
kept in close confinement seven months. 



CHAPTER CXXVIII. 

Arnold invades Virginia and New London. 

1. Arnold received 6,315 pounds sterling — equal to about twenty- 
eight thousand dollars — for his treachery, with the commission of a 
brigadier general in the service of his majesty the British king. 



3. What took place during the war ? What was the fate of Palmer 1 4. What passed 
between the British general and Putnam? 5. What happened to Colonel Trumbull ? 
G. Repeat his confession. 7. How was he treated ? 
CXXVIII. — 1. How was Arnold rewarded for his treachery 3 What was probably the 



THE WAR AT THE SOUTH. 



227 



This explains the secret of his fall. His vanity and extravagance 
had involved him in debt, and he sold himself and his country for the 
means of replenishing his purse. 

2. Soon after his arrival in New York, he published an ' 1 address 
to the inhabitants of America," explaining the course he had pur- 
sued, and endeavoring to justify himself in it. It was of little force, 
however. It was rather a tirade against congress and the alliance 
with the French, than an address to the Americans, or an apology 
for his own conduct. 

3. In about two months after he joined the British, he was ap- 
pointed to the command of an expedition against Virginia, consisting 
of sixteen hundred men. A violent gale separated the fleet, in which 
he and his men had embarked, but they all arrived at Hampton Roads 
about December 30, except four hundred of the men, who were a 
week later. 

4. Without waiting for those who were missing, Arnold pro- 
ceeded up the James river, burning and plundering, without regard 
to any distinction between public and private property. After doing 
all the mischief he could, he descended the river, and stationed himself 
at Portsmouth ; and in a few weeks returned to New York. 

5. Washington and La Fayette exerted themselves to the utmost 
to take him, but without success. A French fleet had been ever 
sent to the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, chiefly for this service, and 
ten of the vessels, with a British forty-four gun ship, were captured ; 
but Arnold took care to secure his own person. 

6. We hear no more of Arnold, except that he endeavored, with- 
out success, to make an attack upon West Point, till the autumn of 
1781, when he made a descent Avith fifteen hundred men, upon the 
mouth of the Connecticut river, took Forts Trumbull and Griswold, 
committed a most merciless slaughter after the troops had partly 
surrendered, and burnt New London. 

7. Not long after these last events, he sailed for England. He 
lived till the year 1801, but he lived almost unnoticed. A small part 
of his time was spent at St. John's in the province of New Bruns- 
wick, and in the West Indies ; but the greater portion of it was 
spent in London, where he died at the age of sixty-one years. 



CHAPTER CXXIX. 

The war at the south, 

1. We have been carried forward a little too far in the history of 
the war, in order to finish the story of Arnold. Let us now re- 
turn to Washington and the American army, whom we left in 
amazement at the conduct of Arnold at West Point. 



cause of his fall ? 2. What did he do '!- 3. To what expedition was he appointed com- 
mander ?- 4. Describe his journey up the James river. 5. What means were used to 
take Arnold ? 6, 7. What more do we hear of him ? When did he die 1 
CXXIX.— 2. Where did the troops winter ? What of the troops in 1781 3 3. Wh* 



228 



THE WAR AT THE SOUTH. 



2. The troops wintered, for the most part, in New Jersey, as they 
had done the year before. In the spring of 1781, the Pennsylvania 
troops, to the number of thirteen hundred, revolted and rebelled for 
want of pay. It was found, on examination, that their complaints 
were well founded. Their claims being met, the rebellion ceased. 




General Greene. 



3. Little was done at the north, during the year 1781, except what 
has been mentioned in connection with the story of Arnold. The 
war was principally at the south. General Greene had succeeded to 
General Gates, as the commander in chief of the army there, and 
things were beginning to wear an aspect much more favorable. 

4. A brilliant victory was obtained, January 17, of this year, by a 
part of General Greene's army under General Morgan, at a place 
called the Cowpens, in the western part of South Carolina, over a 
detachment of British troops under Colonel Tarleton. The latter 
had one thousand of the best men of the army ; the former about 
five hundred regulars and a few raw militia, only half clothed and 
half fed. 

5. The Americans, with a loss of only twelve in killed and sixty 
wounded, took five hundred prisoners, besides twelve standards, two 
pieces of artillery, eight hundred muskets, thirty-five baggage 
wagons, and one hundred horses, and killed one hundred and wound- 
ed two hundred men. So disastrous an event gave a permanent 
check to the progress of the British troops in the southern states. 

6. At the time of the defeat of Tarleton, Lord Corn wal lis was on 
the point of invading North Carolina, but he now went in pursuit of 
General Morgan. General Greene, suspecting his intentions, set out 
with his troops to reinforce Morgan, and came up with Cornwallis at 



succeeded General Gates in command ? 4. Describe the battle of the Cowpens. 5. What 
was the loss of the Americans ? What of their prisoners and baggage ? 6. What of 
Lord Cornwallis 1 Where did General Greene meet General Morgan ? What was his 



NAVAL OPERATIONS. 



229 



Guilford court-house. He had still but a miserable army of about 
two thousand men, half of whom were militia. 

7. Here, on the 8th of May, a severe engagement took place, in 
which though the British lost in killed and wounded about five hun- 
dred men, they were at last victorious. The Americans lost about 
four hundred men, mostly iegular troops — the militia having fled at 
the beginning of the battle. 

8. Another battle was fought, on the 25th of May, at Camden. 
The British had fortified the place, and left Lord Rawden and nine 
hundred men to guard it. General Greene, with twelve hundred 
men, attacked them, but was at length obliged to retreat without 
accomplishing his purpose. 

9. But all these victories of the British were dearly bought, and 
were fast reducing their strength. The defence of Camden alone, 
though successful, had cost them nearly three hundred out of nine 
hundred men. It was therefore concluded, not only to evacuate 
Camden, but also all their other posts in Carolina, except Ninety Six 
and Charleston. Here they still had strong forces. 

10. The former place w^as attacked by General Greene, but he 
was again unsuccessful, though the British sometime afterward 
evacuated the place and retired to the Eutaw Springs, forty miles 
from Charleston. A close engagement took place at these Springs, 
June 8, in w r hich both sides claimed the victory. The British lost, 
in killed, wounded, and missing, eleven hundred men; the Ameri- 
cans half as many. 

11. This finished the war, for a time, in South Carolina. The 
British retired to Charleston, and General Greene, satisfied with 
driving them out of the country, did not molest them farther. 
For his good conduct at the Eutaw Springs and elsewhere, con- 
gress presented him with a British standard and a gold medal. 



CHAPTER CXXX. 

Naval operations. 

1. The naval operations of the war have been in part alluded to 
in connection with the story of Paul Jones. A few other engage- 
ments, of the years 1779, 1780 and 1781, remain to be mentioned. 

2. Some time in the spring of the year 1779, the Hampden, a 
twenty- two gun ship, that sailed for Massachusetts, engaged an Eng- 
lish vessel, five hundred miles north of the Azores, in which, though 
the Hampden was obliged to haul off, as the sea phrase is, the Brit- 
ish were not disposed to triumph. This is said to have been one of 
the most closely contested actions of the w T ar. 

3. During the summer of 1779, Colonel Nicholson, with the 



force? 7. Describe the engagement. 8. What of the battle of Camden ? 9. What was 
the effect of their success upon the British? 10. What place was attacked by General 
Greene? What of Eutaw Springs? 11. What was the last war in South Carolina? 
Where did the British retire ? 

20 



230 



NAVAL OPERATIONS. 



Drane, of thirty-two guns, and the Boston, of twenty-four, made a 
cruise, in which he took many prizes, tmt fought no important battle. 
The Providence, of twelve guns, this year took the Diligent, a Brit- 
ish vessel of equal size ; and the Hazard, of fourteen guns, took the 
British vessel Active, of eighteen guns, after a bloody battle of thirty 
minutes. 

4. During the early part of the year 1780, while the French fleet, 
under Count D'Estaing, was in the East Indies, the British, by means 
of their superior force, were able to capture or destroy a considerable 
part of the little navy of the United States. The Providence, twen- 
ty-eight guns, the Queen of France, twenty-eight, the Boston, twen- 
ty-four, the Ranger, eighteen, and several others, successively fell 
into their hands. 

5. On the 2d of June, a most severely contested action was 
fought, some five hundred miles eastward of the coast of Virginia, 
between the Trumbull, of twenty-eight guns, Com. Nicholson, and 
the Watt, Capt. Coulthard, of thirty-two or thirty-six guns. The 
Trumbull had thirty -nine men killed and wounded ; the Watt nearly 
a hundred. The latter however escaped. 

6. In October, of the same year, the Saratoga, of sixteen guns, 
Capt. Young, captured a British ship of war and two brigs, after a 
short but very spirited action. The Saratoga was run alongside of 
the enemy's vessel at once, and her men boarded her and fought for 
victory on the deck of the enemy's ship, and against a force double 
their own . 

7. During the year 1781, the Alliance, of thirty-two guns, Capt. 
Barry, had several engagements with vessels nearly her own size, in 
all of which she was victorious. The principal of these was on the 
28th of May. On this occasion she fought two ships, one of sixteen 
guns, and another of fourteen. Both were taken. 

8. The Trumbull, still under the command of Com. Nicholson, 
had a most sanguinary engagement, on the 8th of August of this year, 
off the Capes of Delaware, with the British frigate Iris, of thirty-two 
guns, and the Shark, of eighteen, in which the Trumbull was finally 
captured ; but not till she had first almost disabled the Iris. 

9. Some other engagements took place on the ocean, both in 
1781 and 1782, but they were chiefly of the same general character 
with those described above. Let us now return to the war in the 
southern states, between Greene and Cornwallis. 



CXXX.— 2. What of the Hampden? 3. What of Cora. Nicholson? What British 
ship3 were taken in 1779 I 4. What was done by the British in the year 1780 ? 5. De- 
scribe the action of the 2d of June. 6. That of October. 7. What was done by the 
Alliance ? 8. What of the engagement between the Trumbull and the Iris ? 9. Other 
engagements ? 



SURRENDER OF LORD CORNWALLIS. 



231 



CHAPTER CXXXI. 

Surrender of Lord Cornicallis. 




1. Soon after the battle at Guilford court-house, Cornwallis left 
South Carolina to the care of Lord Rawdon, and marched into Vir- 
ginia. This was just after the French fleet, with a land force of 
three thousand men, under La Fayette, which had been sent against 
Arnold, had returned toward the north. On reaching Elkton, in 
Maryland, La Fayette heard of the arrival of Cornwallis at Peters- 
burg, and hastened with his troops to meet him. 

2. As La Fayette approached Petersburg, Cornwallis offered hirn 
battle ; but rinding his forces greatly inferior to those of the British, 
he chose to retreat and wait for reinforcements. Meanwhile, Wash- 
ington and other officers at the north were making every possible 
preparation for an attack upon New York ; and were already con- 
centrating their forces at Kingsb ridge. 

3. About this time, Cornwallis received a reinforcement of troops, 
upon which he marched to Yorktown, near the head of York river, 
on its southern banks, and forthwith began to fortify the place, as 
well as Gloucester, on the opposite side of the river. His whole 
force now amounted to about seven thousand men. 

4. Just at this time, Washington learned that the French fleet, 
which was expected to unite with him in the siege of New York, 
was about to sail for the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay. This 
changed his determination, though he did not suffer the change to be 
known ; and he hastened his forces at once to Yorktown. 



CXXXI— 1 . What did Lord Cornwallis do ? What of the French fleet ? What did La 
Fayette then do ? 2. What was the state of the American and French forces ? 3. What 
of Cornwallis ? His force ? 4. What of Washington ? What changed his determination ?- 
5. Describe the situation of the French and American forces. 6. When did Lord Corn- 



232 



SURRENDER OF LORD CORNWALLIS. 




The teacher icill put such questions here as he deems necessary. 



SURRENDER OF LORD CORNWALLIS. 



233 



5. On the 30th of September, the combined armies of the north 
and south, amounting to twelve thousand men, were fairly encamped 
round about Yorktown and Gloucester, while the French fleet, under 
Count de Grasse, blockaded the mouth of the river, to prevent Corn- 
wallis from receiving- any assistance from New York or elsewhere, 
and from making his escape. 

6. Washington arrived in person on the 6th of October, and the 
siege was carried on with so much vigor, that, on the 19th of Octo- 
ber, 1781, Lord Cornwallis found himself obliged to surrender — an 
event which two months before was as unexpected by the Americans 
as it was by the British government. 

7. At the capture of Charleston, eighteen months before, by the 
British, much pains had been taken to render the manner of the sur- 
render as humiliating to the Americans as possible. This was 
remembered by the victorious army at Yorktown, and retaliated. So 
humiliating indeed was it, that Lord Cornwallis would not appear in 
person to give up his sword, but sent it by Gen. O'Hara. 

8. So rapid, and, at the same time, so recent had been the move- 
ments of Washington and his army to the south, that the British did 
not for some time suspect his departure from the neighborhood of 
New York. When they learned what was going on, they sailed 
for the south, but Cornwallis had surrendered several days before 
their arrival. 

9. This important event revived the dying hopes of the country, 
and diffused universal joy, of which the strongest public testimonials 
were everywhere given. Nothing was to be heard, for some time, 
but the praises of Washington, La Fayette, Rochambeau and De 
Grasse. The war was now thought to be chiefly over. The 30th 
of the December following was appointed by congress as a day of 
national thanksgiving. 

10. The British still occupied New York, Charleston, Savannah, 
and a few other posts ; but they no longer, as before, overran New 
Jersey and the Carolinas. Nor was there, in truth, much more hard 
fighting. The fall of Cornwallis may therefore be justly said to 
have decided the war ; and to have decided it in favor of the Ameri- 
cans. 

11. Among the more considerable events of the year 1781, in 
addition to a few which have already been noticed, was an expedi- 
tion, late in the autumn, against the Cherokee Indians, who had 
recently been troublesome. In this expedition, thirteen of their 
towns and villages were burnt, and many of the Indians were 
slain. 

12. Soon after the capture of Cornwallis, the northern division of 
the American army returned to their old position on the Hudson, 
while the French troops and the southern division of the army re- 
mained in and about Virginia. Count de Grasse sailed with his fleet 
to the West Indies, where they spent the winter. 



wallis surrender ? 7. What of the surrender at Charleston ? What of that of Cornwal- 
lis ? 8. What can you say of the movements of Washington's army ? 9. What demon- 
strations of joy were made all over the country? 10. Where were the British at this 
time? What decided the war? 11. What expedition was made in 1781 ? 12. Where 
20* 



234 



TREATY OF PEACE. 



13. It should be added here, that the articles of the confederation, 
which congress had prepared and signed, and sent to the several 
states for adoption, were finally signed by them all, this year. Till 
this time there had been objections, of one sort or another, made, and 
amendments proposed ; but it was at length seen necessary to unite, 
in order to sustain the contest with Great Britain. 



1. After the surrender of Lord Cornwallis, the war wit}i Amer- 
ica began to be quite unpopular in England ; but nothing decisive 
was done to put an end to it till March, 1782, when the house of 
commons passed a resolution against prosecuting, or attempting to 
prosecute, the American war any further. Still the troops were not 
withdrawn immediately. 

2. The first truly pacific public measure, adopted by Great Brit- 
ain, was that of appointing Sir Guy Carleton to the command of the 
forces in America, and directing him to settle the differences between 
the two countries. This officer endeavored to open a correspondence 
with congress for this purpose ; but they refused to do anything 
except in concert with the French allies. 

3. It was not till late in the year 1782, that anything effectual was 
done towards making peace between the two countries. At length, 



did the Americans and French now station themselves ? 13. What of the articles of 
confederation 7 

C X XXTI— 1. What was done in England in 1782. 2. What did Sir Guy Carleton 
attempt to do ? 3. What commissioners met at Paris ? 4. What articles were signed 



CHAPTER CXXXII. 



Treaty of Peace. 




Sir Guy Carleton. 



TREATY OF PEACE. 



235 



however, by the advice and request of the French court, two com- 
missioners on the part of Great Britain, Messrs. Fitzherbert and Os- 
wald, and four on the part of the United States, John Adams, Benj. 
Franklin, John Jay and Henry Laurens, met at Paris. 

4. Here, after consulting long on the subject, they formed what 
were called provisional articles of peace. These were signed on the 
30th of November. On the 20th of January, 1783, it was agreed by 
the commissioners that all hostilities between the two countries should 
cease. The news of this was received in the United States on the 
24th of the March following. 

5. On the 19th of April, precisely eight years after the battle of 
Lexington, Washington issued a proclamation of peace. There had 
been no blood shed, however, or almost none, for nearly eight 
months. A definitive treaty of peace was made and signed at Paris, 
Sept. 3, 1783, by which Great Britain acknowledged the indepen- 
dence of the United States. 

6. This acknowledgment had been already made by several of the 
countries of Europe. Sweden had acknowledged it, Feb. 5 ; Den- 
mark, Feb. 25 ; Spain, March 24th ; and Russia in July. Treaties 
of amity and peace were also made between the United States and 
these several nations. 

7. The United States army was kept together till the third day 
of November. On that day, after due preparation had been made, 
it was disbanded in due form. Washington, in an affectionate ad- 
dress, first bade farewell to his soldiers and subsequently to his offi- 
cers. These last, at parting, he took by the hand, separately. The 
formalities of bidding adieu took place at New York. 

8. The British do not appear to have left New York till the 25th 
of the same month, though Charleston and Savannah had been evac- 
uated long before. It may seem a little surprising that the British 
should remain at New York so long. One reason for the delay was 
the want of transports for carrying away their military stores and 
supplies, as well as for conducting to Nova Scotia the refugees, who 
had fled to them from all parts of the country for protection. 

9. On the 23d of December, Washington appeared in the hall of 
congress at Philadelphia, and resigned his commission. The act of 
resignation was accompanied by a short but affecting speech, in 
which, after recounting briefly the events of the war, he commended 
his country, and all concerned in the administration of its affairs, to 
the special protection of Heaven. 

10. Congress, in accepting his commission, replied to him, 
through Gen. Mifflin, their president, in a manner expressive of their 
confidence in his wisdom, and their gratitude for his services. He 
then left Philadelphia, and hastened to his family and farm at Mount 
Vernon, where he hoped to spend the remainder of his days. 



in November ? What agreement was made ? 5. When was peace proclaimed ? What of 
the treaty signed at Paris ? 6. What countries had acknowledged the independence of 
the United States ? 7. Describe the disbanding of the army. 8. How long did the British 
stay in New York? Why was their stay so protracted? 9, 10. Describe the resigna- 
tion of Washington's commission. 



236 



EFFECTS OF THE AMEKICAN REVOLUTION. 



CHAPTER CXXXIII. 

Effects of the American Revolution. 

1. Thus ended a war of almost eight years' duration, in which a 
hundred thousand lives were lost, and hundreds of thousands suffered 
greatly from wounds, sickness, poverty, or from the losses or suffer- 
ings of their friends ; and in which, also, hundreds of millions of 
property were expended. Let us recount the losses and gains. 

2. Great Britain, of course, gained nothing by the war. Hers 
was wholly loss. The United States gained their political indepen- 
dence, — " a name and a place among the nations of the earth." This 
was indeed a great boon, but the war brought with it a long train 
of evils. Dr. Ramsay, of South Carolina, who wrote a history of 
the revolution, soon after its occurrence, says as follows : 

3. "On the whole, the literary, political, and military talents of 
the United States have been improved by the revolution ; but their 
moral character is inferior to what it was. So great is the change 
for the worse, that the friends of good order are loudly called upon to 
exert their utmost abilities in extirpating the vicious principles and 
habits which have taken deep root during the convulsion." 

4. Voltaire had said, long before this time : " Put together all the 
vices of ages, and they will not come up to the mischiefs and enormi- 
ties of a single campaign." But if this is true of a single campaign, 
— and who will doubt it? — how much more is it true of a series of 
campaigns, like that of the American revolutionary war ! 

5. Before the revolution, and especially before the long and disas- 
trous Indian wars, the people of the United States were an industri- 
ous, sober, honest and religious people. A large proportion of them 
were engaged in husbandry or mechanics. There was comparatively 
little of merchandising or manufacture, and still less of useless spec- 
ulating and downright idleness. 

6. An army always corrupts, not only its members, but the society 
which holds it in its bosom. If this effect was less visible in the case 
of the American army, made up as it was, for the most part, of its 
own citizens, rather than hireling Hessians, yet let us remember 
that even the American army contained many useless and vicious 
citizens, and that not all who enlisted virtuous, were discharged so. 

7. The cause of education suffered greatly during the war. Com- 
mon schools, instead of being fostered by the government, the church, 
or the family, as they always had been before, were not only neg- 
lected, but, in a great many instances, absolutely overlooked and suf- 
fered to perish. The course of instruction in our colleges was some- 
times suspended. Many a student became a- soldier. 

8. But the worst evil which befel the country, was the introduc- 



CXXXm.— 1. What had been the consequence of the war with England ? 2. What 
was the comparative gain of Great Britain and America? Repeat an extract from Dr. 
Ramsay. 4. What remark does Voltaire make concerning war ? 5. What of the Uni- 
ted States before the revolution?- 6. What is the usual effect of an army on society ? 
7. What of education during the war? 8. What was the worst evil that befel the coun- 
try? 9. What of atheistical philosophy? What of inndel writers? 



JEBTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



237 



tion of irreligion. The revolution opened the door to infidelity in 
two ways. First, by introducing foreign fashions, habits, and modes 
of feeling, thinking, and acting ; a 'practical infidelity. Secondly, by 
introducing from England and France, but especially the latter, an 
open opposition to Christianity. 

9. The atheistical philosophy of Godwin, Rousseau, Voltaire and 
others, was spread in the United States, during the revolution, with a 
fearful rapidity. But there were infidel writers in our own country. 
Ethan Allen's " Oracles of Reason" had already appeared. Thomas 
Paine's " Common Sense," written, to aid the revolution, with much 
truth, had inculcated some error, and paved the way for his other and 
more objectionable writings. The effect of all these evil influences 
is yet felt in the country. 




Paine. 



CHAPTER CXXXIV. 

Belts of the United States. 

1. The war had involved the United States in a debt of forty 
millions of dollars. Of this sum, eight millions of dollars were bor- 
rowed of foreign powers. The rules of the confederation of 1777 
empowered congress to carry on the war ; but they had no power to 
provide for its expenses. They could only recommend to the several 
states to raise money for that purpose. 

2. Accordingly, on the 30th of May, 1781, congress passed a 
resolution requesting the several states to furnish their proportion 
respectively of the eight millions of dollars of borrowed money. 
They also appointed a committee to determine what proportion of 
the money ought to be paid by each state. 

3. It was proposed to the states that a duty of four per cent, on 
all foreign goods imported into the United States, should be paid, 
and that the revenue arising therefrom should be applied to the pay- 



CXXXIV. — I. Whai debt did the United Slates owe 1 Could congress provide for the 
expenses of the war? 2. What was done in 1781 ? 3. What was proposed to the states ? 



SHAYS' IXSU RRECTION. 



ment of the national debt, both foreign and domestic. The latter 
was principally due to the officers and soldiers of the army. 

4. All the states, except Rhode Island and New York, assented to 
this proposal. But as these two states had a large share of the 
public trade, their refusal to contribute to pay the public debt 
defeated the whole plan ; and the consequence was, that even the 
interest of the national debt remained unpaid. The government 
was exceedingly perplexed, and knew-ftefr,- in such a case, what 
to do. 

5. Certain measures of Great Britain added to the embarrassment. 
Instead of permitting a free trade with the colonies in the West 
Indies, she shut her ports there against our vessels ; and congress, 
of course, had no power to compel them to open them. And what 
congress could not do, the different states were not disposed to 
attempt, had they possessed the power. 

6. Under these embarrassing circumstances, it was perfectly 
natural for those states which felt desirous of discharging their debts 
in an honorable manner, to make the utmost exertion to do their 
part. Massachusetts, in particular, resolved to bear her portion of 
the public burden, and proceeded to act accordingly. 

7. The country was not, however, in a perfectly settled state. 
There were some men in Massachusetts, who, though they had 
been willing, in 1776, to go to war with Great Britain, rather 
than submit to taxation without representation, were willing, in 
1786, to go to war with the government, rather than pay their share 
of the expenses which the contest w r ith Great Britain had occa- 
sioned. 

8. On the 22d of August, 1786, delegates from fifty towns, in the 
county of Hampshire, met at Hatfield, and set on foot an opposition 
to the burdens, as they called them, which were lying on the people. 
The excitement soon spread to Worcester, Middlesex, Bristol and 
Berkshire counties. Indeed, it did not stop in Massachusetts — it 
extended to New Hampshire. 

9. In some parts of Massachusetts, tumultuous assemblies, under 
the specious names of conventions, were assembled, which obstructed 
the proceedings of courts and other bodies. Daniel Shays, who 
had been a captain in the revolutionary w r ar, was considered as 
the head of the insurgents; — h§nce the name "Shays' Insur- 
rection.'' 

10. In August, no less than fifteen hundred of these insurgents 
assembled in Northampton. They took possession of the court- 
house, and would not allow the courts to sit. In December, three 
hundred of them, under Shays himself, acted a similar farce in 
Springfield. In truth, the spirit of opposition to taxation was rife 
everywhere in the states, and seemed to be on the increase. 

11. In December, 1786, or early in January, 1787, a body of four 



4. Which states objected to the proposal ? What effect had their refusal ? 5. What 
added to the perplexity of government? 6. How did the states feel? 7. What new 
trouble now arose ? 8. What was done in 1786 ? How far did the opposition extend? 
9. What of tumultuous assemblies ? Who headed the insurrection ? 10. What was 
done in August? In December? 11. Who headed the men raised to suppress the 



CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES. 



239 



thousand men was raised to sustain the courts and suppress the in- 
surrection, and General Lincoln — the same man who had so much 
distinguished himself in the army of the United States — was ap- 
pointed to the chief command. The troops were raised for a service 
of only thirty days. 

12. One of the first directions to the new army, was to go to Wor- 
cester and defend the courts there. In this they succeeded. Another 
object was to defend the arsenal at Springfield. For this last pur- 
pose, twelve hundred men, under General Shepard, assembled at 
Springfield ; and, on the 24th of January, Shays, with eleven hun- 
dred men, marched against them. 

13. When the insurgents were within two hundred and fifty yards 
of the arsenal, word was sent them not to come any nearer, for if 
they did they would be fired on. Disregarding this, they advanced 
one hundred yards farther, upon which General Shepard ordered 
his men to fire, but to direct the first shot over their heads. This 
only quickened their approach. The artillery were then levelled 
against them, and three of their number were killed and one 
wounded. 

14. Shays endeavored to rally his men, but in vain. They 
retreated first to Ludlow, and afterward to Pelham, where they 
again assembled. General Lincoln, hearing of this at Hadley, 
marched against them, in the midst of deep snow, and took one hun- 
dred and fifty of them prisoners, and dispersed the rest. 

15. Conditional pardon was now offered by the legislature of 
Massachusetts to all the rebels ; of which seven hundred and ninety 
availed themselves. Fourteen were tried and received sentence 
of death ; but were, one after another, finally pardoned. The re- 
bellion was at length suppressed, and the peace of the common- 
wealth restored. 



CHAPTER CXXXV. 

Constitution of the United States. 

1. We have seen that a confederacy of the states was proposed, 
during the first years of the revolutionary war, and signed by the 
thirteen states, in 1781. But experience at length seemed to 
show that, how wisely soever it had been framed for a time of 
war, it was not adequate to all the wants of the country in a time 
of peace. 

2. In January, 1786, a proposal was made by the legislature of 
Virginia, for a convention of commissioners from the several states, 
whose duty it should be to take into consideration the trade and 



insurrection? 12. What did the array first attempt? What was another object? 
13. Describe the advance of the insurgents. Their reception 14. What was the fate 
of Shays' men ? 15. What was the fate of the rebels? 



240 



CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES. 



commerce of the country, and either devise some plan for their 
regulation, or delegate to congress the power to legislate upon it ; — 
in other words, to revise the federal system. 




The convention. 



3. Provision was made for holding such a convention in Annapolis 
in the following September ; but as there were delegates present at 
that time from only five of the states, the subject was deferred to the 
following May. In the mean time, new efforts were made to pro- 
cure a general attendance at that meeting. 

4. In May, 1787, commissioners from all the states but Rhode 
Island, met at Philadelphia, and having chosen General Washington, 
who was one of the delegates from Virginia, their president, they 
proceeded to the important business assigned them. Their whole 
number was fifty-five. 

5. The question which first engaged their attention, was, whether 
to revise the old federal system, or form a new one. The object for 
which the convention had been originally appointed, was that of mere 
revision. And yet the defects of the old system were such that it 
was finally determined by the majority to form a new system. 

6. The next thing was to agree upon the principles which should 
form the basis of the new confederation. Here, in general, there 
was much harmony of opinion at first. But when they came to the 
practical application of those principles, there was more of disagree- 
ment. One point, in particular, upon which they could not soon 
agree, was the formation of a national legislature. 

7. It was a long time before all the members of the convention 
were willing to have the members of the house of representatives be 



CXXXV. — 1. What can you say of the confederacy signed in 17S1? 2. What was 
to be the duty of the commissioners ? 3. What of a convention at Annapolis 7 4. What 
was done in May. 1787 ? How many commissioners were there ? 5. What first occu- 
pied them 1 6. What was the next consideration ? Upon what point did they dis- 
agree ? 7. What difficulties arose in the states ? 8. What was proposed by Dr. Frank- 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIRST CONGRESS. 



241 



in proportion to the whole number of free citizens in the states, and 
three fifths of the others. And as to the senate, there was still 
greater difficulty. The small states wished to be on an equal foot- 
ing with the larger ones ; to which the latter were, ol course, 
strongly opposed. 

8. When this last point had been agitated a long time, and the 
convention seemed about to adjourn without accomplishing its object, 
Dr. Franklin, a member from Pennsylvania, then over eighty years 
of age, in a speech, which abounded in good sense, and was not 
wanting in eloquence, proposed daily morning prayer. 

9. This hint being well received, prayer was henceforth offered, 
every day, before proceeding to business. From this time, there 
was more and more of harmony in their deliberations, till at length 
a constitution was matured and signed by the members, and presented 
to congress, who, forthwith, presented it to the several states for 
them to consider and ratify. 

10. It had been resolved by the convention, that state conventions 
should be called to discuss the merits of the new constitution, and to 
accept or reject it, as might seem to them best ; and that congress 
should carry it into effect as soon as it should be signed or ratified 
by nine of the states. 

11. For a time, it was quite doubtful whether it would ever go 
into operation. At length, however, it was ratified by eleven of the 
states ; North Carolina and Rhode Island alone, of the thirteen, re- 
fusing to accept it. They finally consented to receive it — the former 
in 1789, the latter in 1790. 

12. All classes of people, whether federalists or not, — for by this 
name the friends of the federal government w r ere called, — now turned 
their eyes toward Washington as their first president. On opening 
the votes for chief magistrate of the United States, at New York, 
March 3, 1789, it was found that George Washington was unani- 
mously elected ; and that John Adams was chosen vice-president. 

A 



CHAPTER CXXXVI. 

Proceedings of the first Co?igress. 

1. Washington w r as inducted into his new office April 30, 1789, 
in the presence of the first congress of the United States, which con- 
vened under the new constitution. As soon as the ceremonies of the 
inauguration were over, he entered the senate chamber and delivered 
his first speech. 

2. This speech, which has been much commended, was in nothing 



lin ? 9. What contributed to produce harmony ? What was at length formed ? 
10. What was resolved upon by the convention? 11. By how many states was it 
ratified? What states finally received it? 12. On whom did all fix as president? 
When were the votes taken ? Who was chosen president ? Who vice-president? 
CXXXVI.— 1. Describe the inauguration of Washington. 2. For what wa3 his speech 
21 



242 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIRST CONGRESS. 



more remarkable than its frequent reference to a Supreme Being as 
the Ruler of the universe, and Controller of human actions and 
human destiny, whether individual or national. Then, " suiting the 
action to the word," he and the members of both houses of congress 
attended divine service almost immediately afterward. 




Washington. 



3. Never was the business of a legislative body more pressing or 
more important than that of this first congress of the United States. 
Four prominent measures could not be delayed. There must be 
a revenue ; the various departments of government must be arranged 
and filled ; a judiciary department and its officers were needed ; and 
the public credit was, if possible, to be maintained. 

4. To create a revenue and pay the public debt, foreign and 
domestic, and support the present government, it was decided that 
duties should be laid on imported goods and merchandise, and on 
the tonnage of vessels. A department of state, a treasury depart- 



ivniarkable ? How did the ceremony close ? 3. What four measures were deemed 
necessary to be taken l 4. What was decided upon ? What were created, and who 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIRST CONGRESS. 



243 



ment and a war department were created, and Thomas Jefferson, 
Alexander Hamilton, and Henry Knox placed at their heads 
respectively. 

5. The power of removal from office, in the executive depart- 
ment, occasioned a good deal of discussion ; but it was at length 
decided that it should be left with the president alone. Congress 
adjourned September 29 ; but not till they had requested the presi - 
dent to recommend to the people a day of public thanksgiving and 
prayer. 

6. During the recess of congress, President Washington made 
a tour through New England as far as Portsmouth, in New Hamp- 
shire, with a view to observe the character, habits, &c, of the people. 
He was received, everywhere, with those marks of attention which 
indicated an entire confidence in his administration. 

7. The second session of the first congress commenced January 
8, 1790. From the report of Mr. Hamilton, secretary of the 
treasury, it was found that the United States' debt was fifty-four 
million dollars, for the payment of all which he recommended ade- 
quate provision. 

8. No objection was felt, in congress, to paying the foreign 
debt which had been incurred, now amounting, including interest, 
to eleven million five hundred thousand dollars ; but the question 
of the full assumption, by congress, of all the rest of the debts, 
including those contracted by the states, caused a long and anxiou3 
debate. 

9. Congress, however, by a small majority, finally concluded 
to pay the whole debt. In order to this, the money derived from 
the sale of western lands was to be applied, together with whas 
remained of the revenue after paying the current expenses of the 
government. It was also decided to borrow, at five per cent, interest, 
two million dollars. 

10. During the session, the state of Vermont, by consent of both 
houses of congress, was received into the Union. The seat of 
general government was fixed for ten years at Philadelphia, after 
which it was to be removed to Washington. A tax was laid, after 
a long and angry debate, on domestic spirits. A national bank was 
also established, with a capital of ten million dollars, and a charter 
was granted to extend to May, 1811. 



were placed at the head? 5. What discussion arose? When did congress adjourn* 
6. What journey did Washington take? 7. What debt had the United States incurred ? 
8. What caused a long debate ? 9. Upon what did congress conclude ? What sum did 
they decide to borrow ? 10. When was Vermont received into the Union ? Wher* 
was the seat of government to be at first '/ What tax was laid ? What of a bank ? 



244 



WARS WITH THE INDIANS. 



CHAPTER CXXXVII. 

Wars with the Indians. 




St. Clair. 



1. The discussion of so many great and important subjects at the 
two sessions of the first congress had already formed a line of 
demarkation between the two great political parties, whose frequent 
subsequent conflicts for power have more than once shaken the 
very confederacy itself to its centre. 

2. But while these things were going on at Philadelphia, a war 
was preparing with the Indians of the northwest. By an ordinance 
of congress, in 1787, a territorial government had been formed 
northwest of the river Ohio ; and, by another ordinance, power 
had been given to commissioners to treat with the Indians. In 
spite, however, of governments and treaties, an Indian war broke 
out in 1790. 

3. On the 30th of September, General Harmar, with fourteen 
hundred and fifty men, three fourths of whom were Pennsylvania 
and Kentucky militia, marched against the Indians at their villages, 
on the Scioto and Miami rivers. The Indians, after setting fire to 
their huts with their own hands, fled to the woods. 

4. After burning and plundering and some skirmishing for several 
days, a general and decisive battle was fought near the spot where 



CXXXVII. — 1. What distinction in parties grew out of these debates ? 2. What war 
was in preparation ? What had been ordered by congress? 3. Who marched against 
the Indians ? 4. Where was a battle fought ? What of the Indian loss ? 5. What was 



KENTUCKY ADMITTED TO THE UNION. 245 

Chillicothe now stands, in which the array of the United States was 
defeated, with the loss of nearly two hundred men. The loss of the 
Indians, however, was considerable. They had lost also, during the 
whole time, about three hundred huts and wigwams. 

5. The success of the United States was greater, this year, in 
making treaties with the Indians, than in fighting them. By the 
persevering exertions of General Knox, the secretary of war, a 
treaty was made with the Creek Indians, in which a large territory, 
hitherto claimed by that tribe, was ceded to Georgia. 

6. After the failure of the expedition under General Harmar, 
General St. Clair was appointed to the command of the northwestern 
army, and additional troops were raised. He was also appointed 
governor of the northwestern territory. He was instructed to carry 
on the war against the Indians, by destroying their villages about 
the Miami, and driving them wholly away from the Ohio country. 

7. In the spring of 1791, he took the field with about fifteen 
hundred men. The Indians in that region had, as it was supposed, 
about an equal number of warriors. Generals Wilkinson and Scott 
were sent out with eight hundred and fifty men, but did not effect 
much. Early in November, General St. Clair himself went against 
them with his whole force. 

8. On the 4th of November, a great battle was fought on the 
Miami, in which the army of St. Clair was entirely defeated, with 
the loss of more than six hundred men — nearly half his army. 
This was the most signally destructive battle which had been fought 
with the Indians since the memorable defeat of Braddock. 

9. But, instead of relinquishing the war, on account of a few 
disasters, congress, after a good deal of discussion and much 
opposition to the measure, passed a bill to raise several new regi- 
ments of troops, to be employed in the service, if necessary, three 
years. 

10. During the year 1791,. Washington made a tour of observa- 
tion through the southern spates, as he had done through the 
northern, two years before, and for similar purposes. The day, 
and in many instances the hour, of his appearance at each place, 
was fixed long before his arrival, from which, except in a single 
instance, he never deviated. He was received everywhere with 
demonstrations of great joy. 



CHAPTER CXXXVIII. 

Kentucky admitted to the Union. 

1. During the year 1792, Kentucky was admitted to the Union, 
as the fifteenth grand pillar of the Union — Vermont having made 



done by General Knox? 6. What of General St. Clair ? 7. What was done in 1791 ? 
8. What of the battle on the Miami ? 9. What did conerress do ? 10. Describe Wash- 
ington's tour in 1791. 

21* 



246 



KENTUCKY ADMITTED TO THE UNION. 



the fourteenth. It may be useful to trace the history of this state 
from the earliest known periods, as well as the character of the indi- 
vidual who beganits settlement. 

2. The revolutionary war, though it retarded the progress of 
the settlements in the west, did not wholly prevent emigration. In 
1773, no less than four hundred families passed down the Ohio river, 
in six weeks, most of whom settled at or near Natchez. The same 
year, three hundred families of Germans emigrated from Maine to the 
southwestern parts of South Carolina. 



3. But the most remarkable of all tne attempts to people the 
western country at this period was made by Colonel Daniel Boone, 
of North Carolina. He was a great hunter, and had rambled in the 
forests of the 1 1 mighty west" several years before he ventured, in 
defiance of wild beasts and stil^wjlder men, to take up his residence 
there. ^ 

4. He first left home, in company with six other adventurers, in 
1769. Kentucky was found to be a fine place for hunting the buffalo. 
At length he and a companion, by the name of Stuart, were taken 
prisoners by the Indians. They escaped from them and found their 
way back to their camp, but it had been plundered, and the rest of 
the company were dispersed. 

5. Soon after this, his brother and another man joined him, so 
that the company was again increased to four. Stuart was, soon 
after, killed by the Indians, and the other man by wolves, so that 
Boone and his brother alone remained. They, however, built them- 
selves a cottage with poles and bark, and wintered there. 




Boone. 



CXXX VTn.— 1 . When was Kentucky made a state ? 2. Describe the emigration of 
the year 1773. 3. "What of Daniel Boone ? 4, 5. Describe his adventures in 1769. 



KENTUCKY ADMITTED TO THE UNION. 



247 



6. In May, 1770, the brother of Boone returned to North Caro- 
lina, in order to procure a recruit of horses and ammunition, leaving 
him entirely alone, and, as he himself says, " without bread, salt or 
sugar, or even a horse or a dog." This winter, in one of his 
rambles, he narrowly escaped the savages. But he was one of 
those men who, like Washington, seemed reserved for special 
purposes. , 

7. His brother returned to him late in July, and they spent the 
rest of the year there, and the following winter. During this time, 
besides hunting, they discovered and gave name to the principal 
rivers of the country. The whole region seemed to them a paradise, 
and, in March, 1771, they returned home, to bring their families 
there. 

8. In September, 1773, they set out for Kentucky. Five other 
families had been induced, by their representations, to join them. 
Forty men also joined them at Powell's valley, on the road. Soon 
after this they were attacked by the Indians, and six of the party 
slain, among whom was Boone's eldest son. Their cattle also were 
scattered. 

9. They retreated forty miles to a settlement on Clinch river, 
where they left their families. From this time forth, for nearly two 
years, Boone was employed in surveying the country and in building 
roads and forts. Among the rest, they built a fort at a place which 
they called Boonsborough. He removed his family to the fort, in 
June, 1775 ; about the time of the battle at Lexington. 

10. This is supposed to have been the first permanent settlement 
in that state, — at that time a part of Virginia, — though two others 
were made not far from the same time. The wife and daughter of 
Colonel Boone were, as he says, " the first white women that ever 
stood upon the banks of Kentucky river." 

11. But this settlement was not effected without great peril. 
Several times did the Indians attack Boone's party during the 
journey from Clinch river to Boonsborough. Five of the company 
were killed and as many wounded. Others were slain after their 
arrival. The daughter of Boone was even carried off by the savages, 
in 1776 ; bat her father recovered her. 

12. The whole life of this father of Kentucky is eventful and 
interesting, but we must only add, here, that he remained in his 
favorite state, though often much exposed and once taken a prisoner, 
till 1798, when he removed, with a large train of relatives and friends, 
to Missouri, where he spent his days in hunting and trapping. He 
died in 1822, aged eighty-five years. 



6. What took place in May, 1770? 7. What happened after the return of his brother? 
What did they do in 1771 ? 8. What happened in September ? What was done by the 
Indians ? 9. How wa3 Boone employed for two years ? To what place did he remove 
his family? 10. What was the first settlement in Kentucky? What of the wife and 
daughter of Boone ? 11. How were the settlers annoyed by the Indians? 12. How 
long did Boone remain in Kentucky ? Where did he then go ? When did he die ? 



248 



SOCIETIES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



CHAPTER CXXXIX. 

Societies in the United States. 

1. The year 1792 is distinguished for the formation of the Massa- 
chusetts Agricultural Society ; an association which, by itself and 
its auxiliaries, has, in the progress of half a century, done much 
for the advancement of the United States, in that which consti- 
tutes the real wealth and happiness and greatness of a nation. 

2. Up to this period, societies for the promotion of improvement, 
physical or moral, had been little known among us. But an interval 
of rest from war had led many at length to turn their thoughts to 
mechanics, manufactures, agriculture, education, morals and religion. 

3. It is worthy of remark that the rearing of mulberry trees and 
silk-worms had succeeded so far, in Connecticut, that the Rev. 
Jason Atwater, a minister in Branford, had a silk gown made for 
him this year, at his own home. This was the first clergyman's 
silk gown made in America. Silk stockings had been fabricated a 
little before, and also silk handkerchiefs. 

4. One of the first and most curious societies, ever formed in this 
country, was the Boston Society for encouraging Industry and 
employing the Poor. It was established about the year 1750, though 
it continued but a few years. A large and handsome brick building 
was erected in Boston, in connection with this society, for the linen 
manufacture ; the expense of which was paid by a tax on carriages 
and other articles of luxury. 

5. This society held its first anniversary in 1753, when a public 
discourse was delivered by Rev. Mr. Cooper. In the afternoon, 
about three hundred young female spinsters, decently dressed, 
appeared on the common, at their spinning wheels. The wheels 
were placed regularly in three rows, of one hundred each, and a 
female was seated at each wheel. 

6. The weavers, also, of the city and its vicinity, appeared on the 
common, cleanly dressed, in garments of their own weaving. One 
of them, with his loom, was carried on the shoulders of the people, 
attended by music ; the music of the shuttle continuing along with 
the rest. The crowd that attended to witness these novel but inter- 
esting spectacles was immense. 

7. An association of Tradesmen and Manufacturers, of the town 
of Boston, was formed in 1785. The Boston Mechanics- Association 
was formed in 1795. The Delaware Society, for promoting Ameri- 
can Manufactures, was instituted at Wilmington, in 1817; and the 
Scotch loom came into Rhode Island the same year. The Maryland 
Economical Association was formed at Baltimore, in 1819. 



CXXXIX. — 1. For what is the year 1792 distinguished? 2. What had been done 
during the interval of war ? 3. What of the culture of silk in Connecticut ? 4. What 
society was formed in 1750 ? What building was erected ? 5. What was done in 1753 I 
Describe the spinning on the common. 6. Describe the meeting of the weavers. 



WASHINGTON'S RE-ELECTION AND ADMINISTRATION. 249 



8. The American Bible Society was formed at New York, in 
1816. Delegates were present from thirty-two societies. It is, 
moreover, a curious fact, that, in view of the want of Bibles in the 
country, congress, in 1777, had ordered twenty thousand Bibles to be 
imported. 

9. But there had been societies for other purposes, in consider- 
able numbers, formed long before the year 1792 — the period to 
which we are now arrived. There was a Society for propagating 
the Gospel in New England, incorporated in 1649 — for propagating 
the Gospel among the Indians, in New England and elsewhere, in 
1661, and the Society for propagating Christian Knowledge among 
the Indians, in 1762. 



CHAPTER CXL. 
Washington's second election and administration, 

1. Soon after the opening of congress in 1792, an attempt was 
made to show that Hamilton, the secretary of the treasury, was a 
dangerous man, aiming at the destruction of the liberties and rights 
of his country; and hints to the same effect were even thrown out 
against President Washington himself. 

2. But, notwithstanding all these insinuations, in March, 1793, 
Washington was unanimously re-elected to the presidency, and Mr. 
Adams was again chosen vice-president. Washington had at first 
decided not to be again a candidate for this high office, but had at 
length yielded his own wishes to those of the people. 

3. A treaty was, this year, made with the Indians on the 
Wabash-, and the promise of a conference the next spring obtained 
of several of the other tribes. In the mean time, however, the 
business of enlisting soldiers for an exigency, which might, after 
all, require them, was perseveringly though slowly carried on, and 
the troops already in the service were kept in a proper state of dis- 
cipline. 

4. Early in 1793, news reached America of a declaration of war, 
by Great Britain, against France and Holland ; and caused much 
excitement. From the nature of the relation which had subsisted 
between the United States and France during the late war, a majority 
of the people sympathized strongly with the French, and were as 
obviously opposed to Great Britain. 

5. The question therefore arose whether the United States should 
espouse the cause of either party in the contest. This question was 
finally decided by Washington and his council in the negative. Ac- 



7. What other associations were formed ? 8. What of Bible societies ? 9. What 
societies were there prior to this time ? 

CXL. — I. What attempts were made by some invidious persons ? 2. When was 
Washington re-elected president 1 3. What treaty was made this year ? In what state 
were the troops kept 7 4. What news in 1793 ? How were the Americans disposed ? 



250 



DIFFICULTIES WITH GREAT BRITAIN. 



cordingly, on the 22d of April, President Washington issued a pro- 
clamation, enjoining entire neutrality on the part of the United 
States. 

6. The revolution in France had commenced about the year 1789. 
It seemed to have been brought on, or at least hastened, by the revo- 
lution in the United States. The new republic now recalled the 
French minister to the United States, who had been appointed under 
the king, and sent over Mr. Genet, in his stead. The United States, 
moreover, had consented to receive a minister from the new republic, 
should one be appointed. 

7. The object for which Mr. Genet was sent over, was to per- 
suade the United States to aid France in the war. He landed at 
Charleston, South Carolina, and being kindly received by the consti- 
tuted authorities, both on account of the dignity of his office, and 
the gratitude which was felt towards the French nation, he boldly 
proceeded to do that which he was not authorized to do. 

8. He did not hesitate to enlist men, and to arm and fit out priva- 
teers to cruise and commit hostilities against nations with whom the 
United States were at peace. When any captures were made, he 
allowed the French consul at Charleston to hold courts of admiralty 
on them, and to try and condemn them, and authorize their sale. 

9. All this was done, too, by Mr. Genet, before the American 
government had recognised him as a minister. He had presumed on 
a disposition to aid France without regard to consequences. Finding 
that the Americans disapproved of his conduct, he endeavored — 
partly, no doubt, in self-defence — to excite them to opposition 
against their own government. 

10. When congress met, in 1793, they approved of Washington's 
proclamation, as well as of all his conduct in relation to France. 
They also encouraged the president and his cabinet to urge the 
French to recall Mr. Genet, and appoint a successor. Mr. Genet 
was therefore recalled, and Mr. Fauchet appointed in his stead. 

11. The last important event of the year 1793 was the resignation 
of Mr. Jefferson, secretary of state, and the appointment of Edmund 
Randolph as his successor. Mr. Randolph had been, for some time, 
attorney general of the United States, and had sustained the office 
with singular ability. 



CHAPTER CXLI. 

Difficulties with Great Britain. 

I. Fears began to be entertained, in 1794, of another war with 
Great Britain. The government of that country had issued an order 



5. What question arose? What was issued, April 22d ? 6. What of the French revolu- 
tion ? What of the new republic ? 7. Why was Mr. Genet sent to America ? 8. What 
did he proceed to do ? 9. What did he do on the disapproval of the Americans ? 10. 
What was done by congress in 1793 ? Who was sent in place of Mr. Genet ? 11. Who 
succeeded Jefferson as secretary of state 1 What of Mr. Randolph ? 



DIFFICULTIES WITH GREAT BRITAIN. 



251 



in January, 1793, forbidding the exportation of corn to France, and 
authorizing the seizure of neutral vessels found carrying it there. 
As a consequence, many American vessels had been captured. 




John Jay. 



2. Additional instructions had also been given, in the November 
following, to British ships of war and privateers, to take all such ves- 
sels as were carrying provisions or other supplies to France or her 
colonies. Great Britain, moreover, had failed to deliver up the west- 
ern posts, according to the provisions of the treaty. 

3. In view of these difficulties between the two countries, and the 
uncertainty to what they might lead, congress, in 1794, passed bills 
for laying an embargo for thirty days, for increasing the standing 
army, and for organizing the militia and erecting fortifications. At 
the same time that these precautionary measures were taken, Mr. 
Jay was appointed an envoy extraordinary to the court of Great 
Britain. 

4. Mr. Jay succeeded, during this and the following year, in set- 
tling the difficulties between the two countries. This, while it met 
the approbation of a majority of the people of the United States, only 
increased ffte complaints of those who were opposed to the existing 
administration, and widened the gulf which separated the two great 
political parties. 

5. The conference which had been promised by the Indians of the 
northwest having failed, Gen. Wayne, the successor of Gen. St. 
Clair, was sent out against them, in August, 1794, who succeeded 
in gaining a complete victory on the banks of the Miami, and in lay- 
ing waste their whole country. 

CXLL— 1. What order had government issued in 1793? 2. What was done in No- 
vember? How had Great Britain failed to keep her treaty ? 3. What bills were passed 
in 1794 ? To what office was Mr. Jay appointed ? 4. What did he succeed in doing ? 



252 



THE WHISKEY INSURRECTION. 



6. The Six Nations, and the other tribes of Indians in that region, 
who had been for some time meditating a great war against the peo- 
ple of the United States, were discouraged by the success of Geo. 
Wayne, and gave up their scheme, and hopes were now entertained 
of a permanent peace with them. 



CHAPTER CXLII. 

The Whiskeij Insurrection. 

1. Congress, in 1791, had enacted laws imposing duties on spirits 
distilled within the United States, and upon stills. To these laws, 
four or five counties in western Pennsylvania, had, from the first, 
been strongly opposed, but it was not till 1794 that their hostility 
broke out in angry action. 

2. But in July of this year, about a hundred persons, armed with 
guns and other weapons, attacked the house of an inspector of the 
revenue, and wounded some of the occupants. They also seized the 
district marshal, and compelled him to agree not to persevere in tbe 
duties of his office. Both the inspector and the marshal found it 
necessary to leave the county for safety. 

3. These and other similar outrages called forth a proclamation, 
on the 7th of August, from President Washington, commandinp; the 
insurgents to disperse, and warning all persons against aiding them 
in any way whatever in their opposition. All officers and other 
citizens were also required to exert themselves to the utmost, to pre- 
vent and suppress such dangerous proceedings. 

4. On the 25th of September, a second proclamation was issued, 
the object of which was to admonish the insurgents, and induce 
them, if possible, to desist from their opposition. At the same time, 
however, the president declared his fixed determination, in obedience 
to the duty assigned him by the constitution, " to take care that the 
laws be faithfully executed," to compel the refractory to obedience. 

5. Meanwhile, the insurgents, nothing daunted, proceeded to 
almost every form of outrage. They first robbed the western mail. 
Next, several thousands of them collected at Braddock ? s field, on the 
Monongahela. Still later, a convention of two hundred* delegates, 
from the disaffected counties of Pennsylvania and Virginia, met at 
Parkinson's Ferry, and by adjournment at other places. 

6. Some were for returning to obedience, others adhered to the 
opposition. At length, Washington ordered out fifteen thousand 
militia, under Gov. Lee, of Maryland, on the approach of whom the 
insurgents laid down their arms. Eighteen were tried for treason, 



Were the two parties separated still farther ?- 5. Where did Gen. Wayne go ? How did 
he succeed ? 6. What were the feelings of the Six Nations ? 

CXLII. — 1. To what laws were some counties in Pennsylvania opposed? 2. What 
outrages were committed in July, 1794 ? 3. What orders were issued by Washington 1 
4. What of a second proclamation ? 5. Describe the conduct of the insurgents. 6. How 



THE SIXTEENTH STATE. 



253 



but not convicted. Only three men were killed during the whole 
progress of the insurrection . 

7. The only historical events of the year 1795, worthy of note, 
were the ratification , by the senate of the United States, of Mr. Jay's 
treaty with Great Britain, and the conclusion of treaties with the 
Dey of Algiers, Spain and the Miami Indians. By the treaty with 
Algiers a number of American citizens were liberated from a most 
painful bondage. 



CHAPTER CXLIII. 

Tennessee — the sixteenth state. 

1. In 1796, Tennessee was admitted into the Union as the six- 
teenth state. It had been made a territorial government in 1790, 
but the number of inhabitants which was necessary to entitle it to be 
received to the confederacy, was not sufficient till six years after- 
ward. 

2. What is now the great state of Tennessee, with almost a mil- 
lion of inhabitants, was, till about fifty years ago, a part of North 
Carolina. The first settlement attempted to be made in the province 
was in 1754. At that time, about fifty families settled on Cumber- 
land river, where Nashville now stands, but were broken up soon 
after by the Indians. 

3. The first permanent inhabitants of Tennessee went there m 
1757. They built Fort Loudon, now in Blount county. They were 
attacked, in 1760, by the savages, and two hundred men, women 
and children were massacred. In 1761, the savages were humbled 
by Col. Grant, and a treaty made with them, which encouraged emi- 
gration. 

4. In 1765, settlements began on the Holston river, and gradually 
increased. Still the Indians were troublesome, but were often 
promptly repulsed, especially by Col. John Sevier, who was the 
Tennesseean hero of those times. In June, 1776, Col. Sevier, with 
the militia of Tennessee, and a few soldiers from Virginia, gained a 
decisive victory over the savages. 

5. Where Nashville now stands was a wilderness till 1780. Dur- 
ing that year, about forty families, under the direction of James 
Robertson, crossed the mountains, and founded Nashville. From 
this time forward, though more or less harassed by the Indians, the 
progress of the state, in population and improvement, was rapid. 

6. In 1785, the inhabitants of the province proposed to become a 



were they compelled to lay down their arms ? 7. What were the historical events of 
the year 1795 ? 

CXLIH.— 1. What of Tennessee? 2. What was its condition in 1754? 3. What of 
the first inhabitants of Tennessee? What of the savages in 1760 and 1761 ? 4. What 
was done in 1765? In 1776? 5. In 1730? When was Nashville founded ? 6. What 
vvaj proposed in 1735 ? Whea did congrejs recognise Tennessee as a separate province ? 

22 



•254 



WASHINGTON'S RESIGNATION. 



state, by the name of Franklin ; but the scheme was at length aban- 
doned. In 1789, North Carolina gave up the territory, and in 1790 
congress recognised it as a separate province, and made provision for 
its government accordingly. 



CHAPTER CXLIV. f 

Washington's resignation. 

1. The time for electing a chief magistrate was again approach- 
ing, and Washington having signified his determination to retire to 
private life, it became necessary to bring into the field a new candidate. 
The most popular individual was John Adams, and, on opening and 
counting the votes, in February, 1797, he was found to be elected. 
Thomas Jefferson was, at the same time, chosen vice-president. 

2. Two years before this time, there had been a considerable 
change in the cabinet. Gen. Hamilton had resigned the office of 
secretary of the treasury, and had been succeeded by Oliver Wolcott, 
of Connecticut. Gen. Knox had also been succeeded in the war 
department, by Timothy Pickering, of Massachusetts. 

3. No considerable change had taken place in the morals and reli- 
gion of the community, during the administration of Washington, 
notwithstanding his own manifestations of regard for good things. 
The country was still flooded with vice and infidelity. The wri- 
tings of Paine and Godwin were circulated in great numbers — some- 
times gratuitously. 

4. Trade and commerce, however, flourished, during this period, 
beyond any former example. In 1797, the exports of the United 
States amounted to nearly fifty-seven millions of dollars, and the 
imports to seventy-five millions of dollars. Great progress was 
made in agriculture, and some in manufactures. The population of 
the United States had risen to about five millions. 

5. The national credit, moreover, had become established ; an 
ample revenue had been provided ; a considerable part of the national 
debt had been paid ; and such measures had been put in operation, 
as bade fair to extinguish the debt in a reasonable time. Treaties 
had been made with most of the Indian tribes, and peace with most 
foreign nations. 

6. A prodigious impulse had been given, during this period, to 
the cause of education. Among the literary institutions which had 
their origin during the short period of Washington's administration, 
were Williams, Union, Greenville and Bovvdoin colleges, and the Uni- 
versity of Vermont . The Historical Society of Massachusetts had its 
origin, also, during the same period. 



CXLIV. — 1. Who was now chosen president? Who vice-president? 2. What 
changes had been made in the cabinet ? 3. What of morals and religion during Wash- 
ington's administration ? 4. Describe the increase of trade and commerce. What other 
progress was made? What of the population of the United States? 5. In what other 
respects had the country improved ? 6. What of education at this period ? Colleges ? 



I 

PROSPECTS OF A WAR WITH FRANCE. 



255 



7. It was in the year 1795 that the remarkable school fund of 
Connecticut was formed. The Connecticut reserve lands — now a 
part of northern Ohio — were sold for one million two hundred thou- 
sand dollars, and devoted to this purpose. The fund now amounts 
to two millions of dollars. In 1796, an act for establishing schools 
throughout the state was passed in Pennsylvania. 

8. No man ever had such unbounded influence in the United 
States as Washington — perhaps it is not too much to say, no man 
ever will have. Several other chief magistrates have indeed been 
extremely popular and influential, especially when they had been 
distinguished in military life. Yet even these had not the hearts of 
the whole nation at their disposal like Washington. 

9. Had he been as ambitious as Napoleon, or even as Bolivar, or 
Francia, he might have been dictator for life, as well as they. Such 
a course was even proposed to him, in 17&2, when it was believed 
that the country was not yet ready for anything but a qualified mon- 
archy ; but he turned from it with disdain. As the leader of a 
republic, in a time which " tried men's souls," no one ever exceeded 
him in judgment or patriotism. 



CHAPTER CXLV. 

Prospects of a war with France. 




John Adajns. 



1. Although Washington retired from the presidency, and Ad- 
ams succeeded him, with the prospects of the country, on the whole, 



7. What of the school fund of Connecticut ? 8. What can you say of Washington aa 
chief magistrate ? 9. What station might he have held ? What was his character ? 



256 



PROSPECTS OF A WAR WITH FRANCE. 



encouraging, yet there was one drawback from the public felicity. 
This was the perplexing character of our relations, as a government, 
with France. 

2. For a long time before this, France had been committing dep- 
redations on our West India commerce. In the hope of being able to 
adjust, in an amicable way, the existing differences, Washington, 
just before his retirement from office, had recalled Mr. Munroe, our 
minister at Paris, and appointed Gen. C. C. Pinckney in his stead. 

3. The French republic refused to receive a new minister, till 
after the " redress of grievances," of which they complained. On 
learning the fact, President Adams, in June, 1797, convened con- 
gress, and in his address or message, though he spoke of preserving 
peace if possible, yet, as a last resort, he alluded to war. 

4. The result was that three envoys extraordinary to France were 
r ppointed, to attempt a settlement of the existing difficulties. They 
were, Gen. Pinckney, Elbridge Gerry, and John Maishall. Their 
mission finally proved an entire failure ; and the spring of 1798 
opened with every prospect of war. 

5. Indeed, in a practical point of view, war was already begun. 
The treaty existing between the two countries, had, in July, 1797, 
been declared by the United States as no longer binding on their 
part. The French cruisers were continually making depredations 
upon our commerce, and every opportunity was taken to insult the 
United States government. 

6. In these circumstances, the first step taken by congress was to 
increase the regular army. Twelve regiments of infantry, one of 
artillery, and one of cavalry, were ordered to be added to the exist- 
ing establishment ; and the president was authorized to appoint such 
officers as might be necessary to render the army efficient. 

7. For commander-in-chief, all eyes were once more turned to- 
wards Washington ; and notwithstanding his love of retirement and 
of domestic and agricultural life, he consented once more to comply 
with the wishes of his country. But, by the merciful appointment 
of Divine Providence, the danger of war suddenly disappeared. 

8. The French government having expressed a willingness to 
settle the difficulties which existed on reasonable terms, President 
Adams appointed Oliver Ellsworth, Wm. R. Davies, and Wm. Vans 
Murray envoys extraordinary to meet the commissioners of the 
French. They sailed for France in the summer of 1799. 

9. On their arrival in France, they found a change in the govern- 
ment. All power was now in the hands of Napoleon, who had not 
been concerned in the transactions about which so much difficulty 
existed. A treaty of peace was made, Sept. 30, 1800 ; and the army 
of the United States was, by direction of congress, soon after dis- 
banded. 



CXLV. — 1. What drawback was there from the public happiness ? 2. What had been 
done by France ? What new minister had Washington sent to Paris ? 3. What did 
the French refuse to do ? What did Adams say in his address ? 4. What envoys were 
sent to France ? 5. What of the treaty of 1797? What of the French cruisers? 6. 
What steps were taken to increase the regular army? 7. Who was looked upon as 
rommander-in-chief ? 8. Who sailed for France in 1799 ? 9. What treaty was made 
by Napoleon? 10. When and where did Washington die 1 



THE PUBLIC HEALTH. 



257 



10. Before the treaty was made, however, the commander-in- 
chief of the newly-raised American army was no more ! He expired 
suddenly, at his seat at Mount Vernon, in Virginia, December 14, 
1799, in the sixty-eighth year of his age ; and left a whole nation to 
mourn his loss. 



CHAPTER CXLVI. 

The public health. 

1. The introduction of the kine-pox, or, as it was at that time 
called, the cow-pox — or, in more fashionable language still, vacci- 
nation — into the United States, in the year 1800, is an event which 
deserves to be remembered in our history. The individual to whom 
the country is indebted for this act of benevolence is Dr. Benjamin 
Waterhouse, of Cambridge. 

2. Small-pox was first known in Europe about the time of the 
discovery of America by Columbus ; and, as might have been 
expected on its first appearance in a country, was exceedingly fatal. 
From Europe it was soon scattered among the inhabitants of the 
western world, where it was also very fatal, especially among the 
Indians, owing, in part, no doubt, to their wretched mode of treating it. 

3. As early in the settlement of Massachusetts as the year 1631, 
this terrible destroyer appeared among the natives at Saugus, and 
swept away whole towns or villages. The colonists assisted, it is 
said, in burying entire families of the Indians at once. In one of 
their wigwams a living infant was found at the breast of its deceased 
mother, every other Indian of the place being dead. 

4. Again, in 1633 and 1634, the disease raged in the same fear- 
ful manner. Holnes, in his " American Annals," says, that " thirty 
of John Sagamore's people were buried by Mr. Maverick, of 
Winesemet, in one day." In 1692, it raged greatly in New 
Hampshire among the colonists, having been brought there in bags 
of cotton from the West Indies. Again, in 1700, it was fearfully 
prevalent in Charleston, South Carolina. 

5. The first notice we find of its appearance among the white 
population of Boston is in the year 1689. In 1702, it was still more 
prevalent and fatal, and swept off more than three hundred of the 
inhabitants. Again it made great havoc in Boston and some of the 
adjacent towns, in 1721. Inoculation for the disease was now for 
the first time introduced. 

6. The opposition which was manifested to the practice of inocu- 
lation, is, at this day, hardly credible, were it not well attested. 
Many thought that if a person who had been inoculated should die, 



CXLVI —1 . When was the cow-pox first introduced into the United States, and by 
whom 1 2. When was it first known in Europe ? Where was it very fatal ? 3. Describe 
its first appearance in Massachusetts. 4. When did it again rage 7 What does Holnes 
say ? Where did it prevail in 1692 ? In 1700 ? 5. When did it first appear in Boston ? 
What of the farther ravages of the small-pox ? 6. What of the opposition to inocu- 
29* 



258 



PRESIDENT JEFFERSON. 



% 



his physician ought to be treated as a murderer. Dr. Cotton 
Mather, though not a little superstitious himself, labored in vain to 
remove the vulgar prejudices on this subject. 

7. Dr. Zabdiel Boylston was the first physician whom Dr. Mather 
could persuade to stem the torrent of prejudice. He began by 
inoculating his own family. The populace were so enraged, 
that his family was hardly safe in his house, and he was often 
insulted in the streets. And yet it was obvious that the inocu- 
lated disease was comparatively mild, and that but few died 
of it. 

8. But the crowning discovery of all, as a preventive of this 
fearful disease, was that of vaccination, by Dr. Jenner, of Eng- 
land, late in the eighteenth century, and first made publicly known 
in 1796. Much praise should be accorded to Dr. Waterhouse for his 
successful efforts to introduce it in this country. 

9. The yellow fever first prevailed, within the present limits of 
the United States, at Philadelphia, about the year 1698, and swept off 
great numbers of the people. It had, however, previously appeared 
in the West Indies. In 1728, it was still more fatal in Charleston, 
South Carolina. The physicians knew not how to treat it. Again 
it raged in Charleston most fearfully in 1732. 

10. In the year 1746, it prevailed among the Mohegan Indians, in 
Connecticut, and about one hundred of them died of it. In 1793, it 
was very fatal in Philadelphia, and again in 1797 and 1798. In the 
latter year it raged also in New York, and, for the first time, in Bos- 
ton. It prevailed in New Haven in 1794. 

11. The cholera, a new and destructive disease, after having raged 
greatly in the East, at length, in 1832, crossed to Canada, and 
advanced, by way of Albany and New York, into the United States, 
where it became, for several years, the principal epidemic disease. 
It was much more suddenly fatal, as well as more severe, than com- 
mon cholera morbus. 

12. But the scourge of the United States, in every period of their 
history, especially for a century past, has been the consumption. 
With the progress of civilization and refinement, this disease has 
increased, and is likely to continue to increase till the community can 
be generally enlightened with regard to its numerous causes. 



CHAPTER CXLVII. 

President Jefferson. 

1. The events of the year 1800, in addition to those which have 
been mentioned, were neither numerous nor important. Agreeably 



lation 1 What of Cotton Mather ? 7. What of Dr. Boylston ? How was he treated ? 
8. What of Dr. Jenner?- 9, 10. What of the yellow fever ? Give some account of it. 
11. What of the cholera ? 12. What can you say of consumption ? 



PRESIDENT JEFFERSON. 



259 



to a resolution of congress, ten years before, the seat of govern- 
ment was this year transferred to Washington, in the District of 
Columbia. A law was indeed passed, this year, establishing a 
national system of bankruptcy, but it was repealed three years after- 
ward. 




Jefferson. 



2. There were also some changes made in the western territories 
this year. A part of the northwestern territory was separated from 
the rest, to be called the Indiana Territory. The Mississippi 
Territory was also erected into a separate government. By the 
second census, taken this year, the population of the United States 
was found to be five million, three hundred and five thousand, four 
hundred and eighty-two. 

3. On the 4th of March, 1801, Mr. Adams' term of office, as 
president, having expired, and the measures of the federal party 
having become somewhat unpopular, Thomas Jefferson was elected 

? in his stead ; and Aaron Burr was chosen vice president. The con- 
test was long and severe ; and, as there was no election by the 
people, the choice for the first time devolved upon congress. 

4. The method of election, in such cases, was first to be settled, 
and was fixed upon as follows. The representatives of each state 
were to be seated by themselves and to ballot by themselves ; each 
state being entitled to only one vote. The doors were to be closed 
against every person but the officers of the house ; and, the balloting 
having once commenced, the house was not to adjourn till a choice 
was effected. 



CXLVIL— 1 . What of the events in the year 1800 ? What law was passed ? 2. What 
changes were made in the territories this year? What of the population of the United 
States? 3. When was Jefferson elected? What of Aaron Burr? 4. What mode of 



260 



THE SETTLEMENT OF OHIO. 



5. In the present instance, the representatives of the states were 
obliged to ballot thirty-six times before they could effect a choice. 
At the first ballot, eight states had voted for Mr. Jefferson, six 
for Mr. Burr, and two were divided. Of course, neither candidate 
had a majority of the votes. At the thirty-sixth ballot, Mr. Jeffer- 
son had the votes of ten states, Mr. Burr four, and there were two 
blanks. 

6. During the administration of Mr. Adams, agriculture, trade 
and commeree had continued to flourish, and religion had begun 
to revive. Infidelity still stalked abroad, but had greatly altered 
its tone. The good influence of religion upon society had begun 
to be admitted, even by those who did not believe in its divine 
origin. 



CHAPTER CXLVIII. 

The settlement of Ohio. 

1. In 1802, the eastern part of the northwestern territory was 
admitted to the Union as an independent state, by the name of 
Ohio. There were now seventeen states in the Union. At the 
time of its reception, Ohio contained seventy-two thousand inhabi- 
tants. 

2. It was first permanently settled at Marietta, in the year 
1788. This was a year famous in the history of western emi- 
gration ; for no less than twenty thousand persons — men, women 
and children — passed the mouth of the Muskingum river, during the 
season, on their journey down the Ohio. The party which stop- 
ped at Marietta consisted of forty-seven persons, under General 
Rufus Putnam. 

3. Their first business was to build a stockade fort, of sufficient 
strength to resist the ordinary attacks of the savages. They 
deadened the standing trees, and cut down enough of them to admit 
of their planting fifty acres of corn. In the autumn, twenty more 
families joined them. Both of these companies were New Eng- 
land people. 

4. The Indians, for many years, gave the settlers of Marietta but 
little trouble. Nor did the latter make war upon or molest the 
Indians, except in one or two instances. Twice, some of the more 
thoughtless of the settlers fired upon the Indians, when they came 
too near them, by which means one Indian was killed and another 
wounded. 



election was fixed upon ? 5. What of the ballot in the present case ? Describe the 
result of the balloting. 6. What of the administration of Mr. Adams ? 

CXLVIII. — Let the teacher ask what questions he thinks proper in respect to 
the map. 1. What was done in 1802? How many states were there in the Union? 
2. For what was the year 1788 remarkable ? Describe the emigration. 3. What waa 
their first business ? 4. What of the Indians? The settlers? 5. Describe the settle- 



THE SETTLEMENT OF OHIO. 



261 



5. The earliest settlers of Cincinnati went there in 1790, ox 
about half a century ago. There were nearly twenty of them. 
Twenty acres of corn were soon planted, and, for food, they shot 
down game and caught fish. They ground their corn in hand-mills. 
Their garments were chiefly of their own manufacture. 




7 LongitudeTifest 6From Jfash in gfon 



Map of Ohio. 

6. It has been said that Ohio was first permanently settled in 
1788 There was a settlement of Christian missionaries and con- 



262 



BURR AND HAMILTON. 



verted Indians, from Pennsylvania, formed on the Muskingum river 
about fifteen years earlier ; but after the lapse of a few years they 
were gradually broken up, and the remnant were massacred, some- 
time after. 



7. Until the year 1795, there was much difficulty in settling this 
state, on account of the Indian wars. But, after the victory over 
the Indians, by General Wayme, during the administration of Wash- 
ington, the population increased very rapidly, and continued to 
increase, till, in 1840, it contained about a million and a half of 
inhabitants. 



1. At the first session of congress, after the election of Jefferson, 
the system of internal taxation, which had been introduced during 
Adams' administration, was repealed, as well as several other 
laws which the new administration did not approve. Many public 
officers, who were strongly attached to the old order of things, 
were removed to make way for those who were of a different political 
character. 



ment of Cincinnati. 6. What of the settlement of Ohio ? 7. What difficulty was there 
in settling this state ? What was its population in 1840 ? 

CXLIX. — 1. What was done by congress, under Jefferson? 2. Give some history of 
Louisiana. 3. What duel was fought in 1804 ? Describe it. 4. What can you say of 




General Wayne. 



CHAPTER CXLIX. 



Burr and Hamilton. 



BURR AND HAMILTON. 



263 



2. Louisiana was ceded, by Spain, to France, in 1802, and the 
United States bought it of France for fifteen million dollars, the 
next year. Governor Claiborne took possession of it in December, 
1803. By a treaty with the Indians at Fort Wayne, a large amount 
of Indian lands were also ceded to the United States this year. 
Much of what is now the state of Illinois was ceded to us by the 
Kaskaskies, in 1803, 




Hamilton. 



3. In July, 1804, a duel was fought by Aaron Burr, vice-presi- 
dent of the United States, with Alexander Hamilton, late secretary 
of the treasury and a distinguished officer of the revolutionary war, 
in which the latter was killed at the first fire. The duel took place 
on the New Jersey shore, opposite New York. 

4. The death of Hamilton produced a very strong sensation in 
the United States. He was unquestionably one of the ablest men 
of his political party in the country. But, like many otherwise 
good men, he was misled by a false notion of honor ; and, in an 
evil hour, consented to take a step which he was too proud to retrace. 
Few men have been more lamented. 

5. Jefferson was re-elected, and again took the oath of president 
of the United States, March 4, 1805. George Clinton, of New 
York, was chosen vice-president. This office he held by re-election 
till his death, which happened in April, 1812. 

6. The following anecdote will show the character of Vice-Presi- 
dent Clinton. At the close of the revolutionary war, a British 
officer, in New York, for no crime worthy of notice, was about to 



the death of Hamilton 1 5. Who were elected president and vice-president? 6. Relate 
the anecdote of Clinton ? 



264 



WAR WITH TRIPOLI. 



be tarred and leathered. With a drawn sword in his hand, Clinton 
rushed in among the mob, and, at the hazard of his own life, rescued 
the officer. 



CHAPTER CL. 



War with Tripoli. 




Burning of the Philadelphia. 



1. Du ring the year 1805 — the first of President Jefferson's second 
term — a war broke out between the United States and Tripoli, 
which, more than almost any other historical event of that period, 
deserves a particular notice. 

2. For many years, the inhabitants of the northern states of 
Africa had been known as pirates, and the United States, as well as 
other nations, had suffered greatly from their depredations. The 
Tripolitans, in particular, had been very troublesome. Many of onr 
vessels had been boarded and plundered ; and the crews, in some 
instances, had been carried into a captivity worse, if possible, than 
death. 

3. To protect our commerce, as well as to humble the pirates, an 
armed naval force, under Commodore Preble, had been sent out to 
the Mediterranean as early as 1803. In the same year, the Phila- 
delphia frigate, under Captain Bainbridge, had joined him, but, in 
chasing a piratical vessel, had run aground and surrendered, and the 
captain and his crew had been reduced to captivity. 



CI- — I. What war broke out m 1805 ? 2. What wa? the character of the northern 
staler of Africa? The Tripolitaoe? o. What of Commodore Preble? The Phila- 



WAR WITH TRIPOLI. 



265 



4. After the surrender of the Philadelphia, the Tripolitans got 
the vessel afloat, and moored her in the harbor. While lying 
there, Commodore Decatur, then only a lieutenant under Commo- 
dore Preble, formed a plan to destroy her, to which, as it required 
but twenty men and a single officer, the commodore consented. 

5. To accomplish his purpose, Decatur sailed, under cover of the 
night, in a Tripolitan vessel he had captured, for the Philadelphia, 
taking with him an old pilot, who understood perfectly the Tripolitan 
language. On approaching the Philadelphia, they were hailed ; 
upon which the pilot answered that he had lost his cable and 
anchor, and only wished to fasten his vessel to the frigate till 
morning. 

6. The request was refused, but they were permitted tJkemain 
near the Philadelphia till the Tripolitans could be sent ashore to ask 
permission of the admiral. As soon as the boat had put off, Decatur 
and his men leaped on board, and in a few minutes cleared the 
deck of fifty Tripolitans. They then set the frigate on fire, and 
returned, in the light of it, to their squadron. 

7. The plan was as successful as bold. Not a man was lost, and 
only one injured. This individual was wounded in defending 
Decatur. The latter, in a struggle with a Tripolitan, had been 
disarmed, and was about to have his head smitten off with a sabre, 
when the seaman reached out his arm and received the blow, and 
thus saved him. 




Bainbridge. 



8. The destruction of the Philadelphia greatly enraged the Tri- 
politans ; and the Americans whom they held in captivity were 
treated with greater severity than before. The sufferings of Captain 



delphia? 4. What was Dedalur's plan ? 5, 6. Describe the execution of their design. 
7. What man was injured ? 8. Whai effect had this feat on the Tripolitans? What 
23 



266 



BURR'S CONSPIRACY. 



Bainbridge and his crew, and their companions in bondage, were 
represented, at home, as great beyond endurance, and the public 
sentiment was in favor of continuing the war. 

9. At this juncture, General Eaton, who had been consul of the 
United States up the Mediterranean, and was at Egypt, on his 
return homeward, heard of the situation of his countrymen at Tri- 
poli. He also fell in, at this time, with Hamet, the rightful heir to 
the throne of Tripoli. Jussuf, the third son of the reigning 
bashaw, to gain the throne, had just murdered his father and 
elder brother, and sought to destroy Hamet, the only surviving heir 
in his way. 

10. General Eaton was much interested in the story of Hamet, as 
well a^^Feeted by the sufferings of his enslaved countrymen. The 
beys or^gypt, too, were in favor of Hamet. A league was there- 
fore made between Eaton and Hamet, by virtue of which Hamet was 
to be restored to his throne, and the American captives were to be 
released from their bondage. 

11. Having procured a small number of Americans and a few 
soldiers from Egypt, General Eaton and Hamet crossed the desert 
of Barca and took Derne, the capital of a large province of Tripoli. 
The cause of Hamet had, by this time, become so popular, and their 
force so strong, that they were about to attack Tripoli ; which Jussuf 
perceiving, was glad to make peace with the American consul. Mr. 
Lear. 

12. This treaty, while it released the captive Americans, did not 
restore Hamet to his throne. The latter visited the United States, 
in 1805, to solicit some remuneration for the services he had ren- 
dered General Eaton, and for the losses he had sustained by 
the premature treaty of peace, as he deemed it, made by Mr. 
Lear ; but congress did not see fit to grant his request. 



CHAPTER CLI. 

Burr's conspiracy. 

1. One of the most remarkable events of the year 1806 was the 
conspiracy, as it was called, of the late Vice-President Burr. After 
the death of General Hamilton, he had retired to a small island in 
the Ohio river, about two hundred miles below Pittsburg, since called 
Blannerhassets' island. 

2. Here he had set on foot a project for forming an independent 
empire, west of the Allegany mountains, of which he was to be 
the chief or emperor. New Orleans was to be the capital. The 
government of the United States, apprized of his plan, arrested 



of Captain Bainbridge and his men? 9. What of General Eaton? Who was Hamet? 
What had Jussuf just done ? 10. Who were in favor of Hamet ? What league was 
made ? 11. What did Hamet and Eaton do ? Why was Jussuf glad to make peace? 
12. What of Kamet ? How did congress treat his request 1 



BURR'S CONSPIRACY. 



267 



him, brought him to Richmond, in Virginia, and put him oij 
trial for treason ; but he was released for want of proof against 
him. 



3. He found, moreover, that, beside the danger of being taken 
and convicted before he could get his scheme fairly " under way," 
the attachment of the western states to the general government 
was stronger than he had before supposed, and that his cunning and 
intrigue would not avail him. 

4. It had been Burr's purpose, in case of the failure of his main 
plan, to proceed, with such forces as he could raise, to Mexico, and 
establish an empire there. But this restless man died, after all, with- 
out accomplishing the objects to which his ambition had prompted 
him ; and all the kingdoms which his imagination had reared 
descended to the grave with him. 

5. In point of talent, Burr was certainly a remarkable man. It 
was his unbounded ambition and unrestrained selfishness that ruined 
him. Had he aimed, like Washington, at the general good of his 
country, rather than his own aggrandizement, his memory might 
as well have been associated with the latter, as with Benedict 
Arnold. 

6. It was about this period that President Jefferson directed Lewis 
and Clark to explore the Missouri river, who, with a company of 
forty-five men, proceeded to its source, and then descended on the 
Columbia to the Pacific Ocean and returned the same way, — travers- 



CLL— 1. Where had Hamilton retired ? 2. What was his plan? What of his trial ? 
3. What did he find ? 4. What had been his purpose 7 What became of all his 
schemes 1 5. Wbat was his character ? 6. Describe the expedition of Lewis and 
Clark. What was explored in 1806 and 1807 ? 




Burr, 



268 



*TROUELES with great Britain. 



ing a distance of some ten or twelve thousand miles of wilderness in 
Tittle more than two years and four months. About the year 1806, 
General Pike also explored the Mississippi. 



CHAPTER CLII. 

Troubles tuith Great Britain. 

1. In 1807, Great Britain and France being at war with each 
other, tire controversy drew r to one side or the other most of the 
Europ^H powers ; and there were not a few who would gladly 
have involved the United States in the quarrel. As yet, however, 
the government was determined, if possible, to remain neutral. 

2. One serious difficulty, indeed, had arisen. Great Britain, 
having at her command a powerful navy, claimed the right of taking 
her own native-born subjects wherever she could find them. In pur- 
suance of her purpose, many vessels belonging to the United States 
had been searched, and many individuals on board of them were 
seized and retained as British subjects. 

3. As it was not always easy to distinguish American from 
British subjects, this custom of impressment gave great offence to 
the Americans. Thousands of our seamen, it was said, were 
claimed by the British, and, in this way, forced into their service ; 
and, as if to continue and aggravate, instead of trying to remove the 
grievance, Great Britain would not so much as attempt any measures 
of redress. 

4. Worse than even this difficulty took place ; for, by an order 
in council of the British government, issued May 16, 1806, declaring 
all the ports and rivers, from the Elbe in Germany to Brest, in 
France, in a state of blockade, American vessels trading to any 
of these ports were liable to be seized and condemned. 

5. This decree of Great Britain was followed, in November, by 
one from Bonaparte, at Berlin, in which all the British islands were 
declared to be blockaded, and all intercourse w 7 ith them was thus 
broken up. This decree stood directly opposed to the existing treaty 
between France and the United States, and also to the laws and 
usages of nations. 

6. Again, the British government, in January, 1807, issued 
another order in council, forbidding all the coasting trade with 
France, on penalty of capture and condemnation. Nothing could 
have been better calculated than these proceedings to awaken every 
latent feeling of resentment in the Americans against the two 
nations, if not to involve them in all the horrors of war itself. 



CLII.— 1. What of Britain and France in 1807? 2. What did Britain claim? 
3. What of the impressment of our seamen 7 4. What worse difficulty 1 5. What 
decree was made by Bonaparte 7 6. What other order was given by the British ? 



ATTACK ON THE CHESAPEAKE. 



269 



CHAPTER CLIII. 

Attack on the Chesapeake, 

1. Sometime in the beginning of the year 1807, five men had 
deserted from the British frigate Melampus, lying in Hampton 
Roads ; and three of them had subsequently enlisted on board the 
United States' frigate Chesapeake, then at Norfolk, preparing for 
sea. The British consul at Norfolk, on being made acquainted with 
the facts, wrote to Commodore Barron, of the Chesapeake, request- 
ing that the men might be returned. 

2. This request being refused, the British consul applied to the 
secretary of the navy to surrender them. The secretary ordered an 
examination of the facts, from which it appeared that the men were 
natives of America, of which two of them had official certificates. 
They were not, therefore, given up. 

3. The Chesapeake had been ordered to cruise in the Mediter- 
ranean, and, on June 22, she proceeded on her voyage thither. In 
going out of Hampton Roads, she passed the British frigates Bellona 
and Melampus. As she was passing Cape Henry, the Leopard, 
another British frigate, of fifty guns, came up with her, and an officer 
was sent on board with a note. 

4. This note enclosed a copy of an order from the British 
admiral, Berkley, requesting them to search for deserters on board 
all our ships found out of the limits of the United States. At the 
same time a demand was macle to be permitted to search the Chesa- 
peake for the deserters from the Melampus. 

5. Commodore Barron, in reply, said, that he did not know of 
any deserters on board ; that the recruiting officers for the Chesa- 
peake had been particularly instructed not to receive any deserters 
from his Britannic majesty's ships, and that he was directed never to 
permit the crew of a ship, under his command, to be mustered by 
any officers but her own. 

6. Upon receiving this answer, the officer returned to the Leopard, 
when she immediately commenced a heavy firing upon the Chesa- 
peake. The latter, being unprepared for an action, could make no 
resistance, but, after remaining in the fire of the Leopard about 
thirty minutes, and having three men killed and eighteen wounded — 
the commodore among the rest — she surrendered. 

7. The British captain refused to accept the surrender of the 
Chesapeake, but commenced a search, and finding the three men on 
board whom they claimed to have been deserters, together with a 
fourth, whom they also claimed on the same ground, they took them 
along with them. The Chesapeake, being much injured, returned 
to Norfolk. 



CLIII.— 1. What took place in the year 1807? 2. What did the British consul do? 
What proved to be the case concerning the men ? 3. Relate the adventure of the Chesa- 
peake. 4. What demand was made by the British admiral? 5. What was Commodore 

23* 



270 



EMBARGO LAID. 



8. On receiving information of this outrage, the president, by a 
proclamation, ordered all armed British vessels to leave the waters 
of the United States, and not to enter them more until satisfaction 
was given by the British government for the assault on the Chesa- 
peake. An armed force was also ordered out, sufficient for the 
defence of Norfolk, should it become necessary. 



CHAPTER CLIV. 

A Embargo laid. 

1. The next thing done by the United States government was 
to forward instructions to Mr. Monroe, the minister at London, to 
demand of the British government that satisfaction which the 
particular case of the Chesapeake required, as well as security 
against further impressment of seamen from American ships. 

*2. The British were ready to enter upon negotiations respecting 
the attack on the Chesapeake, but were unwilling to relinquish 
the right of search. The result was that the discussion of the 
subject was delayed. In the mean time, congress came together, 
when the capture of the Chesapeake was one of the first subjects 
which occupied their attention. 

3. Several measures were adopted at this session of congress ; 
among which were preparations and appropriations for the sup- 
port of a large land and naval force. On the 2*2d of December, 
1807, an embargo was laid on all vessels within the jurisdiction of 
the United States. Meanwhile - , the difficulties with both the British 
and French governments were increasing, and a speedy w T ar seemed 
inevitable. 

4. At length, Mr. Rose, a special minister from the British 
government, arrived in the country, and negotiations were once 
more attempted. But they did not succeed ; nor was the contro- 
versy, which grew out of the attack on the Chesapeake, finally 
settled till some time in the year 1811. In the mean time, Thomas 
Jefferson had been succeeded in his office by James Madison. 

5. The prospects of the country, when Mr. Madison came into 
office, were gloomy indeed. The two great nations of England and 
France were still at war, and, in the progress of that war, by their 
orders and decrees and impressments and seizures, were break- 
ing in*upon all former treaties, especially those with the United 
States. 

6. As strong encouragement had been given by Great Britain, 
in the year 1809, before Mr. Jefferson went out of office, of a 



Barron's reply ? 6. Describe the attack of the Leopard. 7. What did the British cap- 
tain then do ? 8. What proclamation was issued by the president ? ^ 

CLIV.— 1. What was next done by the United States? 2. What of the British? 
3. What was done by congress? What seemed inevitable ? 4. What of Mr. Rose ? 

Who succeeded Jefferson as president? 5. What was now the state of the country? 



STEAMBOAT NAVIGATION IN THE UNITED STATER 271 



readiness to settle the existing differences between the two countries, 
the embargo had been repealed on the first of March. Finding, 
however, that there was still a disposition to delay, the embargo was, 
on the 10th of August, renewed. 

7. Thus affairs proceeded for some time. Decrees and prohibitions 
and proclamations became quite the order of the day. Sometimes, 
indeed, there was a gleam of hope. The probability that the United 
States could long remain neutral, in the existing state of things, was, 
however, every day and every hour diminishing. 

8. On the 16th of May, 1811, the British sloop of war, Little 
Belt, commanded by Captain Bingham, made an unprovoked 
attack upon the United States' frigate President, commanded 
by Commodore Rogers ; in the conflict which followed, the Little 
Belt had eleven men killed, and twenty-one wounded, and her 
rigging much damaged, while the President had only a single 
man wounded. 

9. On the 12th of November, the British envoy, Mr. Foster, 
acknowledged the attack on the Chesapeake to be unauthorized, 
and offered, in the name of the British government, to make 
reparation for the injury which had been sustained. The whole 
affair was soon adjusted, to the satisfaction of both parties. 



CHAPTER CLV. 

Steamboat navigation in the United States. 

1. Steamboats were first used on the Hudson in the year 1807. 
An event so closely connected with the prosperity of the United 
States must not be excluded from their history. 

2. An experiment had been made, with the steam-engine, on the 
Seine, near Paris, in 1803 ; but no vessel was set in motion by steam, 
in the United States, till four years afterward. The two individuals 
most concerned in the work of introducing steamboats, were Fulton 
and Stevens. They were not introduced into Great Britain till 1812 
— five years afterward. 

3. The first steamboat on the western waters was launched at 
Pittsburg, in 1813. She was of four hundred tons burthen, and 
was called the Vesuvius. She was built to run as a regular trader 
between the falls of the Ohio and New Orleans. A steamboat first 
ascended the Arkansas river in 1820. % 

4. Such was the popularity and such the success of these boats, 
especially in the western waters, that, in 1822, nine years after the 
building of the Vesuvius, no less than eighty-nine steamboats were 
enrolled at the port of New Orleans, forming, in the aggregate, 



6. What of the embargo ? 7. What were the order of the day ? 8. What was done by 
the Little Belt ? 9. How was the affair of the Chesapeake arranged ? 
CLV.— 1. What of steamboats? 2. What experiment had been made? What of 



272 



STEAMBOAT NAVIGATION IN THE UNITED STATES. 



something more than eighteen thousand tons. The Arkansas river 
had even been ascended by steamboats five hundred miles. 



5. The first steam-ship sailed for Europe in May, 1819. In 
1840, there were two regular lines of steam-packets plying between 
the United States and Europe ; one from Boston, and the other 
from New York. At first, ten or twelve miles an hour was 
thought to be sufficiently rapid ; now, the Atlantic is crossed in 
twelve days. 

6. The whole number of steamboats, in the different states of the 
Union, in 1840, was estimated at about eight hundred, with a 
capacity of one hundred and fifty-three thousand six hundred and 
sixty tons. Of these eight hundred boats, one hundred and thirty- 
seven were built in the year 1837. The number of steam-engines, 
of all kinds, in use, was estimated at about three thousand. 

7. It should not be forgotten that, among the foregoing steam- 
vessels, some twelve or fourteen belong to the navy. The first 
steam-frigate for the navy was built many years since, but it 
is only within a very few years that the number has been much 
increased. 



Fulton and Stevens ? When did steamboats appear in Great Britain ? 3. Describe the 
Vesuvius. What took place in 1820 ? 4. What of steamboats in 1822 ? 5. When did 
the first steam-ship sail to Europe ? 6. What of steam-packets in 1840 7 How many- 
were built in 1837 ? What of steam-engines ? 7. What of the navy ? 




Fulton. 



BATTLE OF TIPPECANOE. 



273 



CHAPTER CLVI. 

Battle of Tippecanoe. 

1. In the year 1811, congress assembled on the 5th of November. 
Not only the president's message, but all the proceedings, indicated 
the expectation of a rupture with Great Britain at no distant period. 
For though reparation had been made in the case of the Chesapeake, 
the orders in council remained in full force. 

2. During this year, the Shawanese and other Indians about the 
Wabash river, in the territory of Indiana, became troublesome. 
Governor Harrison, with twelve hundred men, three hundred and 
fifty of whom were regular troops, proceeded from the neighborhood 
of Vincennes to the Prophet's town, as the residence of their chief 
was called, to demand satisfaction of the Indians. 

3. The troops commenced their march September 26, and nothing 
of importance occurred until their arrival on the line of the enemy's 
country. Here they built a fort, which, in honor of their com- 
mander, they called Fort Harrison. At this place they remained 
about a month, during which time the Indians very frequently came 
into the camp and held councils with Governor Harrison, but would 
not accede to his terms. 

4. Under the circumstances, it was resolved to attack them ; and, 
with this view, the troops left Fort Harrison, October 29, and arrived 
at the Prophet's town, November 6. When they were within half 
a mile of the town, they formed the line of battle, which the Indians 
perceiving, sent in a flag of truce, saying that if their lives might 
be spared till next morning, they would come to the governor's 
terms. 

5. This was a device of the savages to gain time, and put their 
enemies off their guard. It was but too successful ; and, unsuspicious 
of danger, our troops encamped where they were. Many of them, 
strange as it may seem, slept as quietly all night as if they had 
been at home in the midst of their families. 

6. A little before five o'clock, next morning, the savages came 
upon them with such fury that the sentinels could only fire a single 
gun before they were in the very midst of the camp. Some of the 
soldiers were prepared, but others had to struggle with them at their 
very tent doors. 

7. The battle soon became severe, and the Indians, encouraged 
by the surprise into which they had thrown the troops at the first 
onset, pressed forward in great numbers. The result of the contest, 
for a long time, was doubtful. The bravery and skill of our troops, 
however, prevailed, and the Indians began to give way ; shortly 



CLVI— 1. What was expected in the year 1811 ? 2. What of the Indians ? Who 
were against them ? 3. Where did the troops encamp ? 4. What was now done ? 
What did the savages do ? 5. What ought to have been suspected ? 6. Describe the 



274 



WAR DECLARED WITH GREAT BRITAIN. 



after this, they fled to a swamp, where they could not be fol- 
lowed. 

8. The victory over them was dearly bought. Sixty of the 
United States' troops were killed and one hundred and twenty- 
eight wounded. Among the slain were several able and valuable 
officers. The loss of the savages was great, but the number could 
not be exactly ascertained. 

9. The next day, the troops set fire to the Prophet's town, 
and having destroyed everything valuable they could find, they 
returned to Yincennes, after a fatiguing campaign of about two 
months. The defeat of the Indians, however, was decisive. They 
gave the settlers in that vicinity no more trouble for some time. 



CHAPTER CLVII. 

War declared icith Great Britain. 

1. The difficulties with Great Britain were not removed. That 
government still insisted on the right of impressment, as it was 
called ; the blockade of her enemies' ports incommoded us ; and 
though the French decrees of Berlin and Milan were repealed, the 
British had not as yet annulled their orders in council. 

2. An embargo was laid, on the 3d of April, by the president, at 
the recommendation of congress, to continue ninety days, on all 
vessels within the jurisdiction of the United States. This w r as the 
prelude to war with Great Britain, which was declared on the 18th 
of June following. 

3. The bill for the declaration of war did not pass, however, 
without opposition. Forty-nine, out of one hundred and twenty- 
eight of the representatives, entered their solemn protests, in whicii 
they denied the war to be either necessary or just. Indeed, it only 
passed the senate by a small majority. 

4. Nor was the measure very well received by the people after 
the bill passed. The editors of several newspapers, in different parts 
of the country, were very decided in their expressions of disappro- 
bation ; so much so as to provoke the violence of the war party, and 
cause mobs and riots. 

5. The most remarkable of these mobs was at Baltimore. The 
rioters first tore down the printing-office of the paper which had 
offended them. The editor and others undertook to defend them- 
selves with arms. The military force of the city was finally called 
out. The conflict was severe, and was continued for two or three 
nights ; General Lingan was killed and several were wounded. 



attack. Result of the battle ? 8. What was the loss of the Americans ? 9. What was 
done the next day ? 

CLVII.— 1. What of the difficulties with Great Britain ? 2. What embargo was laid 
in April ? When was war declared with Great Britain ? 3. How did the bill pass ? 

4, What of the editors of paper*? 5. Describe the mob at Baltimore. 8. Was the 



GENERAL HULL'S SURRENDER. 



275 



6. So poorly prepared was the country for war, and so difficult was 
it found to enlist soldiers, that a demand was made by the president 
on the governors of the states to furnish men from the militia of their 
several states, to guard their own seaboard. But this, Massachusetts, 
Connecticut and Rhode Island refused to do. 

7. The grounds of this refusal were that the militia, if sent under 
the call of the president, w T ould be subject to the officers of the 
regular army, and might be marched into Canada, or to any other 
part of the country ; and this, it was contended, was not agreeable 
to the constitution. 

8. This refusal produced a great sensation throughout the United 
States, but was fully justified by a large majority of the people of 
the several states which thus withheld their militia from the demand 
of the general government. It was generally condemned, however, 
by the other portions of the country. 



CHAPTER CLVIII. 

General HulVs surrender. 

1. We have seen that a part of the states refused to call out 
their militia at the request of the president. Connecticut, however, 
proceeded to raise troops for her own defence, and to organize 
and station them, at various points along the coast, in her own 
way. 

2. It was also found difficult to enlist regular troops, and, still 
more so, to find suitable officers for them. The few already in the 
service, and such as could be readily enlisted, amounting to two 
thousand, were sent away to the northwest, and placed under General 
Hull, an aged man, who had served in the war of the revolution, and 
who was at this time governor of Michigan Territory. 

3. General Hull, with his troops, was ordered to Detroit, to 
garrison the fort there, and protect the country from the incursions 
of the British and Indians. He arrived early in July, and having 
put everything in a posture of defence, he crossed the river Detroit, 
July 12, and made preparations to invade Upper Canada. 

4. But, instead of invading Canada, or even attacking a single 
post, he remained there till the 7th of August, and then returned, 
with his army, in the night, to Detroit. After a few slight battles 
and a good deal of skirmishing, he surrendered his army, August 16, 
with the fort at Detroit, and all the neighboring forts and garrisons, 
to the British, under General Brock. 

5. This unexpected surrender, at the very outset of the war, 



country well prepared for war ? What demand was made ? What refusal followed ? 
7. What were the grounds of the refusal ? 8. What of the people? 
■ 'CLVIII. — 1. What did Connecticut do? 2. What was the state of the troops? 
3. What was done by General Hull ?- 4. Describe his surrender. 5. What was the con- 



276 



CAPTURE OF THE GUERRIERE AND THE ALERT. 



cast a gloom over the whole country. General Hull was every- 
where regarded, whether justly or unjustly, as either a coward or 
a traitor. Having been exchanged, soon afterward, for thirty 
British prisoners, he was subsequently tried by a court-martial and 
sentenced to death; but, on account of his age, he was recom- 
mended to the mercy of the president, who finally pardoned 
him. 

6. General Hull was tried for three things, treason, cowardice, 
and unofficer like conduct. On the first charge, the court-martial 
which tried him did not give an opinion ; but he was found guiltv 
on the other two. He was, most evidently, unfit to command an 
army, whether by reason of age alone, or from other causes, and 
ought never to have been charged with so important a trust. 



CHAPTER CLIX. 

Capture of the Gaerriere and the Alert, 





mm 








fed 












dm 



1. While the war was commenced so unhappily on land, it was 
far otherwise on the sea. For, though Lord Nelson and others, by 
their skill, had rendered Great Britain the mistress of the ocean, she 
was yet to be humbled by a power whose naval force she could not 
help despising for its insignificancy. 



sequence ofGcneral ffull'a act 1 How was he awarded 7 What mi his fate ? 6 For 
what was he tried 1 



CAPTURE OF THE GUERRIERE AND THE ALERT. 



277 



2. The United States, at the opening of the war of 1812, had 
three frigates of forty-four guns each, three of thirty-eight, five of 
from twenty-eight to thirty-six, and nine sloops, varying from twelve 
to eighteen guns. These twenty vessels constituted her whole naval 
armament ; and even of these, one was on Lake Ontario, and two 
were unfit for sea. The British fleet consisted of from eight hun- 
dred to one thousand ships. 

3. Commodore Rodgers, with his little fleet, the President, the 
Essex and the Hornet, lay at New York when war was declared. 
Within an hour after he heard the news, he and the Hornet were 
under way. On the 23d of June, only five days after the war was 
declared, he fell in with and attacked the British frigate Belvidera, of 
thirty-six guns, but she escaped. 

4. This, however, was only a beginning. The Constitution, of 
forty-four guns, commanded by Captain Isaac Hull, sailed from the 
Chesapeake Bay about the middle of July. She was soon chased 
by the British, and the chase continued, with some firing, for several 
days ; but the Constitution succeeded in escaping. 




Porter. 



5. Meanwhile, the Essex, commanded by Captain, afterwards 
Commodore Porter, which was not ready for sea when Commodore 
Rodgers attacked the Belvidera, having made the necessary repairs, 
sailed, and, after having taken several prizes, on the 13th of August 
fell in with the British sloop of war Alert, of twenty guns, which 
she took, after an action of only eight minutes. 



CLIX.— 1. What was going on in the British navy ? 2. What vessels had the United 
S'.die* at the commencement' of the war ? What of the British fleet ? 3. What ships 
liad Commodore Rodgers? What attack did he nake? 4. Describe the chase of the 
Constitulion. 5. Describe the capture of the Alert bv Captain Porter. 6. What can 
24 



278 



ATTACK ON QUEEN STOW' N. 



6. This was the first armed vessel which was taken by the Amer- 
icans during this war. It was not surprising that a frigate of 
thirty-two guns should vanquish a sloop of twenty ; and yet it was 
not expected by our sailors that a vessel of the size of the Alert 
would make so feeble a resistance. The Essex was not injured, 
nor a man hurt ; while the Alert was greatly crippled, and had three 
men wounded. 

7. This naval battle was fought three days before General HulPs 
surrender. Three days after the surrender, another event took 
place which was still more remarkable, both with respect to its 
character and the final results, than the former. It was the capture 
of the British frigate Guerriere. 

8. On the 19th of August, the Constitution came up with this 
frigate, commanded by Captain Dacres, of thirty-eight guns, about a 
thousand miles eastward of New England, and in two hours made 
her a complete wreck ; so much so, that it was thought best to 
destroy her. 

9. The loss of the Constitution, in this contest, was seven killed 
and seven wounded ; while the Guerriere had fifteen killed and sixty- 
three wounded. The Constitution was not at all injured ; but was 
ready for another action the very next day. Yet the force of 
the American frigate was but little more than that of the enemy. 

10. These brilliant events at sea had some effect to make up for 
the losses on land. Besides, they encouraged our navy. It had 
been thought, for some time, that nothing could vanquish the British 
— force for force ; but it now began to be thought otherwise. 



CHAPTER CLX. 

Attack on Queenstoicn. 

1. As early as the 1st of October, 1812, eight or ten thousand 
men, with military stores, were collected at various points along the 
Canadian line, chiefly, however, in three great divisions — the north- 
western, the eastern and the northern armies. Measures had also 
been taken for arming vessels on the three lakes, Erie, Ontario and 
Champlain. 

2. The northwestern army was commanded by General Harrison, 
and was stationed in the neighborhood of Detroit. The central 
division was directed by General Stephen Van Rensselaer, and 
stationed at Lewiston, just below Niagara Falls. The army of 
the north, under Major General Henry Dearborn, who was also 
commander-in-chief, was at Greenbush and Plattsburg. 

3. On the 13th of October, early in the morning, a part of the 



you say of the two vessels 1 7. What event of importance now occurred ? 8. Describe 
the capture of the Guerriere. 9. What was the loss sustained by the two frigates? 
10. How did these events affect the United States' navy ? 
CLX.— 1. What was done October, 1812 i 2. How were the three divisions of the 



ATTACK ON QUEENSTOWN. 



279 



army at Lewiston succeeded in crossing the Niagara to Queens- 
town, and in taking possession of the battery on the heights. But 
they were not able to maintain their position, for they were only a 
few hundreds, and most of the men at Lewiston were militia, and 
refused to follow them as they had promised to do. 

4. The commander of the heights, Colonel Van Rensselaer, was 
now in a most perilous situation. He had indeed already repelled one 
attack from six hundred British regulars, and killed General Brock, 
their commander. But General Sheafe, his successor, renewed the 
attack with an increased force, and the Americans were at length 
compelled to surrender. 

5. Nothing could have been more unexpected than the refusal of 
the American militia to cross the Niagara. They had but just 
before been urgent for the battle, and now they utterly refused to 
embark. 

6. General Brock was much lamented by the inhabitants of 
Canada, and a beautiful monument was erected to his memory, on 
the heights of Queenstown, where he fell. An attempt was made, 
a few years since, to destroy this monument ; and, though it was not 
quite successful, the monument was seriously injured. The villains 
were never discovered. 

7. The attack on Queenstown was followed, in November, by a 
few bullying efforts, above the falls, on the part of General Smyth. 
He was the successor of General Van Rensselaer — the latter having 
resigned. He sent two detachments across, in the night, to Black 
Rock ; but they accomplished very little. The troops soon went to 
winter quarters, and Smyth, being hissed from the army, went home 
to Virginia. 

8. Thus ended the war against Canada for that year. Never, 
perhaps, was less accomplished, under circumstances so favorable, 
than was done by the Americans, in this campaign of 1812. On the 
26th of September, they had a force of thirteen thousand men on 
the frontier, more than six thousand of whom were regulars ; while 
the British could scarcely muster three thousand troops on their whole 
line, from west to east. 



army commanded? 3. What was done October 13th? 4. What of the commander? 
5. The militia ? 6. What monument was erected to the memory of General Brock ? 
7. Who was General Smyth ? 8. What of the war against Canada ? 



280 



MORE NAVAL VICTORIES. 



CHAPTER CLXI. 

More naval victories. 

1. The success of the naval forces of the United States, for this 
year, was, throughout, as brilliant as the conduct of the land forces 
was disgraceful. Where least was expected, and where there was 
least reason to expect anything, there the most heroic bravery — not 
to say the most unprecedented skill — was manifested. 

2. On the 18th of October, the United States' sloop Wasp, of 
eighteen guns, commanded by Captain Jones, came up with and 
captured the British sloop Frolic, Captain Wynyates, of about the 
same size and force, about eight hundred miles eastward of Nor- 
folk, in Virginia. The action lasted about three quarters of an 
hour. 

3. Both vessels were much injured in the engagement, but the 
Wasp suffered most in her rigging. She had only five men killed 
and five wounded. The fire of the Wasp evidently fell below the 
rigging of the Frolic ; for the latter had at least seventy or eighty 
killed or wounded. Indeed, it was said that not twenty of her men 
escaped wholly unhurt. 

4. The Frolic had scarcely submitted to the Wasp, when a British 
seventy-four gun ship hove in sight — the Poictiers — and immediately 
bore down upon them. As they were in no situation either to escape 
or make a defence, they were forthwith taken and carried into Ber- 
muda. 

5. One week later than this, viz., October 25, a still more 
remarkable victory was obtained by our little navy. The United 
States, another forty-four gun ship, commanded by Commodore 
Decatur, who had distinguished himself so much at Tripoli, fell in 
with and encountered the British frigate Macedonian, Captain Carden, 
rated at thirty-eight guns, but really carrying forty-nine. 

6. This action took place in the Atlantic Ocean, about seven hun- 
dred miles southward of the Azores. It lasted an hour and a half, 
and was very fatal to the crew of the Macedonian. Out of her com- 
plement of three hundred men, she had more than a hundred killed 
and wounded, while the United States had but seven killed and five 
wounded. 

7. One of those killed on board the Macedonian was the carpenter. 
As he was known to be in destitute circumstances, and to have left a 
family of helpless children with a worthless mother, his brave com- 
panions immediately held a contribution, and raised eight hundred 
dollars, to be put in safe hands, for the education of the unhappy 
orphans. 

8. Sailors are apt to be generous. It is not always, however, 



CLXI.— 1. What was the success of the naval force of the United States 7 2. Describe 
the engagement of the Wasp and the Frolic. 3. What was the loss on both sides 7 
4. How wa3 the Wasp captured ?- 5. What two ships now engaged ? 6. Describe the 
action. 7. What was done for the family of the carpenter ? 8. Character of sailors ? 



EVENTS OF 1812 AND 1813. 



281 



that they make so wise an application of their charities as in this 
case. 

9. Another victory was achieved by our brave tars before the year 
closed. Captain Hull had retired from the service, and had been 
succeeded in the command of the Constitution by Commodore Bain- 
bridge. On the 29th of December, while off the coast of Brazil, the 
British frigate Java, of forty-nine guns, came in sight, and a battle 
ensued. 

10. The engagement was severe from the first. It had continued 
nearly two hours, and nearly two hundred men had been killed or 
wounded on board the Java, when she was compelled to strike her 
colors. She was so much injured that it was concluded, a few days 
afterward, to burn her. The loss of the Constitution was hardly 
one sixth as great as that of the Java. 

11. On board the Java, during the battle, was an American prisoner, 
in confinement. Anxious to know the issue, he often asked a Chi- 
nese, who was stationed near him, how the battle was going on. 
"Oh, a glorious victory," was the reply always. Not satisfied 
with this, especially as he saw so many wounded men brought 
below, he asked which side was about to gain the victory. " Why," 
said the Chinese, " one or t'other." 



CHAPTER CLXII. 
Events of 1812 and 1813. 

1. Several interesting events of our national history took place 
during the years 1812 and 1813, which deserve a place in our 
history. 

2. One of these was the admission, some time in 1812, of Louisi- 
ana to the federal union. She was the eighteenth pillar of the 
great national fabric, and a most important one, as she holds the 
keys of entrance, through the mouth of a mighty river, to the richest 
if not the most extensive valley in the world. 

3. The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions 
was also incorporated in 1812 ; and five missionaries were ordained 
at Salem to preach the gospel at Bombay, in Asia. They were the 
first foreign missionaries ever ordained here. Yet the same board, 
in 1842, thirty years later, sustained no less than one hundred and 
thirty -four of these foreign missionaries. 

4. Very early in the year 1813, the emperor of Russia kindly 
offered to try to make peace between Great Britain and the United 
States ; and Albert Gallatin, James A. Bayard, and John Quincy 
Adams were appointed as commissioners, and sent to Russia to meet 



9. Who succeeded Captain Hull ? What of the Java ? 10. Describe the engagement. 
What was the loss of the two ships ? 11. What passed between the American prisoner 
and the Chinese ? 

CLXII.— 2. What of Louisiana 1 * 3. When was the A.merican Board of Commissioners 
24* 



282 



EVENTS OF 1812 AXD 1313. 



such commissioners as the British might appoint, and, if practicable, 
to make a treaty between the two countries. 




Madison. 



5. The term for which Mr. Madison had been elected president 
expired on the 4th of March, 1813, and a strong effort was made, by 
the party opposed to the war, to elect De Witt Clinton in his stead ; 
but they did not succeed. Mr. Madison was re-elected, and George 
Clinton was also re-elected vice-president ; he died soon after, and 
was succeeded by Elbridge Gerry. 

6. Cotton manufactories began to flourish this year. In the 
neighborhood of Providence, Rhode Island, one hundred and twenty 
thousand spindles were in operation, consuming six million pounds 
of cotton yearly. About the end of this year, twenty thousand or 
thirty thousand spindles were running at Baltimore. Yet, in 1809, 
not a thread of cotton was spun by machinery in this country. 

7. This year, 1813, moreover, was remarkable for two more 
events, the birth of the Massachusetts Society for the Suppression of 
Intemperance, which led the way to so much good in the United 
States, and the tleath of him who may be justly considered as the 
father of temperance societies here, Dr. Benjamin Rush. 



first incorporated ? What of missionaries ? What of the board in 1842 ? 4. What of 
the emperor of Russia ? Who were sent as commissioners ? 5. Who now became 
president and vice-president ? 6. What of cotton manufactories at Providence ? At 
Baltimore } 7. What two events of importance occurred in 1812 ? 



THE MASSACPwE AT FRENCHTOWN. 



283 



CHAPTER CLXIII. 

The massacre at Frenchtown. 

1. We have seen that the northwestern division of the United 
States' army was stationed in the neighborhood of Detroit, and was 
under the command of General Harrison. There, too, they wintered. 
General Harrison's plan was to collect a sufficient force in that 
neighborhood, and, as soon as he could, retake Detroit and the 
other forts and places which General Hull had so unwisely sur- 
rendered. 

2. Early in January, news came from Frenchtown, a place 
twenty-six miles from Detroit, that the British and Indians were 
coming against them ; praying, at the same time, for assistance. 
General Winchester, with eight hundred men, marched thither, and 
succeeded in driving away the British and Indians, who had already 
arrived, but was, in his turn, driven away by the British, on the 
23d inst., and himself and five hundred men taken prisoners. 

3. Their surrender was followed by a scene almost too shocking 
to describe. General Proctor, the British commander, had pledged 
his honor that the lives and private property of the American soldiers 
should be respected after the surrender. But, instead of this, the 
dead were stripped and scalped — the wounded, such as were unable 
to rise, butchered, and the living stripped and plundered, and many 
of them tomahawked, or only reserved to be roasted at the stake. 
Few of them lived to be exchanged. 

4. It is maintained by some that General Proctor could not have 
prevented these barbarities. It is difficult, however, to believe this. 
The bare thought of such a massacre is shocking, whether it could 
have been avoided or not. It exhibits, in a most striking manner, 
the horrors of war, especially of Indian warfare. 

5. What rendered this massacre at Frenchtown more afflictive 
was the fact that most of the troops were the flower of Kentucky. 
They were, many of them, young men who had a large circle of 
respectable relatives. Their bodies lay in the fields till autumn, 
when their friends ventured to collect their bleaching bones and bury 
them. 

6. The news of General Winchester's defeat reached General 
Harrison while on his march to Frenchtown with reinforcements. 
Finding himself too late, he stopped at the rapids of the river 
Maumee and built a fort, which, in honor of the governor of Ohio, 
he called Fort Meigs. This he made, for the present, the head 
quarters of his army. 



CLXIII. — 1. What was General Harrison's plan? What portion of the army did he 
command? 2. What news came from Frenchtown? What of General Winchester ? 
3. Describe the scene after the surrender. 4. What opinion is held of General Proctor? 
5. What of the troops that fell at Frenchtown ? 6. What did General Harrison now do ? 



284 CAPTURE OF YORK, AND DEATH OF GENERAL PIKE. 



CHAPTER CLXIV. 

Capture of York, and death of General Pike. 




Pike. 



1. Little, if anything, was done, during the year 1812, to 
increase the naval force of the United States, either on the ocean or 
the lakes. Commodore Chauncey had indeed been sent to Lake 
Ontario, about the 1st of September, to fit up the Oneida, a vessel 
of sixteen guns, and to arm half a dozen schooners, and thus form a 
little squadron. There had also been some skirmishing upon the 
lake. 

2. The next spring, General Dearborn laid a plan to attack 
York, in Upper Canada, the great depository of the British military 
stores. His troops, amounting to seventeen hundred men, embarked, 
about the middle of April, on board Commodore Chauncey's vessels, 
and, on the 25th, they set sail for York. 

3. The army was directed by General Pike, a young man of 
great promise, who had requested the command as a favor. They 
landed at York on the 27th. As they were moving towards the 
garrison, a magazine exploded, which the British had prepared for 
the purpose, and which killed General Pike and about a hundred of 
his men. 

4. General Pike did not die, however, though his head was 
literally crushed by the heavy stone which fell on it, till he had 



CLXIV.— 1. What of Commodore Chauncey? 2. What plan was laid by General 
Dearborn 7 3. How was the army directed ? What was the fate of General Pike and 
his troops J 4. What did he, however, live to see ? 5. What of General Pike's early life ? 



CAPTURE OF YORK, AND DEATH OF GENERAL PIKE. 



285 



seen the town and all the barracks, and fortifications, and stores, and 
seven hundred and fifty of the enemy, in the possession of his victori- 
ous troops. The loss, in killed and wounded, was great on both 
sides, but greatest on the side of the Americans. 

5. Zebulon M. Pike, who lost his life in this engagement, was a 
native of New Jersey, and was not only well instructed, but made 
healthy and robust by active exercise. As his father had been an 
officer in the revolutionary army, the son was trained to military 
life, and was early made a lieutenant on the western frontiers. 

6. About the time when Lewis and Clarke were sent on an 
exploring tour up the Missouri, Lieutenant Pike, with twenty men, 
and provisions for four months, was sent up the Mississippi. The 
company set out August 5, 1805. Instead of four months, however, 
they were absent almost nine months, exposed to nearly every danger 
and hardship. 

7. Sometimes they were wholly without food for several days 
together. At other times, they slept, without any covering, upon 
the bare ground, or upon the snow ; for they were out all winter, 
and the winter was unusually severe. Sometimes they were obliged 
to leave their boat and build canoes ; and sometimes they carried 
their canoes, from place to place, on their backs. 

8. Though sent to acquire information, they had no surveyor or 
clerk with them but Pike. He was, as he justly says of himself, at 
once the commanding officer, clerk, astronomer, surveyor, spy, 
guide, and hunter of the party. He kept his journal and drew all 
his sketches by the fire at night in the open air. 

9. In two months after his return, he was sent out by General 
Wilkinson to obtain geographical and other information on the 
borders of New Mexico. Again he was out all winter, unprotected. 
All the horses belonging to the party died, and all the men, but Pike 
himself, were more or less frozen. 

10. But these were not all the trials to which he was exposed. 
Unexpectedly, they found themselves upon the banks of the Rio del 
Norte river, within the Spanish territory. Here they were seized 
by a band of Spanish cavalry, and, what was worst of all, Pike's 
instruments and papers, except his private journal, were taken from 
him. The party were, however, at length, all liberated, and, in 
July, 1807, reached Natchitoches. 

11. Such was the education, properly so called, of this most inter- 
esting young man, who, at the age of thirty-three, became a briga- 
dier general in the American army, and, at thirty-four, begged the 
favor of leading the American troops in an attack on Little York, to 
die, like Wolfe before Quebec, in the moment of victory. 

12. Fort George, another strong British post, in the vicinity of 
York, was assailed by General Bond and Colonel Miller, on the 27th 
of May, and, after a sharp and bloody conflict, was taken, and with 



6. What of his expedition up the Mississippi ? 7. Describe the sufferings of the men. 
S. What stations were held by Pike? 9. What other expedition did he undertake? 
10. What happened to the party? 11. What were his military feats?- 12. Who 
assailed Fort George ? 



286 SIEGE OF FORT MEIGS, AND GENERAL HARRISON*. 



it six hundred and twenty-five prisoners. Sacket's Harbor was 
attacked by the British, about this time, but the effort was unsuc- 
cessful. 



CHAPTER CLXV. 

Siege of Fort Meigs , and General Harrison. 




Harrison. 



!. On the first day of May, 1813, General Proctor, with one 
thousand British regulars and militia, and more than a thousand 
Indians, laid siege to Fort Meigs, the head quarters of the army 
under General Harrison, and continued the siege, with great vigor, 
for nine days. 

2. During the third day of the siege, General Proctor sent an 
officer to demand the surrender of the fort. The forces in it were 
probably about two thousand. General Harrison's reply was not 
quite as laconic as the very ancientrone, " Come and take it," but 
nearly so. " Not, sir," says he to General Proctor, " while I have 
the honor to command." 

3. A reinforcement was received, on the fifth day of the siege, 
from Kentucky. It was a body of troops under the command of 
General Clay. Aided by these, an attack was made on the British, 
in which both parties suffered so much that they did not choose to 



CLXV.— 1. To what fori did General Proctor lay siege? 2. Relate the incident that 
took place on the third day of the siege. 3. What of General Clay ? Effect of the 



THE WAR ON THE OCEAN. 



287 



renew the hostilities for several days. On the ninth day, the British 
gave up the siege. 

4. Fort Meigs was besieged again, on the 22d of May, by General 
Proctor, but not for a long period. The attention of the troops was 
soon turned to Fort Stephenson. This was assailed by the united 
forces of the British and Indians in that quarter, but was promptly 
and successfully defended by Major Croghan, a young and accom- 
plished officer. General Proctor, at his retreat from Fort Stephen- 
son, returned to Maiden. 



CHAPTER CLXVI. 

The war on the ocean. 




Death of Lawrence. 



1. On the ocean, in the year 1813, the United States were less 
fortunate, especially during the first six months of the year, than 
they had been in 1812. The Chesapeake frigate, and the Argus 
sloop of war, fell into the hands of the enemy, and a portion of the 
navy was blockaded at New London. 

2. The loss of the Chesapeake, of thirty-eight guns, commanded 
by Captain Lawrence, was one. of the most discouraging events of 
the war. Captain Lawrence had sailed from Boston, with a " picked 
crew," in the expectation that he should be obliged to contend with 
the Shannon ; which fact added greatly to the mortification of a defeat. 

3. He' left the port of Boston, in pursuit of the Shannon, about 



attack on the British ? 4. Who defended Fort Stephenson ? What of General Proctor 
after his retreat 9 

CLXVI.— 1. What of the United St ates' navy ? 2. Who commanded the Chesapeake ? 
How wa3 she manned 1 3. Describe the action. 4. What ot Captain Lawrence J 



288 



THE WAR ON THE OCEAN. 



noon on the 1st of June. The contest began about half-past five, 
in the afternoon, and lasted about fifteen minutes. The battle was 
uncommonly bloody. Both ships, it is said, were like charnel houses. 

4. Captain Lawrence was first wounded in the leg, and afterward 
shot through the body. Yet even then he was unwilling to yield 
the palm to the British, but, as he was being carried below, said 
sternly, " Don't give up the ship." Yet it was unavoidable. The 
British had already boarded the Chesapeake, and the resistance made 
to them was momentary. 

5. In this terrible conflict, the Americans had sixty-two killed 
and eighty-four wounded, and the British twenty-eight killed and 
fifty-eight wounded. When the battle was over, both vessels sailed 
for Halifax, where Captain Lawrence, after suffering, for five or six 
days, the most intense anguish, expired. 

6. Captain Lawrence was thirty-two years of age, and much 
beloved. As a proof of the attachment of his younger officers to 
him, the following anecdote is related. The midshipmen of one of 
our squadrons gave a dinner to Commodore Rodgers one day, at which 
it was proposed not to ask any lieutenant. 44 What, not Mr. Law- 
rence?" said one. It was decided immediately to have Lawrence 
present ; but no other lieutenant was there. 

7. The unhappy issue of this battle may have been owing, after 
all, to the neglect of those whose duty it was to pay the men their 
prize money. The Chesapeake had been cruising and had taken 
prizes, and the men had not been paid their share ; and, though 
some sort of an apology had been made, many were not satisfied. 

8. Among the disaffected ones was the boatswain's mate. When 
the British boarded the Chesapeake, this man quitted his post and 
ran below, leaving the gratings open, so that the men readily 
followed his example. When the officers attempted to rally their 
men to repel the enemy, they could not find them. The boatswain's 
mate was heard to say, as he retreated, " So much for not having 
paid men their prize money." 

9. A battle was fought, on the 22d of June of this year, at 
Craney Island, in the Chesapeake Bay, between a large British 
fleet, which was cruising there, under Sir Sidney Beck with and 
Admiral Warren, and some officers and sailors of the navy and a 
body of Virginia militia. The British were defeated, with the loss 
of more than twelve hundred men. 

10. In less than two months after the capture of the Chesapeake, 
the American navy experienced another reverse of fortune in the loss 
of the Argus, of eighteen guns. She was captured by the Pelican, of 
twenty guns, after a hard-fought battle, in which her first officer and 
live men fell and sixteen were wounded. 

11. The Argus had been out to France, to carry Mr. Crawford, 
our minister, and was on her return. She had taken quite a number 



What words did he use when carried helow I 5. What was the loss of the contend- 
ing parties'? Where did the ships go after the battle? 6. Give the anecdote of 
Liwrence and the dinner. 7. To what was tho issue of the battle owing 7 8. What 
v.'is done by the boatswain's mate? 9. What battle was fought on the 22d of June ? 
10. What cf the engagement between the Argus and the Pelican? It, Describe the 



BATTLE ON LAKE ERIE. 



289 



of prizes on the very coast of Great Britain, and so much annoyed 
the enemy that several vessels had been sent out in search of her. 
Among these was the successful Pelican. 

12. But the tide of victory at length began to turn. On the 5th 
of September, the Enterprise took the British brig Boxer, after a 
hard-fought battle of half an hour, in which she lost but one man, 
her commander, Lieutenant Burrows ; while the loss of the British 
was considerable, including, also, her commander, Captain Blythe. 
Both these officers were young, active and promising. 



CHAPTER CLXVII. 
Battle on Lake Erie. 




Commodore Perry. 



1. A small fleet had, during the year 1813, been collected on 
Lake Erie, consisting of nine vessels, carrying, in the whole, fifty- 
five guns, and placed in the care of Commodore Oliver H. Perry. 
Following our example, as they had also done on Lake Ontario, the 
British had their little fleet to oppose it, consisting of six vessels and 
sixty-three guns. 

2. These small fleets, after some skirmishing, came at length to 
close action. It was the tenth of September. The battle was 
severe, and it was for a long time difficult to guess at the result. At 



cruise of the Argu3. 12. What of the action between the brig Boxer and the Enter- 
prise 1 

CLXVII.— 1. What fleet was under the command of Commodore Perry? What fleet 
had the British ? 2. What of the skirmishing? 3. What was done by Commodore 
25 



290 



BATTLE AT THE MORAVIAN TOWNS. 



length the British seemed to have the advantage. The Lawrence, 
the American commodore's own vessel, became so crippled as to be 
almost unmanageable. 

3. At this critical moment, Commodore Perry abandoned his own 
vessel, and went, in a boat, on board the Niagara, his second ship, 
commanded by Captain Elliot. Before this, the firing had almost 
ceased, and the British commander, Captain Barclav, counting on 
certain victory, though himself wounded, would not have given, 
as he said afterward, a sixpence for the whole American fleet. 

4. But the scene now changed. The battle waxed hot again . and , 
in about four hours after its first commencement, the British fleet 
surrendered to the American. The loss of the Americans was 
twenty-seven killed and ninety-six wounded ; that of the British was 
somewhat greater, besides prisoners. 

5. Commodore Perry wrote to General Harrison immediately 
after the battle, and also to the war department. In both instances 
he was as modest as we was laconic. To General Harrison he only 
said, "We have met the enemy, and they are ours. Two ships, 
two brigs, one schooner and one sloop." To the secretary of war 
he said little more, except to refer to the good providence of 
God. 

6. The commodore has been much censured for hazarding his 
life, in going from the Lawrence to the Niagara, in a small boat, in 
the midst of shot thick as hail. But we must remember that the 
Lawrence was useless ; that there was danger everywhere ; and 
that it was thought better to act, than to stand still and be shot down 
without an effort. 

7. Had he been killed in the attempt, and had the battle been lost, 
he would, no doubt, have been as much blamed by the world as he 
now has been commended. Honors are not always apportioned to 
true desert. The fortunate are very apt to be regarded as the truly 
brave, and the unfortunate, whatever may be their real merit, are 
often overlooked or forgotten. 



CHAPTER CLXVIII. 

Battle at the Moravian Towns. 

1. Though the Americans had now the command of Lake Erie, 
and the whole British coast below, as far down as Fort George, yet 
General Proctor was in possession of most of the forts and places 
above, which had been relinquished by Hull. But he was at length 
growing fearful of his opponents, and, as the result seems to have 
shown, not without good reason. 



Perry? What did Captain Barclay suppose? 4. Fate of the battle? Number of 
'mounded ? 5. What account did Commodore Perry give of the engagement ? 6. For 
what was he censured ? 7. What can you say of honors ? 
CLXVIII.— J . What possessions had the Americans and the British ? 2. Who had 



BATTLE AT THE MORAVIAN TOWNS. 



291 



2. Governor Shelby, of Kentucky, with four thousand militia, 
having joined the army, under General Harrison, it was thought 
best to make an attack on Detroit and the other posts in that neigh- 
borhood. With this view, the troops, on the 27th of September, 
went on board the American fleet, and the same day were landed at 
Maiden. 




Tecumseh. 



3. This place was on the British side, opposite Detroit, but rather 
below. Here they expected to rind troops and store-houses. To 
their surprise, however, the British had burnt the fort and all their 
stores, and made good their retreat into the interior, before their 
arrival. 

4. The next day, the army crossed the river, and, on the 29th, 
took possession of Detroit, without opposition. On the 2d of Octo- 
ber, Harrison and Shelby, with three thousand five hundred picked 
men, recrossed the river and pursued General Proctor. They 
found him encamped at the Moravian Towns, as they were called, 
on the river Thames, eighty-six miles northeastward of Detroit. 

5. Here, on the 5th of October, was fought a most severe battle. 
But the British force, though large, was not equal to ours, and the 
Indians did not persevere. Their chief, Tecumseh, having fallen, 
they fled. They were soon followed by General Proctor and about 
two hundred men ; and the rest of the army, with all their cannon, 
fell into the hands of the Americans. 

6. The British army lost, in killed, wounded and prisoners, about 
seven hundred men. About one hundred and twenty Indians were 
slain. The American loss, in killed and wounded, was fifty. Our 



joined the army ? What attack was meditated ? 3. What had the British done ? 

4. What was done without opposition 1 Where had General Proctor encamped ? 

5. Describe the battle. 6. What was the loss on both sides?- Describe the six cannon. 



292 



PROGRESS OF THE WAR IN CANADA, 



army took six brass cannon which Hull had surrendered, on two 
of which were inscribed the following words: "Surrendered by 
Burgoyne, at Saratoga." 

7. Tecumseh, the chief, who fell, was of the Shawanese tribe, 
and was a remarkable man. In early life, it is said, he was not dis- 
tinguished as a warrior, but was rather cowardly. At the age of 
twenty- five, he had not only retrieved his character, but had become 
the boldest of his tribe. 

8. He was brother to the Shawanese chief, called the Prophet, 
whose men General Harrison defeated in the battle of Tippecanoe : 
but, at the time of that conflict, he was absent. When the war of 
1812 commenced, he was made a brigadier general in the British 
army, and he continued to fight for his royal masters till his death. 

9. Tecumseh was distinguished through life for truth, temperance 
and chastity ; as well as for his disregard of all external marks of 
office or rank. When he was made a general, a sash was given him, 
but he returned it, with every manifestation of contempt. He was 
truly a savage ; he neither gave nor accepted any quarter in war ; 
though elsewhere he was generous, disinterested, hospitable and 
humane. 

10. He was greatly distinguished for his eloquence. His speeches, 
it is said, might bear a comparison with those of the most celebrated 
orators of Greece and Rome. He was about five feet and ten inches 
in height, and beautifully formed. Tecumseh was, in truth, a man 
of remarkable endowments, and, with the advantages of civilization, 
might have attained an enviable fame. 

CHAPTER CLXTX. 

Progress of the war in Canada. 

1. The war being ended in the northwest, General Harrison left 
General Cass at Detroit, with one thousand men, and repaired to 
Buffalo, to join General Wilkinson, who had, just before this time, 
succeeded in the chief command to General Dearborn. The great 
object of the army now was to take Kingston and Montreal. 

2. The army consisted of five thousand troops at Fort George, 
two thousand at Sacket's Harbor, and four thousand at Lake Cham- 
plain ; making, in all, eleven thousand men : in addition to which a 
considerable body was every day expected to .arrive under General 
Harrison. In addition to all this, the fleet, under Commodore Chaun- 
cey, held itself in readiness to cooperate with the army. 

3. The secretary of war, General Armstrong, arrived at Sacket's 
Harbor early in September. The plan of attacking Kingston was 



7. What was the character of Tecumseh? 8. What office did he hold in the British 
array? 9. How was Tecumseh distinguished? What of him in war? In peace? 
10. What of his eloquence ? His speeches ? Personal appearance ? 
CLXIX.— 1. What did General Harrison do? What was now the great object? 



WAR WITH THE CREEK INDIANS. 



given up, and the army was ordered to proceed at once to Montreal, 
chiefly by marching a distance of one hundred and eighty miles. 
They left Sacket's Harbor September 30. 

4. They were delayed, as they passed along, in various ways, 
especially by the attacks of small parties of the British on the 
Canada shore ; and, at Williamsburg, a severe contest ensued. 
General Boyd commanded in this battle, General Wilkinson being 
indisposed. Both parties may be said to have been beaten, for both 
retreated with great loss. 

5. Difficulties arose, about this time, among the American 
officers, especially between General Wilkinson and General Hamp- 
ton. The troops of General Harrison, moreover, from some cause 
or other, did not arrive. A council of war was held, at the request 
of General Wilkinson, at which it was decided to give up the expe- 
dition for that season, and go to winter quarters. 

6. The place selected for this purpose was called French Mills, 
a hundred miles or more from Sacket's Harbor and fifty or sixty 
from Plattsburg. Here they remained till February, when, two 
thousand of them having been detached and sent to the Niagara 
frontier, the remainder, after having destroyed their barracks, pro- 
ceeded to Plattsburg. 



CHAPTER CLXX. 

War with the Creek Indians. 

1. Scarcely had the northern army gone to winter quarters at 
French Mills, when the public mind became directed to a war which 
had broken out with the Creek Indians. The Creeks appear to 
have led the way in this strife by their seizure of Fort Mimms and 
the massacre of three hundred men and women, who had fled to it 
for safety. This sad event occurred August 30. 

2. News of this murder having been received; two thousand men 
from Tennessee, under the command of Major General Jackson, and 
five hundred under General Coffee, were ordered out against them. 
The Creeks were defeated at Tallushatches, Talladega, Autossee, t 
Emucfau, and several other places, though not without severe loss 
on the part of the Americans. 

3. Still they were by no means subdued. They erected a breast- 
work at a place called the Horse-Shoe Bend, on the Tallapoose 
river, and posted a hundred men there. Here they held out for 
some time. At last, it was determined to dislodge them. The 



2. Of what did the army consist ? 3. What of General Armstrong ? What was now 
done by the army ? 4. How were they delayed ? What was the result of the battle ? 
5. What was determined upon? 6. Where were their winter quarters? What division 
was made of the troops ? 

CLXX. — I. What outrages had the Creek Indians committed? What troops went 
against them? 2. Where were they defeated? 3. Where did they entrench them- 
25* 



294 



PROGRESS OF THE WAR. 



scattered forces of the country, with General Jackson at their head, 
were at length before their fort. 

4. The attack was made on the 27th of March, 1814. General 
Jackson assailed the fort, while General Coffee attacked a village 
near by, to drive the inhabitants to the fortifications. As soon as 
they were all fairly within them, General Jackson led his forces on, 
with fixed bayonets, to the breast-work, where they fought the 
Indians, for some time, through the port-holes. 

5. At length, however, the soldiers scaled the breast-work and 
pursued the w T ork of death within the fort. The contest here 
became terrible. The Indians who survived escaped, but not till 
the ground was covered with dead bodies. Three hundred women 
and children were taken prisoners. The number who perished did 
not fall much short of six hundred. 

6. Thus terminated the struggle. A treaty was made with the 
Creeks by General Jackson, on the 9th of August, by which they 
agreed to give up a portion of their territory to the whites, to pay the 
expenses of the war, to allow roads to be cut through their lands, to 
permit the free navigation of their rivers, and to take no more bribes 
of the British. 

7. The following is the speech of Weatherford, their leader, at 
the treaty. " I am in your power. Do with me what you please. 
I have done the white people all the harm I could. I have fought 
them, and fought them bravely. There was a time when I had a 
choice ; I have none now ; even hope is ended. Once I could ani- 
mate my warriors ; but I cannot animate the dead. They can no 
longer hear my voice ; their bones are at Tallushatches, Talladega, 
Emucfau and Tohopeka." 



CHAPTER CLXXI. 

Progress of the ivar. 

1. The proposal of the emperor of Russia, to mediate between 
the United States and Great Britain, had not been accepted by the 
latter, but it was proposed to negotiate without any foreign inter- 
ference. This proposal was at once approved by the government of 
the United States, and commissioners were appointed, on both sides, 
to meet at Gottenburg. The place of meeting, however, was after- 
wards changed to Ghent, in Flanders. 

2. They did not assemble till August, and, in the mean time, the 
war, which has been mentioned, with the Creeks, had been prose- 
cuted and many more battles fought by land and by sea. Congress 
had also held two sessions — the regular session of the winter and 



selves ? 4. Describe the attack by General Jackson. 5. Describe the fight within the 
fort. 6. What treaty was made with the Indians 1 7. Repeat the speech of the leader 
of the Creeks. 

CLXXI. — 1. What negotiation was proposed? Where were the commissioner'' to 



THE WAR ON THE OCEAN. 



295 



an extra session, which commenced in May, 1814, and continued to 
August. 

3. At these meetings of congress, provision had been made for 
raising men and money, and especially for strengthening the navy, 
securing our commerce, and regulating the revenue. The treasury 
was rather empty, and an expensive war could not be conducted, on 
a frontier thousands of miles in extent, and on the ocean too, with- 
out much money. 

4. Among the measures which had been adopted, in the winter 
of 1813-14, was the laying of an embargo. This, however, was 
repealed the next April. The extra session of 1814 was chiefly 
spent in devising means for replenishing the treasury ; for, though 
the offer of a bounty of one hundred and twenty-four dollars to every 
soldier who would enlist for five years, or during the war, had pro- 
cured men, yet these men must be paid. 

5. A system of internal or domestic taxation was at length 
resolved on, and laws were passed laying taxes on lands, houses, 
carriages, distilled liquors, refined sugars, retailers' licenses, &c. 
In addition to the five millions and a half of dollars, which it was 
expected would be raised in this way, it was decided to borrow 
seven millions and a half more. 

6 . One additional measure was adopted, which met with some oppo- 
sition on account of the expense. This was the construction of one 
or more steam batteries, to be employed in the defence of our ports, 
rather than in carrying on the war at sea. For this object, half a 
million of dollars was appropriated. 

7. It should not be forgotten that the party, in the United States, 
who had always been opposed to the war, continued their opposition. 
They even charged the government party with being influenced by 
an undue attachment to the French ; in proof of which they cited 
the fact that war was declared just at the time when the forces of 
Britain were most needed in Europe to repel the ambitious projects 
of Napoleon. 



CHAPTER CLXXIL 

The war on the ocean. 

1. The spring of 1814 opened with the loss of 'the United States' 
frigate Essex, of thirty- two guns, Commodore Porter, in the bay 
of Valparaiso, in Chili. The Essex had been cruising in the Pacific 
Ocean a long time, and had taken many prizes, and, though she had 
run into a neutral port, the British were determined not to spare 
her. 



meet ? 2. What of congress ? 3. What provision had been made ? What was the 
state of the treasury ? 4. How was the session of congress spent ? 5. What taxes 
were laid ? What money was to be borrowed ? 6. For what project was money raised ? 
7. What of the other party ? 



296 



DEFEAT OF GENERAL WILKINSON. 



2. She was attacked, on the 28th of March, by a force greatly 
superior to her own, consisting of the British frigate Phoebe, of 
thirty-six guns, and a sloop of war, by the name of Cherub, of 
eighteen guns. The contest was long and severe, and the loss of 
the Essex was very great, amounting to above one hundred and fifty 
in killed and wounded. Both vessels were much injured ; the 
Phoebe could hardly be kept from sinking immediately. 

3. On the 29th of April, the United States' sloop of war Pea- 
cock, commanded by Captain, now Commodore, Warrington, while 
off the coast of Florida, fell in with and captured the British brig 
Epervier, of eighteen guns. The battle lasted forty-five minutes. 
The British had eighteen killed and thirteen wounded ; the Ameri- 
cans had only two wounded. 

4. The United States' sloop Wasp, also of eighteen guns, took 
the British sloop of war Reindeer, of eighteen. The loss was con- 
siderable on both sides. The action lasted twenty-eight minutes. 
It was fought near the coast of Great Britain, and the Reindeer was 
destroyed to prevent a re-capture. 

5. But the Wasp had not yet completed her work. Besides 
making a number of prizes on the coast of Great Britain and 
France, she fell in with the British sloop Avon, on the 1st of Sep- 
tember, and, after a running fight of several hours, captured her. 
She was sent to America, but was lost on her passage. 

6. Important additions having been made, early this year, to the 
fleet on Lake Ontario, Commodore Chauncey was able to render 
very efficient aid to the army on the frontier, in its operations, and to 
watch the movements of the British forces, both on the land and on 
the lake. There was, however, no considerable action between the 
two fleets. 

7. The British had, for some time past, held the port of New 
London, in Connecticut, in a state of blockade, having chased two of 
our ships of war, the United States and the Macedonian, up the river. 
On the 11th of August, the British, under Commodore Hardy, pro- 
ceeded to bombard Stonington, but were gallantly repulsed with 
considerable loss. 



CHAPTER CLXXIII. 

Defeat of General Wilkinson. 

1. Early in the spring of 1814, a detachment of two thousand 
British soldiers had been ordered to post themselves near the river 
Sorel, to prevent General Wilkinson, who was still at Plattsburg, 



CLXXII.— 1. What ships were lost in 1814? 2. Describe the contest. 3. What 
passed between the Peacock and the Epervier ? 4. What other naval action was there 
on the coast of Great Britain ? 5. What prize was taken by the Wasp ? 6. What was 
done by Commodore Chauncey ? 7. What had the British done ? What of Commodore 
Hardy ? 

CLXXIII.— 1. Where was a British detachment posted ? 2. What did General 



THE WAR AT THE NORTHWEST. 



297 



from advancing on Canada. The spot which they fortified was 
within the British line3. 

2. When General Wilkinson heard of this movement, he marched, 
at the head of four thousand men, and, on the 31st of March, attacked 
their works. Finding their fortifications much stronger than he 
expected, he at length retreated ; but not till he had lost, in killed 
and wounded, about one hundred and forty men. 

3. General Wilkinson was tried, sometime afterward, for his con- 
duct on this and other occasions, by a couTt martial, which convened 
at Troy, in the state of New York. He was at length acquitted, 
though not till facts had been developed, in regard to his character, 
which are not easily or readily forgotten. 

4. One conspicuous fault in his character appears to have existed ; 
a fault of which many a brave man has been found guilty. In one 
action at the north, when he was unable to command, and pleaded 
illness as an excuse, it turned out he was at a house in the neighbor- 
hood, in a state of intoxication. 

5. Many a battle has been lost, not only in the wars of the United 
States, but elsewhere, because the chief officer in command was 
unnerved by liquor. But the worst of this evil of intemperate 
officers and soldiers is that they remain so when the war is over, 
and not only carry with them to the grave their bad habits, but 
spread them by their example. 

6. During the months of April, May and June, there was little 
fighting either on the sea-coast or the Canadian frontier. One 
reason for this, doubtless, was that Great Britain had about as 
much as she could do at home, or near home, in combatting 
Napoleon. 

7. But no sooner had Napoleon fallen, than the British were at 
liberty to pour their thousands in upon America. No less than 
fourteen thousand of the troops w T hich had fought under Welling- 
ton, were let loose upon our frontier through Canada. 



CHAPTER CLXXIV. 

The war at the northivest. 

1 . About the 1st of July, General Brown crossed the Niagara 
river, near Buffalo, and took possession of Fort Erie wdthout oppo- 
sition. Meanwhile, a large number of the British forces had 
advanced as far up the river as Chippewa, a few miles lower down 
than Fort Erie, where they were strongly entrenched, under Gene- 
ral Riall. 

2. The troops of General Brown were among the best in the 



Wilkinson do ? 3. For what was he tried ? 4. What great fault had he ? 5. What are 
some of the evil consequences of intemperance ? 6. How was Great Britain occupied ? 
7. What happened upon Napoleon's fall 1 
CLXXIV.—l, Where did General Brown got Where had the British entrenched 



298 



THE WAR AT THE NORTHWEST. 



American army, and amounted to about three thousand five hundred. 
The British army was nearly equal in point of numbers, and was 
equally well selected. On the 4th of July, General Brown advanced 
to Chippewa and made an attack on the enemy. 




General Brown, 



3. This battle at Chippewa was exceedingly obstinate and bloody. 
The Americans were, it is true, the victors, but they paid dearly 
for the victory. They lost more than three hundred men. The 
loss of the British exceeded five hundred. They were, moreover, 
obliged to quit the field, and retreat down the river to Burlington 
Heights. 

4. Here they were reinforced by General Drummond, who took 
the command, and led the army back towards the American camp. 
On the 25th of July, they met at Bridgewater, nearly opposite the 
falls of the Niagara, and one of the most obstinate battles took 
place which was ever fought in America. 

5. The contest lasted from four o'clock in the afternoon, until 
midnight, when the British retreated. As soon as they had 
departed, the Americans retired to their encampment, but not being 
able to remove the artillery they had taken from the enemy, the 
latter returned and seized it, and claimed the victory. 

6. Neither side, however, had much reason to be proud of the 
results of the day. The Americans, with only three thousand to 
four thousand men, had lost, in killed and wounded, eight hundred and 
sixty, and the British, with about five thousand men, eight hundred 
and seventy-eight. Besides, the principal generals on each side 
were among the wounded, and General Riall was taken prisoner. 



themselves? 2. What of the troops of General Brown? What of the British army 1 
General Brown? 3. Describe the battle. 4. What of the battle of Bridgewater? 



WASHINGTON BURNT. 



299 



7. The American forces were now greatly reduced, and, as there 
was no prospect of an immediate reinforcement, they retreated up 
the river to Fort Erie, where they made a stand. General Drum- 
mond followed them, and, on the 4th of August, commenced a 
siege. The fort was, at first, commanded by General Ripley, but 
subsequently by General Gaines. 

8. The siege continued to be prosecuted with great vigor. On 
the loth of August, a large British force advanced against the fort 
in three columns. They were, however, repulsed, with the loss of 
fifty-seven killed, three hundred and nineteen wounded, and five 
hundred and thirty-nine missing. All this while, the American 
forces did not exceed fifteen hundred efficient men. 

9. At length, General Izard arrived from Plattsburg with a rein- 
forcement of five thousand men. Just before his arrival, General 
Brown, who had recovered of his wounds and taken the command 
of the troops, ordered a body of his men to sally forth and attack 
the invaders. In this sortie, the British lost a thousand men ; the 
Americans comparatively few. 

10. The siege of the fort lasted forty-nine days, when the British 
retreated, and the Americans pursued them. A second battle was 
fought near Chippewa, on the 20th of October, in which the 
Americans were victorious, though the triumph was dearly bought. 



1. We have already seen that the downfall of Napoleon had been 
the means of bringing over to America a large force, to act both 
by sea and land, on the coast and the frontiers. It is thought that 
the whole number which came over, this season, could not have been 
less than thirty thousand. 

2. One portion of these troops was destined to the Chesapeake 
Bay. They arrived in a squadron of fifty or sixty sail, and, having 
entered the bay, proceeded slowly up the Potomac river. At a 
considerable distance below Washington, five thousand men, under 
General Ross, were put on shore, who marched, as rapidly- as 
circumstances permitted, towards the capital ; a part of the fleet 
following them. 

3. They met with little resistance till they came to Bladen sburg, 
six miles from Washington. Here General Winder had collected 
together a body of militia, and Commodore Barney of the navy had 
the command of a few cannon and about four hundred men. The 



5. Who won the battle? Which party claimed the victory ? 6. What wag the loss on 
each side ? 7. Where did the American forces go ? Who raised the siege ? Who com- 
manded the fori ? 8. Describe the attack. 9. What of General Izard ? What was done 
by General Brown 7 10. How long was the siege ? What of the battle of Chippewa I 
CLXXV.— 1. What has been seen ? 2. What was done by two different bodies of 



CHAPTER CLXXV. 




City of Washington burnt. 



300 



BATTLE NEAR BALTIMORE. 



latter behaved with great courage, but, being deserted by the militia, 
who fled at the first approach of the foe, they were soon obliged to 
surrender. 

4. The British proceeded to the capital. They reached it on 
the 23d of August, in the evening. The main body of the army, 
meeting with little resistance, halted a mile and a half out of the 
city. General Ross, with only seven hundred men, entered the place 
and burnt the capitol, the presidents house, the public offices, the 
arsenal, and the navy-yard. 

5. In burning the capitol, they destroyed its valuable library and 
furniture. Private property was respected but little more than 
public. One hotel, with several private buildings was destroyed. 
The bridge, west of the city, across the Potomac, was also burnt. 

6. The British boasted much of their success in taking the seat 
of government of the United States, and some of them seemed to 
think the whole country would be soon ready to submit to the 
British yoke. However, it was discovered that to conquer a single 
city is not to enslave a whole country. 

7. After the capture and destruction of Washington, the British 
re-embarked on board their fleet and returned down the river. On 
their way, however, they halted at Alexandria long enough to 
demand and receive the surrrender of the city. This took place 
August 29. 

CHAPTER CLXXVI. 

Battle near Baltimore. 

1. The British went as rapidly as possible from Washington to 
Baltimore. They reached the mouth of the Patapsco, fourteen 
miles below the city, on the 11th of September. The next day, 
six thousand men were landed from the fleet, at North Point, and, 
under the command of General Ross, they proceeded toward the 
city. 

2. But they found more opposition here than in the neighborhood 
of Washington. An army of three thousand two hundred men had 
been collected and placed under the command of General Strieker, to 
annoy the British and keep them in check as much as possible, in 
order, at least, to give more time for putting the forts and batteries, 
about the city, in a proper condition for defence. A severe battle 
was fought, and the Americans were obliged to retire with con- 
siderable loss. The killed and wounded amounted to one hun- 
dred and three, among whom were many of the first inhabitants of 
Baltimore. 



troops ? 3. Who were collected together at Bladensburg 1 What of the navy 1 4. What 
did the British then do ? What of General Ross ? 5. "What was burnt? 6. What was 
thought by the British % 7. What more was done by the British 7 
CLXXVI.— 1. To what place did the British now inarch ? 2. Who did they find there 



THE WAR ON LAKE CHAM PLAIN. 



301 



3. Next morning, the British advanced to the entrenchments, 
about two miles from the city. At the same time, an attack had 
been made on Fort William Henry from the fleet. Great numbers 
of bombs were thrown towards the fort for a whole day and night, 
but they produced very little effect. All this while, preparation was 
making in the city to give the enemy a warm reception if they 
should determine on an attack. 

4. After remaining before the city, at a somewhat respectful 
distance, till the evening of the 13th, they retired to their shipping, 
and abandoned the enterprise. They had lost, in the battle of the 
12th, their commander, General Ross, which doubtless had its effect 
in discouraging them from carrying out their plan. 

5. During these events, the enemy ravaged the coasts of the 
Chesapeake, which reflected little credit on the British character, 
and only served to exasperate the Americans, and to unite them in 
the attempt to repel a foe that paid so little regard either to the law 
of nations or to that of honor. 



CHAPTER CLXXVII. 



The War on Lake Champlain. 




1. The army of the United States, at the north, had been greatly 
reduced during the spring and summer of 1814 ; large portions having 



to oppose them % What of the battle ? 3. What fort was attacked ? 4. What did the 
British do on the 13th ? 5. What served to exasperate the Americans ? 
CLXXVII.- 1. What of the army of the United States? 2. What news was now 
26 



302 



THE WAR ON LAKE CHAMPLAIN. 



been ordered to other stations. On the 1st of September, the whole 
effective force at Plattsburg, the head quarters of the army, did not 
exceed fifteen hundred men. 

2. About this time, intelligence was received that the British, 
under General Prevost, the governor-general of Canada, with a 
force of fourteen thousand men, were on their way to Plattsburg. 
These forces, for the most part, were of a character calculated to 
intimidate — they were the conquerors of the conquerors of Europe. 

3. But, though the land forces of this division of our army were 
inconsiderable, the naval force had been raised during the war so as 
to be, at this time, quite respectable. It consisted of a brig, a ship, 
a schooner and a sloop, and ten gun-boats, mounting, in all, about 
ninety guns, and manned by eight hundred and fifty men ; the 
whole under the direction of Commodore Thomas McDonough. 

4. The British, too, had a navy, on the lake, equal, if not some- 
what superior to that of the United States. Of men, it contained 
at least two hundred more. One of the vessels was, moreover, 
equal, in force, to an ordinary frigate of thirty -two or thirty-six 
guns. 

5. General Prevost and his army arrived in the neighborhood of 
Plattsburg about the time expected, and General Macomb, the 
commander at that place, had ordered out a body of militia, and 
made every preparation which the nature of the case and the time 
admitted. The fleet was lying near, ready to aid him if necessary. 

6. While the two armies were thus before each other, the British 
fleet appeared in sight and gave battle to the American. The con- 
test was a fearful one, and lasted two hours and twenty minutes ; 
terminating in the surrender of the fleet to Commodore McDonough . 
A few of the smaller vessels only escaped. 

7. While the battle was going on by water, the British general 
began his attack on Plattsburg — pouring upon it a shower of bomb- 
shells, balls and rockets. The Americans answered them by a 
destructive fire from the fort. Before sunset, however, the attack 
ceased, and the British retreated, with the loss, in killed, wounded 
and missing, of about twenty-five hundred men. 

8. This was a most signally fortunate day to the Americans. 
The British were so completely defeated that they did not attempt 
to renew the war in that quarter. They hastened down the shore 
of the lake as fast as they could, not even taking with them their 
wounded or their military stores. 

9. The loss, in the engagement on the lake, was great on both 
sides, but greatest, by far, on the side of the British. They had 
eighty-fourldlled and one hundred and ten wounded ; the Americans 
had only fifty-two killed and fifty-four wounded. So, at least, it 
was reported. And yet it is stated by Cooper, in his Naval History, 
that nearly every soldier on board of the Saratoga, Commodore 
McDonough's vessel, was more or less injured. 



received ? 3. What was the size of the United States' navy ? Who was the com- 
mander? 4. What of the British navy? 5. What preparation was now made tor 
battle? 6. Describe the action between the two fleets. Which was victorious? 
7. What attack was made on land ? 6. What was the effect of this battle on the British ? 



CONVENTION AT HAKTFORD. 



303 



10. Commodore McDonough was twice supposed to be killed 
during the action. In the first instance, a broken boom was thrown 
against him with such violence as to leave him, for a few moments, 
senseless. A little while afterward, he was knocked down and 
besmeared with blood, by the head of one of the seamen, which 
had been shot off and thrown against him. 

11. However, he survived, and was not even reckoned among the 
wounded. It seems to have been agreed, beforehand, to call no 
person wounded as long as he could keep out of the sick room. 
One man, like the commodore, was knocked down by the head of a 
seaman, and yet returned to his post and said nothing, though he 
did not immediately recover from the shock. 

12. One venerable old sailor had his clothes actually stripped off, 
by a splinter, without breaking, or, so far as could be perceived, so 
much as injuring the skin. He tied his pocket handkerchief around 
him and went to work again , and continued at his post till the con- 
test was over ; though he died, a few months afterward, as it was 
thought of some internal injury. 

13. Another anecdote of the battle of Lake Champlain is com- 
monly reported and is doubtless true. Some hens, confined on 
board Commodore McDonough's vessel at the commencement of the 
battle, got loose during the tumult, upon which a cock, who was 
among them, flew to an elevated part of the vessel, and once or 
twice crowed. Not a few of the seamen regarded this as foretelling 
victory, and were encouraged by it to fight on, despite of the 
danger. 



CHAPTER CLXXVIII. 

Convention at Hartford. 

1. The refusal of three of the New England states to order out 
their miUtia, to be subject to other officers, at the opening of the 
war, has been mentioned. Demands were subsequently made, by 
the governors of the several states respectively, on the militia, to 
repel the attacks of the enemy, especially at Saybrook, New Lon- 
don, Stonington, Castine, &c. 

2. But the opposition to the war had been increasing, rather than 
(liminishing. In October, 1814, it was proposed by the Massachu- 
setts legislature to call a convention of delegates, from the several 
states of New England, to meet at some convenient place, and 
inquire what ought to be done. 

3. This convention met at Hartford, December 15. It consisted 
of delegates from Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island, 



9. What was the loss, on both sides, in the naval engagement ? 10. How did Commo- 
dore McDonough narrowly escape death? 11. What was the commodore's custom? 
12 What can you say of an old sailor? 13. Relate the anecdote of the cock. 
CLXXVIII.— 1. What had been demanded by the governors of some of the states ? 



304 



BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS. 



and a partial delegation from Vermont and New Hampshire. As 
a state, Vermont had refused to have any concern in the measure. 

4. These delegates, thus assembled in convention, proceeded to 
canvass, with much freedom, the motives and measures which had 
led to the war, and to set forth the evils which the country was 
suffering, in consequence of its continuance. They remained in 
session about three weeks. 

5. This convention was denounced by the friends of the adminis- 
tration in the severest terms. It was said to be not only impolitic, 
as giving encouragement to the enemy, but absolutely traitorous 
to the general government. It was branded, in every possible way, 
with odium ; and the Hartford Convention, to this day, is, with 
many, but a title of contempt. There are others, however, who 
maintain that it was a patriotic and useful measure. 

6. But, whatever may have been its general tendency, the con- 
vention broke up without, adopting any treasonable resolutions, or 
attempting any dangerous movements. A few amendments of the 
constitution of the United States were proposed ; such as, it was 
thought, would hereafter prevent a recurrence of the evils under 
which the country then groaned. 

7. These amendments of the constitution were proposed, in the 
usual form and manner, to the states, but were rejected. Mean- 
while, as we shall see presently, the war was brought to an end. 
Indeed, a treaty was actually signed, before the convention at Hart- 
ford broke up, but the news had not reached this country. 



CHAPTER CLXXIX. 

Battle of New Orleans. 

1. Several battles were fought by the two contending nations of 
Great Britain and America after a treaty of peace was signed, but 
before the news had reached this country. The most important of 
these, however, was at New Orleans on the 8th of January, 1815. 

2. A large British fleet had arrived on the coast, east of the 
Mississippi river, as early as December. This fleet had on board 
fifteen thousand troops, under the command of Sir Edward Packen- 
ham. General Jackson, who had so distinguished himself in the 
war with the Creek Indians, now had the command of the troops of 
the United States, in this quarter. 

3. As there was good reason to believe that the enemy were 
meditating a blow at New Orleans, General Jackson proceeded to 
fortify the place as fast and as strongly as the time and the circum- 



2. What was proposed in 1814 ? 3. Of what did the convention consist ? 4. What was 
done by the delegates ? 5. How was this convention considered ? 6. What was pro- 
posed by the delegates ? 7. Were these amendments accepted ? What treaty was 

signed ? 

CLXXIX.— 2. What of the British fleet? Who commanded the United States' 



BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS. 



305 



stances would permit. Batteries were extended from the river, 
eastward, in such a manner as to form a strong line of defence, 
fronted by a deep ditch. 



4. The enemy came to the attack in solid columns, to the num- 
ber of twelve thousand ; they were well-tried and thoroughly dis- 
ciplined troops. The forces under General Jackson scarcely 
amounted to half their number, and were chiefly militia. They 
were not, however, all of them raw troops. A part of them had 
seen fighting before. 

5. No opposition was made to the British till they came fairly 
within reach of the American batteries, when some twenty-five or 
thirty cannon began the work of death at once. The British, how- 
ever, continued to advance till they came within reach of the mus- 
kets and rifles, when their destruction became so great that their 
progress was slow. 

6. From the nature of the ground, the British seemed obliged to 
advance in solid columns ; but this made the destruction only so 
much the more dreadful. The cannon of the Americans were mow- 
ing down whole rows of them at every discharge. Unable to stand 
the shock, they at last began to fly. 

7. But the officers rallied them again and led them on as far as 
the very entrenchments of the Americans, where they found a ditch 
with five feet of water and a steep and slippery bank beyond it. At 
the moment of this desperate approach, the two principal British 
generals, Packenham and Gibbs, were killed, and their third, 
General Kean, was winded. 

8. Finding it impossible to scale the batteries of the Americans, 



troops ? 3. What was done by General Jackson ? 4. What forces were opposed to each 
other ? 5. Describe the attack. 6. How were the British cut down 1 7. Describe the 

t W 26* 




Battle of New Orleans. 



306 



CLOSING EVENTS OF THE WAR. 



and unable to stand the shower of liquid death which was poured 
upon them, they retreated down the river. They did not embark 
immediately on board their shipping, but they made no more attempts 
against New Orleans. 

9. The results of this battle were as singular as dreadful. No 
less than seven hundred men, out of the five thousand who were 
near enough to the batteries to be actually engaged, slept the sleep 
of death, and fourteen hundred were wounded. Five hundred more 
were prisoners. Yet all this destruction was effected with the loss, 
on our part, of only seven men killed and six wounded. 



CHAPTER CLXXX. 

Closing events of the ivar. 

1. Our little navy continued its operations, as well as the army on 
shore, ignorant, of course, of what had been done at Ghent. Many 
prizes were taken, and not a few somewhat severe battles fought 
after the commencement of the year 1815. Among the last men- 
tioned were the following. 

2. The British ship Levant, of eighteen guns, and the frigate 
Cyane, of thirty-four, were taken by the American frigate Constitu- 
tion, while on a cruise, in the Mediterranean Sea, about the 20th of 
February. The battle lasted, with some intermission, three hours 
and a half, but was not very severe. 

3. Again, on the 23d of March, the Hornet, of the United States, 
commanded by Captain Bid die, fell in with and took the British brig 
Penguin, of eighteen guns. The battle lasted about twenty-two 
minutes, and was warmly contested — the forces of the two vessels 
being nearly equal. 

4. There was an event of an adverse nature occurred about the 
beginning of this year. The United States' frigate President, com- 
manded by Commodore Decatur, in attempting to put to sea, from 
New York, was pursued by the Endymion, a frigate of forty guns, 
and a battle ensued, during which other vessels came to the aid of 
the Endymion, and the President was captured. 

5. But the war was now over. The treaty signed at Ghent had 
been ratified by the United States on the 17th of February. By 
certain provisions of the treaty, with regard to captures which should 
be made after it was ratified, the President was a lawful prize to the 
British as much as if she had been taken earlier ; and the Cyane and 
Levant also belonged to the United States. 

6. The return of peace, in the United States, was hailed with 



attack after the rally. "What generals were killed ? 9. What waa the loss of the 
British in this battle? 

CLXXX.— 1. What was done by the navy ? 2. What ships were taken by the Con- 
stitution ? 3. Describe the engagement of March 23. 4. Describe the capture of the 
President. 5. What of the treaty signed at Ghent 7 6. How was the return of peace 



DIFFICULTIES WITH ALGIERS. 307 

great joy by both political parties. Much as people love war, they 
become at length tired of it ; even when it happens, as in the present 
instance, that they do not appear to have gained the ends for which 
they fight. If the soldiers were not glad to exchange the sword for 
the ploughshare, the nation at least were glad to have them 
do it. 

7. One sad story connected with the war, which was just now 
brought to a close, remains to be mentioned. It is the story of the 
massacre of American prisoners, which took place at Dartmoor, in 
Devonshire, England, April 6, 1815. The war was, of course, 
over, and known to be over, at this time, but the prisoners had not all 
been exchanged. 

8. These prisoners at Dartmoor were fired upon by the guard 
of the prison, at the order of the agent. Seven of them were killed 
and sixty more or less wounded. The British did not defend the 
act ; it was an outbreak of conduct that could not be justified. On 
the contrary, much sympathy was expressed, even by the monarch 
on the throne, for the widows and families of the sufferers. 

9. Peace was not only thus established, but it was this very year 
that the Massachusetts Peace Society was formed. This institution, 
by itself, its numerous auxiliaries and its periodicals, has done much, 
both in this country and in Europe, to sow the seeds of a far differ- 
ent spirit from that which has long prevailed even in the far greater 
part of the Christian world. 



CHAPTER CLXXXI. 

Difficulties ivith Algiers. 

1. The difficulties between the United States and Algiers had 
proceeded to such an extent, that, in 1812, the American consul was 
suddenly ordered by the Dey to leave the capital. The immediate 
excuse for a command so unexpected and so singular, was that a 
cargo of naval and military stores, which our government had sent 
them, were not satisfactory. 

2. Whether the stores w T ere really such as the Dey pretended, or 
whether he made them the pretext for commencing anew his system 
of piracy, is uncertain. One thing is, indeed, well known, which 
is that depredations were immediately commenced, and that our 
vessels were not only plundered, but several of them captured and 
condemned, and their crews sold into slavery. 

3. During the session of congress, which commenced in Decem- 
ber, 1814, the president, in a message, suggested the importance of 
taking measures to prevent further piracy on our vessels. The sub- 



received ? 7, 8. Describe the fate of the prisoners at Dartmoor. 9. When was the 
peace society formed ? 

CLXXXI.— 1. What reason was given for sending away the consul from Algiers? 
2. What was now done? 3. What was done by congress? When was war declared 



308 



DIFFICULTIES WITH ALGIERS. 



ject was agitated in congress ; and at length, some time in March, 
they declared war against the Dey. 



4. Soon after this, an American squadron, under the gallant 
Decatur, sailed for the Mediterranean, to make a descent upon the 
Algerenes. On the 18th of June, 1815, they captured a frigate of 
forty-four guns and six hundred men, and a brig. The victorious 
squadron then sailed for Algiers, to humble the Dey, if possible, still 
farther. 

5. Such was the terror inspired by the American arms, that it was 
not difficult to procure a treaty on our own terms. The Dey not 
only agreed to give up the property and men he had taken from us, 
and exempt us from tribute in time to come, but actually to pay 
six million dollars for previous damages. This treaty was signed 
July 4. 

6. In the treaty of peace, made with Great Britain, one highly 
important subject had been left unfinished — the principles upon 
which the commercial intercourse of the two nations should be based. 
A meeting of plenipotentiaries, from the two countries, was there- 
fore held at London, in the summer of 1815, who, on the 3d of July, 
entered into an agreement on this subject. 

7. This agreement, though it was made to be binding for four 
years only, and was therefore to be considered only in the light of 
an experiment, did not satisfy the American people. It was feared 
it would interfere, in some of its provisions, with the commerce of 
the country, already greatly crippled by war and embargoes. This 
fear, however, appears to have been unfounded. 



against the Dey ? 4. What was done by an American squadron ? 5. What did the 
Dey agree to do ? 6. What agreement was made, in 1815, between Great Britain and 

America? 7. Did it satisfy the people? 




Decatur. 



STATE OF INDIANA. 



309 



CHAPTER CLXXXII. 

State of Indiana. 

1 . The two principal events belonging to the history of the United 
States, for the year 1816, were the establishment of the second Bank 
of the United States, and the admission of Indiana to the Union, as 
the nineteenth of its pillars. 

2. The bill for the incorporation of a bank passed April 10th. 
Its capital was thirty-five million dollars ; of which seven million 
dollars were to be subscribed by the United States, and twenty-eight 
million dollars by individuals. Its affairs were to be managed by 
twenty-five directors, five of whom were to be appointed by the 
president and senate, and twenty elected by the stockholders. The 
charter was limited to twenty years. 

3. With regard to the history of Indiana, little can be said, except 
that it had been, for a long time prior to its settlement, the residence 
of various Indian tribes, and the theatre of Indian wars. It was 
here that the Shawanese resided, and that the bloody affray of 
Tippecanoe took place. 

4. How early the first white settlement was made, which is fairly 
within the limits of Indiana, cannot now be determined. It was a 
part of the great territory claimed by the French and traversed by 
their traders. It is quite certain that Vincennes, if not some other 
posts, was settled at least one hundred and fifty years ago. 

5. At the peace of 1763, Indiana, with the rest of the great north- 
western territory, was given up by France to England. Still it was 
claimed by the Indians, but, by the various treaties made with them 
from time to time, extensive tracts were obtained for settlement. 
But the Indian title to many parts of the state was retained till the 
year 1812, and even longer. 

6. It was erected into a territorial government in 1809. In 
December, 1815, its inhabitants being found to amount to sixty 
thousand, a petition was sent to congress to be made a separate 
state, which was granted, as we have already seen. A constitution 
for the state was formed in the following December. 



CLXXXII— 1. What events took place in the year 1816? 2. What arrangements 
were made for a bank ? 3. What is the history of Indiana ? 4. What of the settle- 
ments there ? 5. What of Indiana at the peace of 1763? In 1812 ? 6. Relate its far- 
ther history. 



310 



PRESIDENT MONROE. 



CHAPTER CLXXXIII. 

President Monroe, 




L The year 1817 is chiefly distinguished, in the history of the 
United States, as the beginning of Monroe's administration, and for 
the admission of Mississippi to be the twentieth pillar of the Ameri- 
can Union. 

2. Mr. Monroe was a very different man from Mr. Madison, his 
predecessor in office. The latter was a man of great learning, as 
well as of high talents as a statesman. He was a very active mem- 
ber of the Continental Congress, and it is to him we are indebted, 
more than any other man, for the adoption of the constitution under 
which we live. Yet Mr. Madison was no warrior. 

3. Mr. Monroe, on the contrary, though he entered upon his 
administration in a time of peace and comparative prosperity, had 
been a soldier. He was engaged in the revolutionary war from the 
year 1776 to its close; and, though he held no other commission 
than that of a captain of infantry, was in a number of severe battles, 
and, at that of Trenton, was wounded. Yet he was a statesman, too, 
as well as a warrior. 

4. He came into office March 4, 1817. Daniel D. Tompkins 
was, at the same time, elected vice-president. Though the pros- 
perity of the country was returning, yet it takes a long time for a 
nation to recover from a war, even in its commercial and financial 



CLXXXIII. — 1. For what is the vear 1817 distinguished ? 2. What was the character 
of Mr. Madison? 3. Of Mr. Monroe? 4. Who was vice-president? What were the 



WAR WITH THE SEMINOLE INDIANS. 



311 



concerns. Manufactures were broken down, agriculture was far 
from being as flourishing as it had been, and there was a great 
scarcity of money, especially of specie. 

5. During the summer and autumn of this year, Mr. Monroe 
made a tour through the northern and eastern states, to observe the 
condition of the fortifications along the sea-coast, as well as to make 
himself acquainted with the state of the country in other respects. 
A similar tour was made, two years afterward, through the southern 
and western states, and another still later about the shores of the 
Chesapeake Bay. 

6. Mississippi was admitted to the Union on the 11th of Decem- 
ber, 1817. This state was only the part of the great territory, south 
of Tennessee and west of Georgia and contiguous to the Mississippi 
river, which had hitherto gone by the general name of the Mis- 
sissippi Territory, and which, in 1800, had been incorporated by the 
government. 

7. The early history of this country has been mentioned, in giving 
a brief account of the travels of Ferdinando de Soto and La Salle. 
Tt suffered greatly during the wars of the Natchez Indians. The 
Choctaws for a long time retained and occupied the northern part 
of this state, and were in a good measure civilized. 

8. There was also some trouble, this year, respecting Amelia 
Island, which was a Spanish possession, and had become the resort 
of a set of outlaws. The United States, though at peace with Spain, 
at length determined to take possession of it. This was done by a 
naval force, sent out for the purpose, and without bloodshed. 



1 

CHAPTER CLXXXIV. 

War with the Seminole Indians. 

1. Between the United States and Florida, or rather partly 
within the limits of both, there was a tribe of Indians called Semi- 
noles. The nation also included, at this time, many of the Creek 
Indians, who, dissatisfied with the treaty their brethren had made 
with the United States, in August, 1813, had fled to the Semi- 
noles. 

2. They also had among them another set of runaways, much 
worse than the vagabond Creeks. These were white traders 
from various nations, who, for the most part, dissatisfied with the 
slow, honest earnings of home, had come hither to gain money 
by trading with, and often by taking advantage of, the Indians. 

3. The Seminoles becoming, by some means, excited to hostile 
feelings against their white neighbors, and, being also urged on by 



consequences of the war in the United States? 5. What tour was made by Mr. 
Monroe, and for what purpose ? 6. What can you say of Mississippi ? 7. What of its 
early history ? How was it troubled ? S. What of Amelia Island ? 
CLXXXIV.— 1. What of the Seminoles? Why had the Creeks joined them? 



312 



WAR WITH THE SEMINOLE INDIAN'S. 



the Greeks among them, began, about the close of the year 1817, to 
commit outrages, after the usual Indian fashion, upon the families 
on or near their borders. 

4. Upon hearing of these outrages, the secretary of war ordered 
General Jackson and General Gaines, with eight hundred regular 
troops and one thousand militia, to proceed against them, and to call 
upon the governors of the several adjacent states for more men, if 
necessary. General Jackson, however, addressed a circular to the 
patriots, as he called them, of West Tennessee, one thousand of 
whom immediately joined him. 

5. The war was immediately and vigorously prosecuted, but in a 
way somewhat peculiar. St. Marks, a Spanish post, was first 
seized, and afterward Pensacola, the capital of West Florida. 
These places were taken because they favored, or were supposed to 
favor, the cause of the Indians. There was very little resistance on 
the part of the Spanish authorities. 

6. The taking and occupying of these places, with some little 
skirmishing elsewhere, occupied the time till late in the spring of 
1818, when General Jackson announced that the 'Seminole war was 
closed, and he returned to Nashville. General Jackson was much 
censured for the manner of his proceeding in this war, notwithstand- 
ing his success. His appeal to the Tennesseans, and his seizing and 
occupying St. Marks and Pensacola, were deemed exceedingly ob- 
jectionable. His conduct was even brought before congress, and by 
the senate partially condemned. 

7. Illinois was admitted to the Union in 1818. Its early history 
has been sufficiently given in connection with the travels of La Salle. 
It was a part of Indiana till 1809, when it became a separate terri- 
tory, in which condition it remained till it was received into the con- 
federacy. 

8. A treaty of peace, friendship, liberty of commerce, equalization 
of duties, &c, was concluded at Stockholm, in May of this year, 
by Mr. Russel, the United States' minister at the court of Sweden, 
and signed by the respective governments during the summer and 
autumn of the same year. 



CHAPTER CLXXXV. 

State of Alabama. 

1. A treaty of trade and commerce was made, early in the year 
1819, between the United States and Great Britain ; m which, how- 
ever, nothing seems to have been said about the old question of 



2. What of the white traders ? 3. What did the Seminoles now begin to do ? 4. What 
was ordered by the secretary of war ? What did General Jackson do ? 5. How was the 
war begun 1 6. What was done by Jackson in 1818 7 Why was he censured ? 7. What 
of Illinois ? When did it become a separate territory 1 8. "What treaty wa6 concluded 
at Stockholm ? 



STATES OF MAINE AND MISSOURI. 



313 



impressment. A treaty with Spain was also made, settling the 
boundary between this country and Mexico. At the same time, the 
United States became bound to pay the Spanish government five 
million dollars, on account of injuries and losses which they had sus- 
tained from us. 

2. On the 2d of March of this year, Alabama was admitted to the 
Union. This was the twenty-second member of the confederacy. 
Arkansaw was made a territorial government the same year, but 
was not formed into a state till nearly twenty years afterward. 

3. Alabama, with its deep, rich soil, and, in many places, health- 
ful and happy climate, remained, till after the revolutionary war, a 
mere hunting-ground of the savages. From the peace of 1783, till 
1802, this territory was claimed by Georgia ; and the lands were 
sold to settlers and speculators accordingly. 

4. Among other sales was one of twenty-five million of acres for 
five hundred thousand dollars ; and the money was received and put 
in the treasury. But, at a subsequent meeting of the legislature, 
the validity of the sale was called in question ; and, finally, the 
records respecting it were ordered to be burnt, and the money 
restored to the purchasers. 

5. In the year 1802, the state of Georgia ceded all her western 
territory to the United States for twelve hundred and fifty thousand 
dollars. This and the act by which the records were destroyed, 
occasioned law suits, which cost the parties great trouble and much 
money. In 1800, as we have seen elsewhere, the present state of 
Alabama became a part of the Mississippi Territory, — from which it 
was separated when Mississippi became a state. 



CHAPTER CLXXXVI. 

States of Maine and Missouri. 

1. In the year 1638 — the same year in which New Haven was 
settled — Ferdinando Gorges obtained a charter from the king, of all 
the lands from the borders of New Hampshire, on the southwest, to 
Sagadahoc, on Kennebec river, on the northeast, under the name 
of the Province of Maine. It remained a separate province till the 
year 1652, when it became a part of Massachusetts. 

2. The history of the settlement of this province has been alluded 
to in connection with the history of the colony of Massachusetts. 
Various attempts were made, during the progress of the eighteenth 
century, to form it into an independent state, but none of them suc- 
ceeded. 



CLXXXV.— 1. What treaties were made in the year 1819? What were the United 
States bound to pay ? 2. What can you say of Alabama and Arkansaw ? 3. How was 
Alabama occupied ? What was done in 1802 1 4. What took place respecting one of 
t he sales 1 5. What was done by Georgia in 1802? What of Alabama in 1800 1 

CLXXXVI.— 1. Describe the settlement of Maine. 2. What was done in the 18th 
27 



314 



STATES OF MAINE AND MISSOURI. 



3. The most important of these attempts was made in 1785. A 
convention met, for the purpose, at Portland. The next year, the 
question of a separation was submitted to the people, in their town 
meetings, on which it appeared that a majority of the freemen were 
opposed to the measure. A similar attempt was made in 1802, and 
with similar results. 

4. In 1819, a large majority were found to be in favor of a sepa- 
ration. A convention was called, and a constitution prepared and 
adopted, and, in 1820, Maine became the twenty-third pillar of the 
American Union. At present, Maine has half a million, or more, of 
inhabitants, and is not only large and populous, but flourishing. 

5. Toward the end of the year 1820, when congress had come 
together, the question was brought before them whether Missouri 
should be admitted to the Union. The discussion of the question 
involved another inquiry — that of the extension of slavery — and 
occupied much of the session. Provision was. however, at length 
made for its admission upon certain conditions ; and these having 
been complied with, Missouri, in xVugust, 1821, became the twenty- 
fourth state. 

6. This state, together with all the territory belonging to the 
United States west of the Mississippi river, was included in the pur- 
chase of Louisiana from the French, in the year 1803. Louisiana 
was afterwards divided into the " Territory of Orleans/' or Louisi- 
ana proper, and the Territory of Missouri. 

7. In 1819, Missouri was divided into Arkansas, in the south, and 
Missouri, in the north ; and a portion of the northern or Missouri 
division made application to congress to form a state constitution. 
Since its admission, in 1821. its progress, in population and improve- 
ment, has been exceedingly rapid. 

8. This state has been little disturbed by civil or internal divisions, 
or by Indian wars. The worst trouble which has befallen it has 
arisen from the appearance of a new sect there, in the year 1838, 
called the Mormons, and from the attempts to crush their irregu- 
larities. 

9. This singular people, believing themselves ill-treated, had 
assembled, to the number of seven hundred, under their leaders, in a 
remote part of the state, when a body of three thousand troops were 
marched against them, and captured them and four thousand others. 
The whole sect was at length reduced to submission. 



century ?- 3. What attempts were made to make Maine an independent state ? 4. What 
was done in 1819 ? What of Maine at this time? 5. What discussion was had about 
Missouri ? When did it become a state? 6. What state was included in the purchase 
of Louisiana ? How was Louisiana afterwards divided ? 7. How was Missouri divided ? 
What of it since 1821 ? 8. How has the state been disturbed 1 9. Describe the con- 
duct of the Mormons. 



TERRITORY OF FLORIDA. 



315 



CHAPTER CLXXXVIL 

Territory of Florida. 

1. During the session of congress which closed in the spring of 
1823, a territorial government was established for Florida ; and 
William Duvall, of Kentucky, appointed by the president, with the 
concurrence of the senate, to be the governor. 

2. The unsuccessful attempt of Ponce de Leon to settle this 
country has been mentioned in its place. The first permanent settle- 
ment here was made on the river May, in 1664. Even this came 
near being broken up by starvation the next year. The settlers had 
been at war with the natives — had lost many of their number ; and 
those who were alive had been obliged to live on acorns and roots. 

3. Spain held the possession of Florida from the time of its dis- _ 
covery till 1763, when it was ceded to Great Britain. In 1781, 
West Florida again fell into the hands of the Spanish ; and, in a 
treaty made in 1783, both provinces were given up to Spain, in 
whose hands they remained, with the temporary interruption occa- 
sioned by the movements of General Jackson, till 1819. 

4. In the progress of the year 1819, a transfer of the whole prov- 
ince was made, by treaty, to the United States. This treaty, after 
much delay, was finally ratified by Spain, and still more tardily 
by the United States. This act, on the part of the United States, 
took place in February, 1821 ; and possession was given in the fol- 
lowing July. 

5. This territory, at the census in 1840, contained fifty-four 
thousand four hundred and seventy-seven inhabitants, and will 
shortly become a state. Tallahassee, the seat of government, con- 
tained, in 1842, about two thousand inhabitants; and is, probably, 
the largest town in the territory, except St. Augustine, which is 
about one fourth larger. 

6. Slight changes were made, during the session of congress for 
1822-3, with regard to the representation of the several states. At 
first only one representative had been sent for every thirty thousand 
inhabitants ; the fractions, in each state, going for nothing. The 
constitution had not indeed limited the representation to this number, 
but had only said that no more than one representative should be 
sent for each thirty thousand people. 

7. After the first census, it was fixed at one representative to 
every thirty- three thousand. The same apportionment continued 
under the second census, but at the third it was made one in thirty- 
five thousand. In 1822-3, it w T as fixed, for the next ten years, at 



CLXXXVIL— 1. What was done by congress for Florida? 2. Who formerly attempted 
to settle the country ? What of the first permanent settlement ? 3. What possessions 
had Spain? 4. What was done in 1819? What took place in 132i ? 5. What was the 
population of Florida in - f&40 ? What of Tallahassee ? St. Augustine ? 6. What 
changes were made in the representation of the states ? What of the constitution ? 
7. How was the representation arranged formerly ? How is it at present? 



316 



LA FAYETTE IN THE UNITED STATES. 



forty thousand. The proportion after the census of 1830, was one 
in forty-seven thousand seven hundred. The proportion at present 
is one for seventy thousand six hundred and eighty. 



CHAPTER CLXXXVIII. 



La Fayette in the United States. 




1. La Fayette, having received an invitation from congress, 
arrived at New York, August 13, 1824, and proceeded to the resi- 
dence of Vice-President Tompkins, on Staten Island. He was soon 
after escorted to New York by a splendid array of steamboats, 
decorated by the flags of almost every nation in the world, and bear- 
ing thousands of citizens. 

2. After remaining a few days in New York, he went to Boston, 
where he met with the same cordial and joyful reception. He soon 
after returned to New York, and visited Albany and the other towns 
on the Hudson, after which he proceeded to Virginia, but returned 
to Washington during the sitting of the next congress. 

3. The next spring, after having passed through the southern 
and western states, he again went to Boston. There, on the 17th 
of June, two days after he arrived, he attended the fiftieth anni- 
versary of the battle of Bunker Hill ; at which time, besides many 
demonstrations of public joy, the corner-stone was laid of a monu- 
ment. This monument was not finished, however, till 184*2. 

4. The excursions of La Fayette in this country occupied, in all, 
a — < 

CLXXXVIII.— 1. Describe La Fayette's reception in the United States. 2. What 
cities did he visit ? 3. What took place at Boston during his stay 1 4. What of the 



DIFFICULTIES WITH GEORGIA. 



317 



about a year. In this time, he visited every one of the twenty-four 
states. He was everywhere received as a father to the country, and 
his presence hailed with unmingled joy. The 7th of September was 
the day appointed for his departure ; and the frigate Brandywine 
was appointed to convey him to his native country. 

5. The parting scene was one of the most affecting which was 
ever witnessed in this country. He was to sail from Washington. 
All business was suspended on that day, and all the officers of 
government, from the president downward, assembled to bid him 
farewell. He was attended to the vessel by the whole population of 
Washington. 

6. In passing Mount Vernon, he landed to pay a farewell visit to 
the tomb of Washington, but immediately re- embarked, and, by a 
prosperous voyage, was soon once more in his native country. While 
here, congress gave him two hundred thousand dollars and a town- 
ship of land, as a partial compensation for his services during the 
revolutionary struggle. 

7. Nothing could have been more gratifying to the people of the 
United States than this visit of the illustrious stranger, whom, next 
to Washington, they delighted to honor. 



CHAPTER CLXXXIX. 

Difficulties with Georgia. 

1. On the 9th of February, 1825, John Q. Adams was chosen 
president of the United States, and John C. Calhoun, of South 
Carolina, vice-president. In the case of Mr. Adams, there was no 
election by the people. The choice, therefore, devolved, as at the 
first election of Jefferson, on the representatives. 

2. About the time Mr. Adams' administration began, a contro- 
versy arose between Georgia and the national government, which 
continued for some time. It had relation to certain lands, within the 
state of Georgia, held by the Creek Indians, which Georgia claimed 
as belonging to herself. 

3. This controversy grew out of an agreement between the gen- 
eral government and Georgia, in 1802. In 1825, the Creeks became 
excited, and a war seemed inevitable. 

4. After a long negotiation at Washington, and much effort on 
the part of the president and both houses of congress, the matter 
was finally settled without a resort to arms, but not to the entire 
satisfaction of Georgia. This state long retained unpleasant feelings 
against the president and his friends, though no man could deserve 
higher praise for his conduct during the whole affair than he did. 



visit of La Fayette? 5. Dfscribe the parting scene. 6. What tribute did he pay to 
the memory of Washington? What did congress present him with? 7. How did the 
people of the United States esteem La Fayette ? 
CLXXXIX.— 1. When was John Quincy Adams elected president? Who was vice* 



318 



DEATH OF ADAMS AND JEFFERSON. 



5. This year, 1825, was remarkabte for a spirit of speculation, 
which prevailed in England and this country, especially in regard to 
cotton. The price of this article rose from sixpence to sixteen pence 
sterling, in the course of a few weeks. Many kinds of West India 
goods also advanced with similar rapidity. 



6. The price soon receded, and extensive bankruptcies were the 
immediate consequence. The fictitious wealth, which the higli prices 
of goods had created, suddenly disappeared, and involved thousands 
and tens of thousands in distress, and not a few in utter pecuniary 
ruin. 



1. The most remarkable event of the year 1826 was the death of 
the two ex- presidents, on the 4th of July, and within a very few 
hours of each other. They had long been ill ; but it was hardly to 
be expected that they would both terminate their existence on this 
particular day. 

2. Jefferson, like Washington, Madison, Monroe, and even Harri- 



president? How was Adams chosen? 2, 3. What controversy arose with Georgia? 
When did the Creeks become excited? 4. How was the difficulty finally adjusted? 
5. For what was the year 1825 remarkable ? What articles rose in value ? 6. What 
was the consequence of these speculations? 
CXC— 1. When did Adams and Jefferson die ? 2. Where was the latter born? At 




John Qumcy Adams. 



CHAPTER CXC. 



Death of Adams and Jefferson. 



DEATH OF ADAMS AND JEFFERSON. 



319 



son, was a native of Virginia. He was born in the year 1743 ; and, 
of course, was eighty-three years old when he died. He w r as bred a 
lawyer, and his life was one of great activity, though he was much 
less a warrior, or a civilian, than a statesman. 

3. When the time came for preparing a declaration of indepen- 
dence, Jefferson was chairman of the committee of five, appointed 
for this purpose. He drew the instrument with his own hand ; nor 
was it very materially altered by congress. 

4. Besides being a member of congress for many years, he was 
many years abroad as minister to France and Great Britain. After 
the close of his second term as president, he retired to Monticello, 
in Virginia, where he spent the remainder of his days, chiefly 
employed in study. 

5. Adams was a native of Quincy, near Boston, but was eight 
years older than Jefferson. He, too, was bred a lawyer, but, like 
Jefferson, did not long practise his profession. The war of the revo- 
lution soon called him into such scenes of bustling activity as gave 
him little time for legal practice. 

6. He w r as early a member of the colonial congresses, and among 
the first to resist the high-handed measures of Great Britain. He 
nominated Washington as the commander-in-chief of the army. He 
was second on the committee, already alluded to, appointed to draft 
a declaration of independence; and, like Jefferson, was one of the 
first to sign it. 

7. In regard to his character, the best eulogium has been given 
by Jefferson. He always said that " the great pillar of support to the 
Declaration of Independence, and its ablest advocate and champion 
on the floor of the house, was John Adams and no man knew him 
better than Jefferson. 

8. Though feeble at the arrival of the fiftieth anniversary of inde- 
pendence, he had expressed, like Jefferson, a strong desire to live to 
see that day, though he hardly expected it. But he knew enough, 
on the fourth, to know it had arrived ; and said, " It is a great and 
glorious day." His last words were, " Jefferson survives." 

9. Madison and Monroe lived several years longer. Monroe died 
at New York, July 4, 1831, aged seventy-three; this making the 
third president who had died on the anniversary of our independence. 
Madison died June 28, 1837, aged eighty-six years. The rest of 
the presidents, except Harrison, still survive, (1843.) The death 
of the latter will be mentioned in another place. 



what age did he die ? What can you say of him ? 3. What great paper did he draw 
up ? 4. To what countries was Jefferson minister ? How did he pass his time after he 
retired from the presidency ? 5. To what profession was Adams bred 1 To what scenes 
was he called from the bar? 6. How was he early distinguished? 7. Give his charac- 
ter by Jefferson. 8. Describe the last day of his life. 9. What of Madison and Monroe ? 



320 



PRESIDENT JACKSON. — NULLIFICATION . 



CHAPTER CXCI. 

President Jackson. — Nullification . 




General Jackson. 



1. Few events worthy of note occurred in the year 1827. During 
the session of congress, which commenced December 4th of that 
year, a bill was passed for the revision of the tariff of the United 
States ; but it did not give universal satisfaction. Some thought it 
encouraged domestic manufactures, &c, too much ; others, too 
little. 

2. The year 1828 was distinguished for party strife in the elec- 
tion of a president. The two opposing candidates were Adams, the 
incumbent, and General Jackson. The result of the contest was 
the election of General Jackson by a large majority, — one hundred 
and seventy-eight of the votes of the people being given for him, and 
only eighty-three for Adams. It was a majority which even the 
friends of General Jackson himself hardly expected. His adminis- 
tration was begun by the appointment of a new cabinet, and by the 
removal from office of a great number of individuals in the country 
known to be unfriendly to his election. 

3. During the year 1829, John Jay, of Bedford, .New York, died, 
at the age of eighty-four. He was one of the presidents of the old 
continental congress ; and, without a doubt, was one of the greatest 
men of his day. He was a good man, as well as a great one. 

4. Before the close of the congress which assembled in Decem- 



CXCI.— I. What bill passed in congress in the year 1827? 2. Who were the candi- 
dates for the presidency in the year 1828 ? Who was elected? What was the majority 
of rotes ? How did Jackson's administration begin ? 3. What can you say of Johii 



PRESIDENT JACK SON . — N U LLf F ICATJ ON . 



her, 1830, a rapture took place between the president and vice-presi- 
dent, which produced other animosities and divisions ; and, on the 
20th of April, 1831, the cabinet officers of the president all resigned. 
During the summer, however, a new cabinet was organized. 

5. A treaty of peace and commerce was made, in the year 1830, 
between the United States and the government of Turkey; a com- 
mercial treaty was also concluded with Mexico. Just before Presi- 
dent Jackson came into office, General Harrison, afterward President 
Harrison, was made the United States' minister plenipotentiary to 
Colombia. 

G. On the 10th December, 1832, Jackson issued his celebrated 
proclamation against the jiullifiers of South Carolina. These persons 
maintained that any one of the states might set aside, or nullify, any 
act of congress which they deemed unconstitutional and oppressive. 
They called themselves the " state rights party," inasmuch as they 
asserted the rights of the states to be supreme. 

7. These views had been entertained from the adoption of the 
constitution by a few individuals ; but, until the period of which we 
are now speaking, they had not produced any serious results. The 
chief occasion of the proceedings in South Carolina, already adverted 
to, was the existing tariff laws. Conventions of that state passed 
resolutions declaring these to be null and void ; and formidable pre- 
parations were made to resist their execution. 

8. President Jackson's proclamation was aimed at these proceed- 
ings. Great anxiety and alarm prevailed in the country, and an 
apprehension was entertained that the, Union was soon to be severed 
by the open rebellion of the state of South Carolina. In this state 
of things, parties and contests were momentarily forgotten, and even 
the opposers of the president rallied on the side of his proclamation. 
Few were found, except those of the state rights party of South 
Carolina, to sustain the movements of the nulliflers. 

9. The difficulty was at length pacified by the Compromise Ack 
brought forward by Mr. Clay in the senate of the United States, and 
passed in 1833. This act provided for a gradual reduction of duties 
until the year 1843, when they should sink to the general level of 
twenty per cent. 



Jay? When did he die? 4. What troubles arose in 1830? 5. What treaties were 
made in 1830? To what place had General Harrison been sent as minister? 6. What 
did Jackson in 1832 ? Who were the nullijiers? What did they call themselves, and 
why ? 7. By whom had these views been entertained ? What was the occasion of the 
feelings existing in South Carolina ? 8. What anxiety was felt? What was the effect 
on parties ? 9. How was the difficulty at length pacified ? For what did the Com- 
promise provide ? 



322 



PRESIDENT JACKSON'S SECOND TERM. 



CHAPTER CXCII. 

President Jackson 1 s second term. 




JacksorCs tour. 



1. On counting the votes for president and vice-president of the 
United States, in the early part of the year 1833, President Jackson 
was found to be re-elected by an overwhelming majority ; and 
Martin Van Buren was chosen vice-president. 

2. One of the early acts of the president, during his second 
administration, was to pay a visit, May 6, in company with the mem- 
bers of his cabinet and others, to Fredericksburg, to witness the 
ceremony of laying the corner-stone of a monument to the mother of 
Washington. 

3. While the steamboat, which conveyed them, was on the way 
from Washington to Alexandria, as the president and others were 
sitting at dinner, a dastardly assault was made, by one Randolph, 
late a lieutenant in the navy, on the president. The company, 
however, interfered, so that Randolph only inflicted a single blow 
in the face. 

4. It may not be out of place to say here that the centennial birth- 
day of Washington was celebrated with great pomp and rejoicing 
throughout the United States, on the 22d of February, 1832, or a 
little more than a year before the corner-stone was laid of a monu- 
ment to his mother's memory. 

5. On the 6th of June, 1833, the president, with most of his 
cabinet, set out on a tour through the New England states. The 



CXCII. — I. Who were elected president and vice-president in 1833 ? 2. "What was 
done May 6 ? 3. What outrage was committed on board the steamboat ? 4. When was 
Washington's birth-day celebrated? 5. What tour \v;ts made by Jackson in 1833? 



STATE OF ARKANSAS. 



323 



objects of this tour were similar to those of his predecessors, Wash- 
ington and Monroe ; and he was received everywhere with similar 
demonstrations of respect. 

6. In the autumn of this year, the president came to the conclu- 
sion that the public deposits ought to be removed from the Bank of 
the United States to the state banks. He deemed this change 
necessary, as he said, in order " to preserve the morals of the people, 
the freedom of the press, and the purity of the elective franchise." 

7. This was the beginning of a contest in congress, respecting 
the deposits, which continued a long time and created much excite- 
ment throughout the country. The deposits were, however, at 
length removed. — In January, 1835, an attempt was made by an 
insane man, named Lawrence, to assassinate the president, which, 
however, proved unsuccessful. 



^ CHAPTER CXCIII. 
Stale of Arkansas. 




1. Arkansas was admitted to the Union, as a separate, indepen- 
dent state, in the year 1836. This state lies southward of Missouri, 
and was originally, as we have elsewhere seen, a part of it. From 
its natural character, it is destined to be, at no distant day, a very 
important member of the confederacy. 



6. What great change was determined upon by the president, and for what reason? 

7. What contest did this occasion for a length of time 7 What attempt was made 
in 1335 ?- 

CXCIL— 1. When was Arkansas admitted into the Union 3 Where is it situated ? 



324 



THE FLORIDA WAR. 



2. The earliest settlement, within the present limits of this state, 
was made at the Indian village of Arkansas, on the river of that 
name, in the year 1685. The first inhabitants, and the emigrants 
who joined them for many years, were French. The progress of 
the colony was very slow. It is scarcely twenty years since the 
tide of emigration from the Atlantic states began to flow in that 
direction. 

3. Little Rock, the early seat of government for Arkansas, was 
laid out in 1820. The first steamboat ascended the river that vear. 
It was eight days in going from New Orleans to the village of 
Arkansas, which is scarcely one hundred miles above the mouth of 
the Arkansas river. 

4. Already does this infant state contain more inhabitants than 
Rhode Island or Delaware The number, in 1810, was ninety-seven 
thousand five hundred and seventy-four. The state is divided into 
forty counties. The population of Little Rock, the capital, is about 
six thousand. 

5. Arkansas contains within its bosom the remnants of several 
once numerous and powerful tribes of Indians, among whom are 
especially to be noticed the oppressed Cherokees. Their present 
number scarcely exceeds twenty-five thousand. 

6. By a treaty made between the United States and the Chero- 
kees, in 1833, the latter agreed to give up to the United States, for 
a sum equal to five millions of dollars, or more, all their lands east 
of the Mississippi, and to retire to a region, to be guaranteed to 
them, in the present state of Arkansas. 

7. In 1839, a civil war broke out among them ; and, on the 28th 
of June, a battle was fought, in which some of the leaders and best 
men on both sides were slain. They are, unquestionably, dimin- 
ishing in point of numbers, and would disappear, in the progress 
of a century or two, without the aid of the oppressor. 



CHAPTER CXCIV. 

The Florida war. 

1. Near the close of the year 1835, a war broke out in Florida, 
the residence of the Seminole and Creek Indians. One of the first 
conflicts was near Fort Crum, between a party of fifty or sixty 
Seminoles and a somewhat smaller number of United States' militia, 
— of the latter, eight were killed and seven wounded. 

2. Ten days afterward, a body of one hundred and ten officers 
and men, belonging to the United States' army, were attacked near 

2. When was the earliest settlement made there ? Who were the first inhabitants ? 

3. What of Little Rock ? What can you say of the first steamboat ? 4. What is the 
population of Arkansas? Of Little Rock? 5. What Indian tribes are there in thi3 
state ? 6. What treaty was made with the Cherokees in 1833 ? 7. W r hat war broke out 
in 1839? 

CXCUL— I. What of the Florida war? Where was the first conflict? 2. Describe 



rfflS FLORIDA WAR. 325 

Tampa Bay by an overwhelming body of Seminole Indians, and all, 
except three, were slain. These three were wounded, but escaped. 
The dead bodies of the rest were found, fifty-three days afterward, 
unmutilated, and were duly buried. 




Osceola. 



3. Another battle was fought at Withlacoochie, between nearly 
three hundred United States' troops and three hundred Indians. 
The Indians had forty killed ; the other party a much smaller 
number. 

4. The war continued to rage in 1836. On the 27th of April, in 
a battle near Fort Brooke, in Florida, two hundred Indians were 
killed and wounded. On the 15th of May, the village of Roanoke, 
on the Chattahoochee river, was attacked and stormed by three hun- 
dred or four hundred Indians, and burnt to ashes, and a few were 
slain. On the 26th, the Creeks were defeated by the Alabama troops, 
with the loss of four hundred of their men. 

5. On the 17th of July, General Jessup, addressed an official letter 
to the adjutant general of the United States' army, announcing that 
the Florida war was terminated. He even made a treaty with the 
Indians, in March, 1837. 

6. In the autumn of the same year, however, the latter resumed 
hostilities. On the 20th of November, Osceola and another Seminole 
chief and fifty warriors were taken prisoners. In December, an- 
other battle was fought, in which twenty-eight of the United States' 
troops were killed and one hundred and eleven wounded. Again, 
January 24, 1838, the Indians were defeated by General Jessup. 

7. In May, 1839, there was another supposed end of the Florida 



the attack at Tampa Bay. 3. What other battle was fought ? 4. What destructive 
battles too'k place in April and May of 1836 ? 5. What was done by General Jessup in 
July? 6. What of other engagements ? What famous Indian chief was taken? 
7. What treaty was made in 1839 ? What attack was made by the Indians? 8. What 
28 



326 



MICHIGAN— THE TWENTY-SIXTH PILLAR 



war. The Indians, by an agreement with General Macomb, were 
to retire into a particular district in Florida, and there remain unmo- 
lested. Yet, on the 23d July, the same year, we find them making 
an attack on Colonel Harney, of the United States' troops. 

8. The United States also sent out to the West Indies for blood- 
hounds to aid in expelling the savages from the swamps, in which 
they were wont to hide. These, however, were ineffectual. The 
war was continued till 1842, when it was finally terminated through 
the activity and vigilance of Colonel Worth ; and, in this conflict, 
the Seminoles displayed great talent and perseverance, and subjected 
the United States to an immense loss of blood and treasure. 

9. In the autumn of 1836, about thirty Indian chiefs and warriors, 
of the Sacs and Foxes, were carried, on a visit, through some of 
the principal cities of the United States, and at length arrived in 
Boston, where they were received with much ceremony. They 
were exhibited at the State House and Faneuil Hall. The celebrated 
Black Hawk was among them. 



1. On the 25th of January, 1837, a bill, which had already passed 
the senate of the United States, for the admission of Michigan 



aids did the United States call in to expel the savages ? What of Colonel "Worth ? 
9. What happened in the fall of 1536? What Indians were those who came to 
Boston ? 



CHAPTER CXCV. 



Michigan — the twenty -sixth pillar. 




Catholic priest instructing the Indians. 



PRESIDENT VAN BUREN. 



327 



to the Union as a state, passed the house of representatives by 
a large majority ; and, on the 26th, received the sanction of the 
president. 

2. Michigan had contained sixty thousand inhabitants, the usual 
number required of a new state as one of the qualifications for 
admission, long before this time, but difficulties had presented them- 
selves which were not adjusted till now. The population, in 1837, 
was nearly two hundred thousand ; in 1840, it was two hundred and 
twelve thousand two hundred and sixty-seven, 

3. The Michigan territory, when first discovered by tii^white 
people, was inhabited by a tribe of Indians called Hurons." Many of 
these were converted to Christianity by the Jesuits, as early as 1648. 
It was not, however, till 1670, that the French took possession of 
the territory, and built two forts, one at Detroit and another at 
Michilimackinac ; nor was it really settled till thirty years after. 

4. The progress of the settlements, under the French, was exceed- 
ingly slow. It was not till the year 1763, when, by a treaty between 
Great Britain and France, it was ceded to the former, that much 
was done in the way of civilization and improvement. Little was 
done till after the peace of 1783, when the territory was given up 
by Great Britain to the United States. 

5. Until about the year 1800, this territory, for the purposes of 
government, was considered a part of the great northwestern territory. 
After Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois had been severally detached, the 
remainder, in 1805, became a distinct territory, of which President 
Jefferson made General Hull the first governor. 

6. Michigan was still doomed to much suffering, especially from 
the war of 1812. For almost two years, nearly the whole territory 
was the theatre of war, and was exposed to the barbarity of two 
nations. Michigan is now in a fair way to become one of the most 
respectable members of the confederacy. 



CHAPTER CXCVI. 

President Van Bur en. 

1. On the 4th of March, 1837, Martin Van Buren was inaugurated 
as the eighth president of the United States. As there was no choice 
of a vice-president by the people, the senate proceeded according to 
the manner prescribed by the constitution, and elected Richard M. 
Johnson vice-president. 

2. On the 15th of May, the president issued a proclamation requir- 
ing the congress of the United States to meet on the first Monday of 



CXCIV.— 1. "What bill passed the senate in 1837? 2. Population of Michigan at 
different periods ? 3. How wa3 it first peopled ? Who converted them 1 When did 
the French build forts in Michigan ? When was it settled ? 4. When was it ceded to 
Great Britain ? When was it yielded to the United States 1 5. Give some of its his- 
tory. 6. How has Michigan suffered ? 



328 



PRESIDENT VAX BUREN. 



September, " on account of great and weighty matters claiming their 
consideration." 



3. These had relation to the financial condition of the country. 
During the months of March and April, 1837, the most unprece- 
dented embarrassments were experienced among the mercantile 
people of the United States ; especially in the large cities and towns. 
Suspensions and failures in business became of e very-day occurrence. 
In May, the number of heavy failures, in New York, to say nothing 
of smaller ones, had risen to two hundred and sixty. 

4. In New Orleans, the difficulties were also equally great. )n 
two days, houses stopped payment there, the aggregate of whose 
debts was more than twenty-seven million dollars. In Boston, the 
suffering was severe, but not so great as in many other places. From 
November, 1836, to May, 1837, there were seventy-eight large 
failures and ninety small ones — in all, one hundred and sixty-eight. 
In addition to these evils, the national treasury was itself suddenly 
plunged into a state of bankruptcy. 

5. These distresses were, to a very great extent, charged upon 
the government and its measures, and upon the then present and pre- 
ceding administration. Especially was it attempted to trace the 
difficulties to the war which had been made upon the United States' 
Bank, and the passing of certain laws which had drained the country 
too suddenly of its specie. 

6. About the middle of May, 1837, nearly all the banks, from 
Boston to Baltimore, suspended specie payments ; and their example 



CXCV.— 1. What happened in 1837 ? Who was made vice-president ? 2. What was 
done in May? 3. What distress was there in the United States in 1837? How many 
failures were there in New York? 4. What of New Orleans ? What of suffering in 
Boston ? 5. To what causes was this distress attributed ? 6. What happened in May, 




President Van Bur en. 



PRESIDENT VAN EUREN. 329 

was soon followed by the monied institutions throughout the country. 
The state of New York passed a law to make the suspension of 
specie payments, by its banks, for one year, valid. 



United States' Bank. 

7. The extra session of congress, which had been called in view 
of the state of the country, continued till the fourth Monday of 
December. The people, who had attributed the existing evils to the 
action of government, looked to that source for a remedy. Congress, 
however, did little more than to adopt measures for replenishing the 
treasury of the United States. 

8. The financial evils of the country continued rather to increase 
than diminish. A general panic prevailed, and, as the bank notes 
were, to a great extent, withdrawn from circulation, and, as the cur- 
rency of the country was diminished, commodities fell in due pro- 
portion. Under the influence of distrust, property of all kinds lost 
its value, and a general state of depression and paralysis continued 
till the year 1842. 

9. A species of insurrection having, during the year 1837, broken 
out in Canada, and some of our restless and lawless citizens on the 
frontier having taken part in it, President Van Buren, on the 5th of 
January, 1838, issued a proclamation to such persons to return 
peaceably to their homes, on penalty of being punished according to 
the existing laws of the United States. 

10. On the 14th of the same month, a body of about five hundred 
American and Canadian troops, on Navy Island, near Niagara Falls, 
evacuated the island, surrendered the arms belonging to the United 
States and the cannon belonging to the state of New York, and 



1837? 
time ? 



7. 

9. 



What was done by congress ? 8. What was the state of the country at this 
What of an insurrection in Canada, in 1837 ? 10. What was done in January, 
28* 



330 



PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS.— PROGRESS OF EVENTS. 



disbanded. They, however, took a hostile position, soon afterward, 
at Bois Blanc, near Detroit, and continued their hostile designs. 

11. On the 1st of March following, about six hundred more of 
the patriots, as they called themselves, under the command of Dr. 
Robert Nelson and Colonel Cote, surrendered themselves to General 
Wool, of the United States' army, near the Canada line, in Ver- 
mont ; and the border war seemed at length to be over. 

12. But the troubles were not yet at an end. An attempt was 
made, November 13, by about three hundred Canadians and inhabi- 
tants of the United States, to take Prescott, in Upper Canada. 
Between the 13th and 16th, one hundred and two of them were 
killed and sixty taken prisoners. On the 16th, one hundred more 
surrendered near Prescott. The rest fled to the woods. 

13. President Van Buren now issued a second proclamation, the 
object of which was to warn all who should persist in the scheme of 
invading Canada, that, to whatever miseries or sufferings they might 
reduce themselves, or become reduced, the government of the United 
States would never interfere in their behalf ; but they must be left 
to the consequences of their folly. This course appears to have had 
its due effect. 



CHAPTER CXCVII. 

Public improvements. — Progress of events. 

1. The pecuniary difficulties of the country did not wholly pre- 
vent the diffusion of intelligence or the spread of a zeal for public 
improvement. Indeed, a zeal for literary and moral culture seems 
to have pervaded, unusually, all ranks and classes of the commu- 
nity. Several national measures, for literary and scientific improve- 
ment, w r ere agitated. 

2. On the 17th of December, 1835, the president of the United 
States communicated to congress a report of the secretary of state 
relating to a bequest of one hundred thousand pounds sterling, or 
about five hundred thousand dollars, from James Smithson, of Lon- 
don, to the United States, for the purpose of founding at Washing- 
ton an establishment to be called " The Smithsonian Institution, for 
the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men." 

3. This bequest created, at first, quite a sensation in the United 
States, and a good deal of interest was manifested with regard to its 
proper application. As yet, however, nothing has been done on the 
part of congress for the appropriation of this large sum of money for 
the object for which it was bequeathed. 

4. A remarkable fire took place at Washington, December 15, 



1837? 11. What surrender was made to General Wool? 12. What happened in. 
November ? How many men were killed ? How many surrendered ? 13. What pro- 
clamation did Van Buren now issue ? 
CXCVL— 1. What of improvement in literature and morals? 2, What of the Smith- 



PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS.— PROGRESS OF EVENTS. 



331 



1836, daring which the patent-office and post-office were burnt. 
Among the contents of the patent-office were seven thousand models 
of patents out of ten thousand which had been granted by congress ; 
one hundred and sixty-three large folio volumes of records ; twenty- 
six large port-folios, containing nine thousand valuable drawings, 
and ten thousand original descriptions of inventions. 

5. It was a most severe calamity to the country, and calculated to 
damp, in no small degree, the rising spirit of public improvement. 
The misfortune was the more to be regretted, as it was believed to 
be the work of incendiaries. It is gratifying to know, however, that, 
through the activity of Mr. Ellsworth, the superintendent, the loss 
by the fire has been, in a great measure, repaired. 

6. On the 18th of August, 1838, the Yincennes, a sloop of war, 
of twenty guns, the Peacock, of eighteen guns, the Porpoise, of ten 
guns, and three smaller vessels, set out on an exploring expedition, 
having on board a number of distinguished and learned men, in the 
various departments of natural science. The fleet set sail from 
Hampton Roads, in Virginia. 

7. The squadron returned in June, 1842, after an absence of 
nearly four years, having circumnavigated the globe and visited and 
actually surveyed many parts before nearly unknown. It accom- 
plished fully the object for which it was designed. The various 
vessels of the squadron sailed, during their absence, about four hun- 
dred thousand miles. Only eight of the men died of disease during 
the whole term of absence. 

8. Among other things, the squadron brought home a large and 
valuable collection of live plants, bulbs, &c, collected in the islands 
of the Pacific, at the Cape of Good Hope and elsewhere, which were 
placed in a garden at Washington. They also brought a valuable 
collection of prepared specimens of plants and animals, which are 
now deposited in the patent-office at Washington. They also 
brought with them a chief of the Figi Islands, who, with others, had 
massacred and eaten the crew of a brig from Salem, Massachusetts. 
They also discovered, January 19, 18-10, the coasts of an Antarctic 
continent. 

9. The proceedings against the bank of the United States, with 
the removal of the public deposits, and the discussion which grew 
out of it, led to the introduction of a bill into congress, called the 
sub-treasury or independent treasury bill ; which, during the session 
of 1839-40, underwent a thorough final discussion. 

10. The object of this bill was to provide for the collection, safe- 
keeping, transfer, and disbursement of the public revenue of the 
United States, without any connection with, or dependence on, 
banks. A part of the plan was to have the revenue, after a reason- 
able time, wholly paid in gold and silver, of the United States' 
currency. 



son bequest 7 3. What did this create ? 4. What fire was there at Washington ? 
What valuable things were burnt in the patent-office ? 5. What was the effect of this 
misfortune ? 6. What exploring expedition set out from Virginia ? 7. What did it 
accomplish ? How long was it absent ? How many miles did the vessels sail ? 8. What 
was brought home ? What had they discovered ? 9. What can you say of the sub- 



332 



PRESIDENT HARRISON — PRESIDENT TYLER. 



11. This bill passed the senate of the United States, on the 23d 
of January, 1840, but did not pass the house of representatives till 
the 30th of June following. It was so radical a change that it 
created a very strong sensation throughout the United States, and 
was repealed immediately after the accession of General Harrison to 
the presidency. rv 



CHAPTER CXCV1I1. 

President Harrison. — President Tyler. 




President 1 's house at Washington. 



1. The events of Mr. Van Buren's administration had produced 
a strong excitement throughout the United States, and, conse- 
quently, during the canvass for the presidency, in 1840, an extra- 
ordinary interest was displayed by the people. The opponents of 
the administration party nominated General William Henry Harri- 
son against Van Buren, and he was elected by a very large majority 
of the votes of the people. Mr. John Tyler, of Virginia, was, at the 
same time, chosen vice-president. 

2. A new cabinet was immediately organized, and, in view of the 
state of public sentiment and the condition of the country, an extra 
session of congress was ordered ; but, in the midst of his career, 
General Harrison was seized with sickness, and died in about one 
month after his inauguration. 



treasury bill? 10. What was its object? 11. When did it pass the senate? When 
the house of representatives ? Why did it create so much sensation ? 
CXCVIT.— 1. When was General Harrison made president ? Who was chosen vice- 



PRESIDENT HARRISON.— PRESIDENT TYLER. 



333 



3. The constitution of the United States provides that, in case of 
the death of the chief magistrate, the vice-president shall be his suc- 
cessor. Mr. Tyler was, therefore, the constitutional successor of 
President Harrison, and early entered upon the discharge of his 
duties. 




President Tyler. 



4. The extra session of congress, called by General Harrison, 
commenced on the 31st day of May, 1841, and continued to the 13th 
day of September. Several important measures were brought for- 
ward , and either adopted or defeated . The sub-treasury was repealed , 
and, after much discussion, a general bankrupt law was passed. 
Two several bills passed both houses of congress, chartering a new 
bank of the United States, but they were vetoed by President Tyler. 

5. This course, on the part of the chief magistrate, was regarded 
by the party who had elected him as a violation of his pledges ; and, 
consequently, a state of complete alienation grew up between him 
and those to whom he was indebted for his election. His entire 
cabinet, with one exception, resigned, and the president was gene- 
rally denounced by his late supporters. 

6. In 1842, several important events occurred. A treaty was 
negotiated at Washington between Mr. Webster, on the part of the 
United States, and Lord Ashburton, on the part of Great Britain, 
which has since been ratified by the two countries. This treaty has 
happily adjusted the dispute in relation to the northeastern boundary 
of the United States, which had existed for almost thirty years, and 



president ? 2. What of a new cabinet ? Extra session ? When did the president die ? 
3. What does the constitution provide ? Who succeeded Harrison ? 4. What impor- 
tant acts were done by the extra session called by Harrison 1 5. What course pursued 
by Tyler alienated the people ? What of the cabinet ? 6. What events occurred in 
1842 1 What has been the effect of the treaty negotiated between Great Britain and the 



334 



PRESIDENT HARRISON.— PRESIDENT TYLER. 



had actually produced hostilities between the state of Maine and the 
province of New Brunswick. 



7. It also settled several other difficulties existing between the 
two countries, and dissipated the prospects of war, which had long 
been threatened. The negotiations were conducted with great 
frankness and fairness on the part of the two diplomatists, and bear 
a singular contrast to the artifice and trick which have generally 
marked national diplomacy. We may, at least, hope that an example, 
so consonant to the enlightened age in which we live, shall become 
the guide of all future statesmen. 

8. At the close of the session of congress, in 1842, a new tariff 
act was passed, after an elaborate discussion, designed to give 
encouragement to the various industrial pursuits of our own country, 
as well as to supply the treasury of the general government. This 
act has been followed by a speedy revival of trade — a restoration of 
commercial confidence, and a return of prosperity throughout the 
land. 

9. The year 1842 was signalized by a rebellion in Rhode Island, 
headed by Thomas W. Dorr, a lawyer of that state. The design of 
this movement was to set aside the ancient charter of that state, which 
still continued to be its constitution, and this was to be done by spon- 
taneous and unauthorized acts of the people, and not according to 
legal forms. 

10. The opposers of this movement, called the charter party, 
were willing to adopt a new and more liberal constitution, but they 



United States ? 7. In what manner were the negotiations conducted? S. What of the 
new tariff ? Its effect ? 9. Describe the rebellion of Dorr in Rhode Island. 10. What 
was desired by the charter party '/ 11. The revolutionary party ? 12. What was done 




Webster. 



PRESIDENT HARRISON.— PRESIDENT TYLER. 



335 



maintained that this should be done in a legal and authentic manner. 
Upon the mode of forming a new constitution, parties were formed, 
and a violent state of excitement followed. 

11. The revolutionary party actually proceeded to the formation 
and adoption of a constitution, and elected Dorr as governor, with a 
legislature. These met at Providence, in 1843, passed various acts, 
and adjourned. 

12. Matters soon came to a crisis. The existing government 
caused several persons, engaged in this movement, to be arrested, 
and Dorr resorted to arms. With a small band of followers, he 
threatened to attack the arsenal at Providence, but, being deserted 
by a part of his adherents, he fled ; on the borders of the state he 
collected a number of persons, most of them from the city of New 
York and the states adjacent to Rhode Island, and, proceeding to the 
village of Chepachet, began to entrench himself there. 

13. He had, it is supposed, about fifteen hundred men, but the 
government of the state had now assembled a large force, and these 
began their march upon the rebels. Perceiving the hopelessness of 
his enterprise, and now finding that a large majority of the people 
of the state were opposed to his proceedings, Dorr took flight, and 
his men were speedily dispersed. Subsequent to this, the friends of 
law and order in the state have succeeded in forming and establish- 
ing a new constitution, according to the prescribed forms, and this has 
quietly gone into full operation, by the sanction of a large majority 
of the people. 

14. The summer of 1843 was marked by one of the most brilliant 
spectacles that has ever been witnessed in the United States. On 
the 17th of June, an immense concourse of people was assembled at 
the foot of Bunker Hill to celebrate the completion of the noble 



by Dorr ? Where did he entrench himself? 13. What force had he ? What did he 




336 



PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS, kc. 



monument, erected in commemoration of the battle that was fought 
there sixty-eight years before, and which marks the very spot where 
the patriotic Warren fell. 

15. In the presence of nearly thirty thousand spectators, among 
whom was the president of the United States and his cabinet, Mr. 
Webster pronounced one of the most impressive orations that ever 
fell from human lips. 

16. This interesting ceremonial drew to the city of Boston an 
immense concourse of people, and it was remarked, as a grateful 
tribute to the high state of civilization which characterizes the people, 
that though one hundred and fifty thousand strangers were that day in 
the city, not an instance of riot occurred, nor was a solitary indi- 
vidual sent to the watch-house during the ensuing night. We may at 
least hope and believe that, in spite of the various convulsions which 
have occurred for the last few years, the standard of morals is higher 
than at any former period of our history. 



CHAPTER CXCIX. 



Public improvements, fyc. 




1. In pursuing the thread of our narrative, we have omitted 
various occurrences of interest and importance, having direct con- 
nection with the peace and happiness of the country. The last forty 
years have been distinguished, throughout the civilized world, for an 
immense improvement in useful knowledge, and the United States 
have not been tardy in this great march of mind. 



finally do? What constitution has been formed ? 14 Describe the celebration of June 
17th. 15. What of Webster S 16. What was remarked of the people of Boston 7 



PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS, &c. 



2. The present century is remarkable for the advances it has 
made in science. This has resulted from a wiser philosophy, which 
has led men of learning to throw aside theory, and seek truth 
through experiment and the accumulation of facts. But the most 
remarkable characteristic of the age is the application of science to 
the arts of life. 

3. In the United States, this topic is to be considered in two 
points of view — the results of science are diffused, by means of the 
press, through all classes of the people ; and hundreds of thousands 
of our farmers, mechanics and men of business are well acquainted 
with the useful parts of chemistry, mineralogy, geology and zoology. 

4. It is in consequence of this diffusion, that we see so many use- 
ful inventions devised by our ingenious countrymen. Philosophy is 
no longer a mysterious power, holding itself aloof from mankind, but 
it is like a strong man, with sleeve rolled up and brawny arm, on the 
railroad track, in the smithy, the factory and the workshop, minister- 
ing to the daily comfort of the million. 




5. Among the particular improvements which claim our notice, 
we must mention the application of steam to navigation. This, as 
we have already stated, was first accomplished, in 1807, by our 
countryman, Robert Fulton, and has since been diffused throughout 
the world. This was one of the greatest achievements of human 
ingenuity, and has perhaps increased the power of man at least three- 
fold. Even the oceans are now traversed by steam vessels, and the 
Atlantic, before so formidable a barrier between the two continents, 
is now regularly traversed in fourteen days. 

6. In 1817, an enterprise was commenced by the state of New 
York, of great importance in itself, and still more useful by the 



CXCIX.— 1. How have the last forty years been distinguished 7 2. For what is the 
present century remarkable i 3. How are the results of science diffused? 4. What can 
you say of philosophy ? 5. When was steam first applied to navigation?- How much 
29 



338 



PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS, &c. 



impulse its successful completion gave to internal improvements. 
This was the great canal from Albany to Buffalo, a distance of 
three hundred and sixty-three miles, and which was designed to con- 
nect the waters of the Hudson with the great northwestern lakes. 



7. Under the auspices of De Witt Clinton, a man of patriotic and 
expansive views, this mighty enterprise was accomplished, and is 
now the channel by which the products of the west find their way, in 
lavish abundance, from the distant interior to a thousand markets 
along the borders of the Atlantic Ocean. Other canals of the greatest 
utility have been executed in various parts of the country. 

8. In the year 1831, railroads were established in England for the 
purposes of public transportation. They were soon adopted in this 
country, and have now become familiar to every traveller. The 
average speed of these conveyances is twenty miles the hour. Thus, 
remote cities are practically drawn near together, and another 
mighty stride is taken in increasing the power of man. Without 
wings, he still flies upon his journey, almost with the speed of the 
birds. 

9. There have been other improvements in the country, less 
striking to the eye, but not less important to the welfare of society. 
A great movement has been made in behalf of common school edu- 
cation, and there is now hardly a state in the Union that has not 
adopted a plan for the education of all classes at the public expense. 
In many parts of the country, the free schools, open to all, are the 
best that can be found. 



has steam increased the power of man ? How long does it take to traverse the Atlantic ? 
6. Describe the great Erie canal. What is its length? 7. Under whose auspices was it 
accomplished ? Of what use is this canal ? 8. When were railroads established in 




De Witt Clinton, 



GENERAL VIEWS. 



339 



10. We may notice one topic more, and that is, the progress of 
Temperance. The aim of this great movement is to extinguish the 
use of intoxicating liquors, and thus annihilate one of the most pro- 
lific sources of human misery, vice, and crime. It is a cause which 
has advanced with an irresistible impulse ; yet, aided by no force of 
law, its strength has been derived wholly from the moral sense of 
society — a fact which proves the elevated standard of morals, and 
shows that the cause of truth is best served by appeals to the leasosi 
and conscience of mankind. 



CHAPTER CC. 

General vievjs, 



Capitol of the United States. 

1 . We have now closed our brief view of the leading political 
incidents in the history of the United States. We began with the 
first settlement at Jamestown, in 1607 ; we have given the progress 
of events through a long period, in which we have seen the feeble 
colonies striking root in a strange country, and, after contending with 
hostile tribes of savage men, triumphing at last over the still more 
fatal obstacles of poverty, disease and climate. 

2. We have seen the thirteen united colonies, with about three 
millions of inhabitants, throwing off their allegiance to Great Britain, 

England ? What is the average speed of the steam car? Effect produced by railroads ? 
9. What can yon say of common school education ? 10. What of the temperance cause? 
CC — 1. When was the first settlement made in the United States? 2. What is the 



340 



MEXICO, GUATEMALA AND TEXAS. 



and, after a bloody and cruel struggle of eight years, successful in 
asserting their independence, and taking their rank among the 
nations of the civilized world. 

3. We have ^een the United States engaged in a second struggle 
with Great Britain, and coming out of the contest with honor. We 
have seen the thirteen states increased to twenty-six. We have 
seen our territory extended until it stretches from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific Ocean. We have seen our population increase until it 
reaches nearly eighteen millions of inhabitants. 

4. We have seen our government tried by factions, rebellion, and 
insurrection — by internal commotion and external war — by the strife 
of party, the vicissitudes of prosperity and adversity, and we have 
seen it come strengthened and established from these threatening 
evils. 

5. Under the benign influence of liberty, guaranteed to us by our 
government, we have seen our country advancing with unparalleled 
rapidity in the march of civilization. We have seen the arts spring 
up, as if developed by powers of enchantment. We have seen 
innumerable inventions, ingenious and useful, brought to light. We 
have seen manufactures, of vast extent and wonderful ingenuity, 
spread over our land. 

6. W"e have seen the very elements chained to the car of human 
art, and made subservient, in a thousand forms, to the comfort, con- 
venience and luxury of society. We have seen, amid all this, that 
religion has acquired additional force over the minds of men — that 
the scale of morality is exalted — that the means of education are dif- 
fused, and a higher value set upon its benefits. As members of a 
nation thus blessed of Heaven, let us cherish the sentiment of love 
to our country and a feeling of profound gratitude to Heaven for all 
that has been done to exalt our native land. 



CHAPTER CCI. 

Mexico, Guatemala and Texas. 

1. As we have now completed our view of the United States, we 
shall proceed to take a hasty view of the other portions of the New 
World. Mexico first claims our attention. At the time of the dis- 
covery of America, this was the seat of a vast empire, called 
Anahuac. The people were considerably advanced in civilization. 
They had large cities, splendid edifices, vast monuments, numerous 
arts and a regular government. 



population of the United States ? In how many years was their independence achieved ? 
3. What of a contest with Great Britain 1 How many states are there now ? What 
was their original number? What of the territory of the United States? Its popula- 
tion ? 4. What changes have we seen in the government ? 5. What improvements have 
taken place in arts, inventions and manufactures ? What other benefits are secured to 
our country ? 6. What sentiment ought we to cherish ? 
CCI. — 1. What was the former name of Mexico ? What of the people at the time of 



MEXICO, GUATEMALA AND TEXAS. 



341 



2. The Spaniards soon became acquainted with the existence of 
this country, and an enterprise was accordingly set on foot for its 
conquest. This consisted of six hundred soldiers, and was led by a 
daring and determined officer, named Hernando Cortez. He landed 
on the coast, in 1518, and marched toward the capital, which bore 
the name of Tenuchtitlan, now Mexico. 




Death of Montezuma. 



3. Montezuma was then upon the throne. By a series of measures 
displaying the utmost intrepidity, duplicity, and injustice, Cortez 
conquered the entire empire, which became subject to the Spanish 
crown, under the title of New Spain. 

4. This country continued for more than two centuries to be an 
appendage to the Spanish crown. The natives, for the most part, 
submitted to the Spanish yoke, and, though their numbers were 
thinned by the early wars, and farther reduced by the impoverishment 
of their country, they still amount to several millions. Most of them 
have partially adopted the Spanish customs and the Catholic religion. 
They are generally occupied in laborious pursuits, and few instances 
have occurred in which they have risen above a menial condition in 
society. 

5. In the year 1808, the people of Mexico rebelled against the 
government of Spain, and determined to throw off their foreign yoke. 
In 1813, a national congress declared Mexico to be independent. 
Spain made great efforts to subdue the rebellion, but without effect. 

<^e struggle continued with various success until 1821, when the 

q '^Yi army left the country. 
° independence of Mexico has since been recognized by 

the discovery ofH 

officer went there Tica ? 2. What people determined to conquer the country ? What 
3. Who was the king 1 3 ? What was the former name of Mexico, the capital ? 
named ? 4. What can yo?. country? How was the empire conquered? What was it 
In 1813? When did the SpVuY of lne natives? 5. What of them in the year 1808 ? 

2Q# *' army leave the country ? 6. Is Mexico an indepen- 



342 



MEXICO, GUATEMALA AND TEXAS. 



Spain and the other leading governments of Christendom. It has 
been subject, however, to internal convulsions, and can hardly be 
considered as yet in a settled state. The government is republican, 
but, several constitutions have been adopted and repudiated since the 
year of its independence. Mexico now contains eight millions of 
inhabitants, nearly half of whom are Indians. The present title of 
.the country is the United States of Mexico. 

7. Texas lies contiguous to the United States. It formerly 
belonged to Mexico, and was one of the states of that confederacy. 
The emigration from the United States to this territory commenced 
in 1821, and increased so rapidly that, in the space of a few years, 
they amounted to several thousands. In 1834, the federal consti- 
tution of Mexico was overthrown by violence, and a new government 
established. The people of Texas refused to acknowledge this, 
and, therefore, adopted a provisional government for themselves. 

8. In the spring of 1836, Santa Anna, the president of the Mexi- 
can republic, invaded the province in person, and captured the fortress 
of Bexar ; but he was afterward defeated and made prisoner by 
General Houston, in the battle of St. Jacinto. Meanwhile, a con- 
vention, composed of delegates from all the districts, assembled, and 
declared Texas to be a free, sovereign and independent state, and a 
constitution was adopted on the 17th of March. 

9. Mexico has since endeavored to recover her authority, but 
without avail. The government of Texas, which is republican, has 
become established, and the independence of the country has been 
recognized by Mexico, as well as by the United States, Great 
Britain, &e. 

10. Guatemala occupies the greater portion of the isthmus that 
connects North and South America. At the time of the invasion of 
Cortez, it was thickly peopled with Indians called Quiches. These 
had considerable cities, and presented nearly the same state of civili- 
zation as the Mexicans. 

11. They were conquered by Alvarado, an officer despatched for 
that purpose by Cortez, and the country became a Spanish province. 
It remained in this condition till the struggle for independence com- 
menced in Mexico, when a similar effort was made by the inhabitants 
of this territory, which resulted in their independence. The present 
title of the country is the United States of Central America. 



dent country? What of its government? What of the population? What is the 
title of the country at the present time? 7. Where is Texas ? When did people first 
emigrate to that country ? When did Texas adopt a separate government ? 8. What 
was done by Santa Anna ? Who defeated him ? When was Texas declared a free state J 
9. What is its government? 10. Where is Guatemala? Who were the Quiches? 
11. Who conquered them ? Give the history of the country. What is its present title r} - 



40 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



343 



CHAPTER CCII. 
British possessio?is in North America.— Polar regions. 




Exploring the polar regions. 

1 The British possessions, superior in extent to the United 
States, occupy nearly the whole of North America which lies north 
of the river St. Lawrence and the great lakes The chief divisions 
are Nova Scotia, Prince Edward's Island New Brunswick, New- 
foundland, Upper and Lower Canada, and New Britain, or the Hud- 
son's Bay Company's ter^nes. 

2 Nova Sf^'a seen J° nn Cabot, in 1497, and was the 
fi st lan^ ^ iSCOV<?re( i on tne continent of North America. It was 

. i JHly settled by the French, and called Acadie, but, after chang- 
P^Tiands several times, it became the permanent possession of Great 
Britain. New Brunswick was separated from it, and became a dis- 
tinct province, in 1784. 

3. The French appear to have been the first to turn to account the 
discoveries of Cabot. Early in the 16th century, several Frenchl 
vessels sailed to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and various attempts at 
colonization, in this quarter, were afterwards made. In 1608, the 
city of Quebec was founded, and thus the first permanent settlement 
in Canada was formed. 

4. We have already stated that all the French possessions in this 
quarter were confirmed to the British by the peace of 1763. In 1791, 
Canada was divided into Upper and Lower Canada, but they have 
recently been again united as one province. 

CCII. — 1. Where are the British possessions? What are the chief divisions? 
2. When was Nova Scotia discovered? What was its first name? To whom does it 
belong now ? What of New Brunswick ? 3. What was done by the French near tha 



344 



POLAR REGIONS. 



5. At various periods Canada has been the theatre of important 
military events. This was especially the case during the French 
and Indian war, the war of the revolution, and the war with Great 
Britain, from 1812 to 1815. We have, however, already given suf- 
ficient accounts of these proceedings. 

6. In 1837, an insurrection broke out in Canada, the object of 
which was to throw off the British yoke, and establish the inde- 
pendence of the country. The movement was, however, speedily 
checked, and most of the leaders escaped by flight. 

7. Hudson's Bay was discovered by Cabot, in 151*2. After many 
years the French carried on a considerable fur trade with the coun- 
tries lying to the westward of this bay. In 1670, the Hudson's 
Bay Company was established, and soon rose to prosperity. They 
have now several stations, some on Hudson's Bay, others on the 
coast of Labrador, and others still far to the north and west. The 
most numerous establishments are in the vicinity of James' Bay. 
The acquisition of furs is the chief object of these settlers. 

8. To the north of the British settlements are a tribe of Indians, 
of short stature and squalid appearance, who pass under the general 
name of Esquimaux. They live chiefly by fishing, and in winter 
ride over the frozen snows in sledges drawn by dogs. They have no 
records, and afford us no history. They resemble the Samoides of 
the eastern continent, and are doubtless of the same stock. 



Whale fishing. 

9. Still farther to the north is Greenland, formerly esteemed a 
part of the American continent, but now ascertained to be an island. 

Gulf of St. Lawrence ? When was the city of Quebec founded ? 4. What was done by 
the peace of 1763 ? What took place in 1791 ? 5. What of Canada at different periods ? 
6 What of an insurrection in Canada ? 7. When was Hudson's Bay discovered ? W hat 
of the free trade ? What was established in 1670 ? Where are the principal stations ox 
til company ? What is the object of the settlers here ? S. Where do the ^uiimux 
reside ? How do they subsist I What people do they resemble ? 9. 
land J What is it n<nv ascertained to be ? When was it discovered ? \\ hat can J<m 



THE WEST INDIES. 



345 



It was discovered, in 981, by an Icelander, and was soon after colo- 
nized by a number of families from Iceland. The colony increased 
rapidly, but, after a short space, it disappeared from the pages of 
history, and no trace of the inhabitants has since been found. 

10. Greenland was re-discovered by Davis, in 1585, and, in 1721, 
a colony was established on the western coast by a Norwegian 
clergyman, named Hans Egede. This settlement still exists, and is 
subject to the Danish government. 

11. The seas in the vicinity of Greenland have long been resorted 
to by ships in search of whales, and here many strange adventures 
have taken place in the pursuit of these monsters of the deep. 

12. The polar regions have acquired new interest, within the last 
twenty years, from the various expeditions of Parry, Ross, and Back, 
who were sent out by the British government for the purpose of 
exploration. It is through the discoveries of these navigators that 
we are assured of the fact that the waters of the Pacific and Atlantic 
unite and separate Greenland from the continent. . 



CHAPTER CCIIL 

The West Indies. 

1. St. Salvador, the land first discovered by Columbus, and 
uow called Cat Island, was one of a numerous group called the 
Bahamas. These belong to the English government, and have been, 
in former times, subject to acts of violence and pillage from pirates, 
who infested these regions somewhat more than a century ago. 
Their history presents nothing of peculiar interest or importance. 

2. Cuba was first discovered by Columbus in 1492. It is the 
largest of the West India islands ; and, possessing a charming climate, 
with a prolific soil, it is one of the finest islands in the world. The 
Indians were conquered, in 1511, by Velasquez, a Spanish general, 
and the island was rapidly settled by the Spaniards. 

3. Under the cruelties of these new possessors, the aborigines 
were speedily exterminated, and Spain has continued in quiet pos- 
session of the island for more than three hundred years, excepting 
that it was captured by the British in 1762, being, however, soon 
relinquished. 

4. Hayti, called Hispaniola by Columbus, was discovered by that 
voyager soon after he had visited Cuba. The present town of St. 
Domingo was founded by him, in 1496, and is, therefore, the oldest 
town in this western world. This island was divided between France 
and Spain, in 1722, but, in 1789, a revolution broke out, and both 



say of it3 colonists ? 10. What of another colony? 11. What of the Greenland seas? 
12. What of exploring parties ? What facts do we learn from them? 

CCIIL— 1. What of St. Salvador? To what group does it belong? What of the 
Bahamas ? 2. When was Cuba discovered 3 What of its soil and climate ? When and 
by whom were the Indians conquered ? 3. What has been its history ? 4. What of 



346 



THE WEST INDIES. 



the Spaniards and French were eventually driven out by the negroes. 
The latter declared themselves independent in 1801, and have since 
maintained themselves as an independent nation. 

5. Porto Rico, a beautiful and populous island at the time of its 
discovery by Columbus, in 1493, has, since its first subjugation, 
belonged to Spain. Jamaica was originally settled by the Spaniards, 
but, in 1655, it was taken by the English, and has since remained in 
their hands. This island, distinguished for its prolific soil and gentle 
climate, has been the scene of several terrible earthquakes and hur- 
ricanes. 

G. To the southeast of Cuba are a group of islands, known under 
the name of the Caribbees. The principal are Antigua, Barbadoes, 
Tobago, and Trinidad, which belong to Great Britain, and Guada- 
loupe and Martinico, which belong to France. The natives of these 
islands, called Caribs, were different from those of Cuba, Porto Rico 
and Jamaica. The latter were gentle, soft and effeminate ; but the 
Caribs were fierce, enterprising and warlike. To each other, they 
were mild and affectionate, but they regarded all strangers as foes, 
and made war upon them without scruple. 

7. They seemed to have made some advances in civilization when 
Columbus discovered their islands. They were fond of liberty, and 
chose rather to die than submit to the slavery imposed upon them 
by their European conquerors. Their numbers gradually diminished, 
and nothing remains of this formidable race, except a few scattered 
remnants. 

8. There are several other West India islands, belonging to dif- 
ferent European powers, but their history cannot be detailed here. 
We can only remark, generally, that the West Indies, lying beneath 
a tropical sun and abounding in the choicest vegetable productions, 
have still been the theatre of frequent scenes of rapine, plunder and 
bloodshed. 

9. In the greedy scramble which followed the discovery of the 
New World, they were seized without scruple, and the inhabitants 
subjugated, enslaved, or butchered, as suited the humor of the 
invaders. During the contests of their European possessors, they 
have been often taken and retaken, thus sharing in all the calamities 
of war. 

10. These islands have also been the seat of the buccaneers — the 
most formidable band of pirates that the world has ever known. 
About two centuries ago, a small band of these lawless men inhabited 
the island of Tortuga, and lived either by the chase, or by plundering 
such vessels as they found upon the adjacent seas. 

11. They increased in numbers, and, at length, became the terror 
of all the inhabitants in those regions. Their feats of skill, enter- 
prise and daring seemed to be almost miraculous. They even cap- 

Hayti? When was St. Domingo founded?- What is its history? 5. What of Porto 
Rico ? To what nation does it belong ? Who settled Jamaica? To whom does it now 
belong? To what is it subject ? 6. What islands lie to the south of Cuba? Which are 
the principal islands ? To whom do they belong ? What of the natives ? 7. What of 
them when Columbus discovered the islands ? 8, 9. What is the history of the West 
Indies? 10. Who were the buccaneers ? 11. What of their feats? 12. How long did 
they flourish ? What of them at the present time ? 



SOUTH AMERICA. 



347 



tured the city of Havana, plundered Port au Prince, and, extending 
their depredations to the Spanish main, carried off immense sums of 
gold, silver, and other valuable commodities. 

12. They flourished for more than half a century. The lives of 
some of these freebooters present a variety of curious and wonderful 
details. Their career, however, generally terminated in misery, and 
the whole band was at last extirpated. 



CHAPTER CGIV. 

South America. 

1. We have already seen that Columbus discovered the main land 
of South America in 1498. Other discoveries, in this quarter, soon 
followed. The coast was visited by Vespurius, in 1499, and, the 
same year, the shores of Brazil were visited by Pinzon, a Spanish 
navigator. 

2. In 1513, Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama, and was the 
first European whose eyes rested upon the Pacific Ocean, then called 
the South Sea. What a mighty discovery ! for this was the largest 
ocean on the globe, and occupies nearly one fourth part of its 
surface. 

3. It is not easy, at this day, for us to conceive of the state of 
excitement in which these European navigators came to America. 
They not only looked upon it as a new world, but as one abounding 
in wonders. They had found here a strange people, and they had 
discovered, amid the tropical regions, a multitude of new and inter- 
esting productions. 

4. Flowers of the greatest beauty, spices of the rarest fragrance, 
valuable gums, rich fruits, birds of magnificent plumage, and all new 
to them, crowded upon their attention. Nature, indeed, seemed to 
have realized here the enchantments of the fairy tales ; yet, thus far, 
the avarice of the discoverers w T as not satisfied. Gold, silver, and 
precious stones were believed to abound in America, and the greedi- 
ness with which they w T ere sought, carried the adventurers over sea 
and land, through flood and forest. 

5. Like other illusions, which haunt the overheated imagination, 
the regions of gold seemed always to be near, yet never reached. 
The pursuit was still urged, but the object was never fully attained. 

6. There were indeed two exceptions ; Cortez had found spoils 
of immense value in Mexico, but his success was to be surpassed 
by another adventurer. In 1515, Peru had been discovered, and 



The teacher icill put such questions on the map, at page 348, as he deems 

proper. 

CCIV.— 1. What discoveries were made in South America, in the 15th century? 
2. When did Balboa discover the Pacific Ocean? What part of the earth's surface does 
it occupy ? 3. What was found in America ? 4. Describe the vegetable and animal 
productions. 5. What of the minerals? 6. When was Peru discovered? What of 
Pizarro ? How many men did he take with him, in 1531 ? 7. What did he find Peru 
to be? By whom was it governed? What of the people ? Who was their king? 



348 



SOUTH AMERICA. 



Pizarro, an illiterate but daring Spanish soldier, soon after deter- 
mined upon its conquest. In 1531, he led thither a small band of 
soldiers, thirty horse and one hundred and fifty foot. 




7. He found Peru to be an immense empire, united under a race 
of sovereigns, called Incas, or Children of the Sun. The people 



S. Describe Pizarro's conduct. 9. What did Atahualpa promise to give him } How 



fcOUTif AMERICA 



349 



were pacific, living in large and handsome cities, and subsisting 
chiefly by agriculture. They had a mild government, a gentle 
religion, and many useful arts. The reigning prince was Atahu- 
alpa. 

8. Pizarro invited him to a conference, but, when the unsuspect- 
ing monarch, with thousands of his attendants, came, the daring and 
perfidious Spaniard rushed upon him and dragged him away from 
the midst of his nobles. At the same time, the artillery and muskets 
played upon the masses of the Indians and cut them to pieces by 
thousands. It was one of the most brutal, bloody and dastardly acts 
in all the sad tragedies of human warfare. 

9. The captive Inca offered to fill the room, in which he was con- 
fined, with gold and silver, for his ransom. This was accepted by 
Pizarro, and it was affecting to see with what devotion the people, 
in all parts of the country, parted with their treasures to release 
their captive chief. At length, a mass of gold and silver, to the 
value of two millions of dollars, was accumulated, and Atahualpa 
claimed his liberty. 




Spaniards of Lima, 



10. But Pizarro had no idea of fulfilling his promise. The Inca 
was subjected to a mock trial, condemned and executed, and the 
ruthless murderer proceeded to take possession of his empire. 
Having conquered the country, and now being gorged with plunder, 
Pizarro founded the city of Lima and became governor of the coun- 

tr y- . . •:' 

11. But his ill-gotten wealth and power were vain to the pos- 
sessor. Hostility and strife sprung up among the band of robbers ; 
Pizarro was slain by his associates and the rest of the leaders fell, 



•was the Inca treated 7 10. What town was founded by Pizarro 1 11. What became of 
him and his associates ? 12. What was the late of the three discoverers of America? 
30 



350 



SOUTH AMERICA. CONTINUED. 



one after another, by violence. Let it be remembered that the most 
splendid and successful robbery on record was followed by the 
swiftest retribution. 

12. We may pause here a moment to reflect upon the fate which 
attended the three greatest names connected with the early history 
of America. Columbus discovered a new world, but he was once 
carried home in chains, and at last died in poverty and neglect. 
Cortez conquered an empire, but the crown did not rest upon his 
brow. Pizarro also conquered an empire, and acquired gold beyond 
the dreams of avarice, but he, soon after, expired by the assassin's 
blade. 

13. Time, with its solemn jury, has judged the actions of these 
three famous men. To Columbus a wreath of immortal fame is 
awarded ; to the others, the malefactor's infamy. The way of the 
transgressor is indeed hard. 

14. Peru continued for centuries to be a Spanish province, with 
Lima for its capital. To this city, the manners, customs and refine- 
ments of Spain were transferred, and thus diffused to several portions 
of the province. The country became independent, threw off the 
yoke of Spain in 1821, and, after a protracted struggle, it became 
an independent republic. 



CHAPTER CCV. 

South America, continued. 

1. Bolivia, now an independent state, and lying between Peru 
and Chili, was originally a part of Peru, and continued so until 1824. 
After a battle between the patriot army and the royalists, in which 
the latter were defeated, the people declared themselves independent. 
This occurred July, 1825. The celebrated Bolivar furnished them a 
scheme of a constitution, which was adopted, and the name of the 
liberator was given to the republic. 

2. Chili was discovered by Almagro, one of the associates of 
Pizarro, in 1537. He penetrated into the country with a small force, 
and was, at first, well received by the natives, but he was soon 
forced to return. In 1540, another army was sent thither, under 
Valdivia, who was fiercely opposed, especially by the Araucanians, 
led by the renowned Caupolican. In a great battle, Valdivia was 
defeated, taken prisoner, and afterwards executed. 

3. The country, however, along the coast, was conquered by the 
Spaniards, though the Araucanians have ever continued to maintain 
their independence. Chili remained as one of the Spanish provinces 
till the movement for independence, in 1810, which resulted in the 
establishment of a republican government, about the year 1817. 



1 3. What is the decision of time ? 14. What of Peru ? What of Lima ? When did the 
country become independent? 
CCV.— 1. What of Bolivia ? When was it independent I What was done by Bolivar I 



SOUTH AMERICA, CONTINUED. 



4. From Chili, southward, to Cape Horn, the country is for the 
most part cold, sterile and desolate. There is no nation with fixed 
abodes or an established government here. The country is occupied 
by various tribes of savages, among whom the Patagonians, famed 
for their large size, are the most noted. Along the gloomy shores 
of Cape Horn, there is a race, of diminutive size and squalid aspect, 
who shiver amid the sleety tempests of these regions, living chiefly 
upon the productions of the sea. 




Araucanian and Spaniard. 

5. The Argentine Republic, bounded on the west by Chili and on 
the east by the Atlantic, Paraguay and Brazil, formerly bore the 
title of Buenos Ayres. This, too, was one of the early possessions 
of Spain, and continued subject to that country till 1810, when the 
people formed a government for themselves. From that period, a 
constant succession of convulsions has followed, and, though the 
country has been separated from Spain, it must yet be considered in 
an unsettled state. 

6. Paraguay, one of the finest regions on the face of the globe, 
w r as early occupied by the Spaniards, and became subject to their 
sway. The Jesuit missionaries took great pains to introduce civili- 
zation and Christianity among the Indians in this quarter, and, it is 
believed, with some success. They had schools, and introduced 
music among the youth, who became proficients in singing. The 
Jesuits, however, were expelled, in 1767. 

7. When the provinces of Buenos Ayres threw off the Spanish 
yoke, in 1810, the people of Paraguay refused to acknowledge their 
authority, and established a government for themselves. About the 



2. When and by whom was Chili discovered ? Who went there in 1540 ? What became 
ofValdivia? 3. Have the Araucanians ever been conquered? What farther of Chili ? 
4. What of the country south of Chili ? What of the Patagonians ? What, of a small 
race 1 5. Where is the Argentine Republic ? What was done in 1810 ? 6. What of 
Paraguay? The Jesuits ? When were they expelled ? 7. What of the people of Para- 



352 



SOUTH AMERICA, CONTINUED. 



year 1820, Dr. Francia assumed all the powers of government, and 
became dictator of the country. He continued to exercise unlimited 
sway till the year 1842, when he died. His government was harsh, 
but it secured that tranquillity which the independent states of South 
America have not enjoyed. 




Teaching the Indians music. 



8. Brazil, occupying nearly one third part of the South American 
continent, and a space nearly equal to the surface of Europe, fell to 
the lot of Portugal. It was settled about the year 1500, and rapidly 
advanced in population. It was ruled by provincial governors till 
1806, when the king of Portugal fled thither to escape from the 
French, who had invaded his kingdom. He returned, in 1821, leav- 
ing his son upon the throne. In 1823, Brazil became an independent 
empire. 

9. Guiana, lying on the northern coast, is divided between the 
Dutch, French and Eno-lish. Its early history is distinguished by 
the expedition of Sir Walter Raleigh, who visited the country in 
1595, in search of El Dorado. This was a kingdom, said to exist in 
the interior of South America, which surpassed all other countries 
in gold, silver and precious stones. But this tale proved to be a 
fable, and the name of the imaginary kingdom is a modern byword, 
significant of idle and extravagant expectations of wealth. The his- 
tory of Guiana presents little beside either interesting or instructive. 

10. To the north of Peru and Brazil are the three republics of 
Equador, New Grenada and Venezuela. This whole country 
belonged to Spain and constituted several Spanish provinces. They 
participated in the desire for independence which pervaded the other 



guay? What of Dr. Francia ? His government? 8. What of Brazil ? When was it 
settled? What took place in 1506 1 Who is the reigning sovereign? 9. How is 
Guiana divided ? What of its early history ? What was" El Dorado ? 10. What coun- 



CONCLUSION. 



countries in this quarter, and, consequently, threw off the Spanish 
yoke. 

11. In the struggles which followed, the celebrated Simon Bolivar 
obtained great distinction ; the three republics Were united under one 
government, with the title of Colombia, in 1819, and Bolivar, honored 
with the title of Liberator, was entrusted with the supreme authority. 
This connection has since been dissolved, the title of Colombia is 
erased from the maps, and the three republics that we have named 
now exist under three distinct governments. 



CHAPTER CCVL 

Conclusion* 

1. We have now completed our history of the Western World, 
since its discovery by Columbus. This lies within the compass of 
three centuries and a half, and presents many topics for profound 
reflection. We have already adverted to the fate of the three extra- 
ordinary men who figure in the foreground of the early history of the 
continent. 

2. We may add here that Spain, the greedy spoiler, who obtained 
possession of nearly the whole of South America and the finest por- 
tions of North America, has not now an inch of territory upon either. 
When she discovered the New World, she was a great, powerful 
and energetic nation, taking a lead in arts and arms. Glutted 
with conquest and treasure, she became feeble and effeminate, and 
tunk into a state of indolence, ignorance and indifference. 

3. In America, we have seen the race of red men vanish or 
diminish before the march of European population. In the West 
Indies, and parts of North and South .America, the free Indian has 
given place to the African slave. There is, however, a rapid 
tendency to the annihilation of the aborigines of America, and the 
substitution of the white race in their stead. Many centuries will 
not pass before the only remains of the American Indian will exist in 
the pages of history. 

4. The question then, as now, will be asked, " Whence came 
these people?" It will be easy to tell their fate, for it will be 
recorded to the everlasting shame of civilized man ; but their origin 
must continue to rest in obscurity. 

5. The Indians of Mexico and Peru had reached an advanced state 
of civilization. Though essentially distinct, they had many things in 
common, and many things, also, which bore a strict analogy to the 
manners, customs, and opinions of the eastern continent. They 



tries lie north of Brazil? What is their history 1 11. What of Simon Bolivar ? What 
constituted Colombia ? What change has taken place ? 

CCVL— 1. How long has America been discovered ? 2. What is the fact in regard to 
Spain? 3. What of the red men ? What of the aborigines? 4. What of their orierin ? 
30* 



354 



CONCLUSION. 



placed a high value upon gold, silver and precious stones ; they 
employed these for ornaments, and wrought them into various 
forms. 

6. W hence this striking analogy with eastern nations, unless by 
some means of communication. The Mexicans had computations of 
time similar to our own. The Peruvians worshipped the sun, like 
the Egyptians and Persians. They both had styles of architecture 
resembling those of the East. They had sculptures, images and 
hieroglyphics, reminding every beholder of the antiquities which lie 
scattered along the Nile. 

7. Whence these remarkable resemblances and coincidences? 
Man is a being of free and boundless fancy — not a creature of definite 
and slavish instincts. The bee will build his cell in hexagons by 
the law of his nature, but man has no grooves in his intellect which 
guide him into particular trains of thought, and particular forms of 
fancy. 

8. We can, therefore, only account for many things visible among 
the Indians of America, by supposing, that, at some period, doubtless 
very remote, they had communication with the nations of the eastern 
continent. The geography of the country, as well as the credible 
traditions of the Mexicans, lead us to believe that America was 
peopled by emigrants from Asia, by way of Bhering ? s Straits. 



5. What of the Indians of Mexico and Peru ? How did they resemble the nations on the 
eastern continent ? 8. What conjectures can we form ? 




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